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Basic Computer Skills
By
Akoch Emmanuel
ICT Officer
St. Joseph’s Hospital Kitgum
Microsoft Digital Literacy Curriculum
Overview
• This Computer Basics course introduces you to
the fundamentals of computing, explains the
components of a computer, explores
operating system basics, and shows you how
to use a mouse and a keyboard.
Course Objective
• After completing this course, you will be able
to define what a computer is and what it does.
• You will also be able to perform basic
computer operations.
Assessment
• To qualify for Certificate:
–80% Attendance
–50% Assignments
–50% Final Exams
Course Outline
Lesson 1: Computer Hardware
• What is a Computer?
• Computer Hardware and Performance
• Types of Computers
• Parts of Computers
• Input, Output and Storage Devices
• Overview of a Keyboard
• Using a Mouse
Lesson 2: Computer Software
• What is a Software
• Types of Software
• Overview of Programs and Data
Course outline…
Lesson 3: Managing Files and Folders
• Introduction to the Windows XP GUI
• Start Menu Options
• Performing Basic File Operations
• Working with Windows-based programs
COMPUTER HARDWARE
What is a Computer?
• A computer is an electronic device, operating
under the control of instructions (software)
stored in its own memory unit, that can
accept data (input), manipulate data
(process), and produce information (output)
from the processing.
• Generally, the term is used to describe a
collection of devices that function together as
a system.
Devices that comprise a computer system
Printer
(output)
Monitor
(output)
Speaker
(output)
Scanner
(input)
Mouse
(input)
Keyboard
(input)
System unit
(processor, memory…)
Storage devices
(CD-RW, Floppy,
Hard disk, zip,…)
Computer Hardware
Motherboard
• The Motherboard is the main part of Computer
hardware. It is a large circuit that is made up of
tiny microscopic wires and connections that pass
data to different parts of the computer.
• The Motherboard has many plugs and slots for
various other pieces of computer hardware such
as RAM., a CPU, Cards, HDD etc...
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• The central processing unit (CPU) contains
electronic circuits that cause processing to occur.
The CPU interprets instructions to the computer,
performs the logical and arithmetic processing
operations, and causes the input and output
operations to occur.
• It is considered the “brain” of the computer.
RAM
• Short for Random Access Memory, RAM, also
known as main memory or system memory, is
a term commonly used to describe the
memory within a computer.
• Unlike ROM, RAM is a volatile memory and
requires power; if power is lost, all data is also
lost.
ROM
• Computer memory on which data has been
prerecorded. Once data has been written onto
a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can
only be read.
• Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM retains its
contents even when the computer is turned
off. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile,
whereas RAM is volatile.
Hard Disk Drive
• A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive or
hard disk) is a non-volatile, random access
digital data storage device.
Computer Performance
Units of Measure for Digital
Information
• A Bit: is a binary digit, the smallest increment of
data on a computer. A bit can hold only one of
two values: 0 or 1, corresponding to the electrical
values of off or on, respectively.
• Because bits are so small, you rarely work with
information one bit at a time.
• Bits are usually assembled into a group of eight to
form a byte.
• A byte contains enough information to store a
single ASCII character, like "h".
• A kilobyte (KB) is 1,024 bytes, not one thousand bytes
as might be expected, because computers use binary
(base two) math, instead of a decimal (base ten)
system.
• Computer storage and memory is often measured in
megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). 1 MB is 1,024
kilobytes, or 1,048,576 (1024x1024) bytes, not one
million bytes.
• Similarly, one 1 GB is 1,024 MB, or 1,073,741,824
(1024x1024x1024) bytes.
• A terabyte (TB) is 1,024 GB
• A petabyte (PB) is 1,024 TB.
• An exabyte (EB) is 1,024 PB.
• A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024 EB.
• Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is 1,024 ZB.
Discrepancy in Storage Unit
• Many hard drive manufacturers use a decimal
number system to define amounts of storage
space. As a result, 1 MB is defined as one
million bytes, 1 GB is defined as one billion
bytes, and so on.
• Since your computer uses a binary system as
mentioned above, you may notice a
discrepancy between your hard drive's
published capacity and the capacity
acknowledged by your computer.
Base 2 and Base 10
We count in base 10 by powers of 10:
101 = 10
102 = 10*10 = 100
103 = 10*10*10 = 1,000
Computers count by base 2:
21 = 2
22 = 2*2 = 4
23 = 2*2*2 = 8
210 = 1,024
220 = 1,048,576
20
What Does A Computer Do?
Computers can perform four general
operations, which comprise the
information processing cycle.
 Input
 Process
 Output
 Storage
Data and Information
• All computer processing requires data, which is a
collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as
numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the
computer during the input phase.
• Computers manipulate data to create information.
Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and
useful.
• During the output Phase, the information that has been
created is put into some form, such as a printed report.
• The information can also be put in computer storage for
future use.
Primary Components Of A Computer
• Input devices.
• Central Processing Unit
(containing the control
unit and the
arithmetic/logic unit).
• Memory.
• Output devices.
• Storage devices.
Types of Computers
Personal Computers
• Desktops
• Laptops
• Notebooks
Parts of Computer System Unit
• Power Button
• USB Port
• CD/DVD ROM
• Power Supply
• Keyboard and Mouse Ports
• Peripheral Ports
• Speaker/Microphone Ports
Input, Output and Storage Devices
• Input Device: is any hardware device that sends
data to the computer.
• Examples are:
- Keyboard
- Mouse
- Microphone
- Scanning Machine
- Digital Camera
- Etc
Keyboard
Escape Key Pause/Break Backspace TAB
Functional Keys Scroll/Lock Control, Alternate, Shift Arrows
Calculator Print Screen Windows Key Space
Insert Home Page Up
Delete End Page Down
Mouse
Mouse Properties
Switching Primary and Secondary Buttons
1. Start
2. Control Panel
3. Printers and Other Hardware (Win XP)
Hardware and Sound (Win Vista and 7)
4. Mouse (Mouse Dialog Box)
5. Click to switch buttons
30
Output Devices
• Output devices make the information resulting from
the processing available for use.
• The two output devices more commonly used are the
printer and the computer screen.
• Others Include:
• Speakers
• Projectors
Storage Devices
• Secondary storage devices are used to store data
when they are not being used in memory.
• The most common types of Secondary storage
used on personal computers are:
- Hard Disks
- CD-R/CD-RW/DVD-R/DVD-RW
- Removable Flash Disks
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
What is a Software?
• Computer software, or just software, is a
collection of computer programs and related
data that provide the instructions for telling a
computer what to do and how to do it
• Types of Software:
- Operating Systems (System Software)
- Application Software
Operating Systems
• An operating system (OS) is a set of programs
that manages computer hardware resources,
and provides common services for application
software.
• Examples of Operating Systems
• Windows XP
• Windows Vista
• Windows 7
• Linux (Red Hat, Ubuntu, OpenSuse…)
Application Software
• Application Software consists of programs that
tell a computer how to produce information.
• Some of the more commonly used Microsoft
Office packages are:
• Word processing
• Electronic spreadsheet
• Database
• Presentation graphics
Word Processing
• Word Processing software is used to create and print
documents. A key advantage of word processing software
is that users easily can make changes in documents.
Electronic Spreadsheets
• Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add,
subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows
and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed
and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.
Database Software
• Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an
organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and
reporting capabilities.
Presentation Graphics
• Presentation graphic software allows the user to create
documents called slides to be used in making the
presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides
display as they appear on the computer screen.
Programs and Data
• All software is divided into two general
categories: data and programs.
• Programs are collections of instructions for
manipulating data.
• Data exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers
or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes
stored in Computers.
MANAGING FILES AND FOLDERS

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Basic Computer Skills.pptx

  • 1. Basic Computer Skills By Akoch Emmanuel ICT Officer St. Joseph’s Hospital Kitgum Microsoft Digital Literacy Curriculum
  • 2. Overview • This Computer Basics course introduces you to the fundamentals of computing, explains the components of a computer, explores operating system basics, and shows you how to use a mouse and a keyboard.
  • 3. Course Objective • After completing this course, you will be able to define what a computer is and what it does. • You will also be able to perform basic computer operations.
  • 4. Assessment • To qualify for Certificate: –80% Attendance –50% Assignments –50% Final Exams
  • 5. Course Outline Lesson 1: Computer Hardware • What is a Computer? • Computer Hardware and Performance • Types of Computers • Parts of Computers • Input, Output and Storage Devices • Overview of a Keyboard • Using a Mouse Lesson 2: Computer Software • What is a Software • Types of Software • Overview of Programs and Data
  • 6. Course outline… Lesson 3: Managing Files and Folders • Introduction to the Windows XP GUI • Start Menu Options • Performing Basic File Operations • Working with Windows-based programs
  • 8. What is a Computer? • A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. • Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.
  • 9. Devices that comprise a computer system Printer (output) Monitor (output) Speaker (output) Scanner (input) Mouse (input) Keyboard (input) System unit (processor, memory…) Storage devices (CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk, zip,…)
  • 10. Computer Hardware Motherboard • The Motherboard is the main part of Computer hardware. It is a large circuit that is made up of tiny microscopic wires and connections that pass data to different parts of the computer. • The Motherboard has many plugs and slots for various other pieces of computer hardware such as RAM., a CPU, Cards, HDD etc...
  • 11. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • The central processing unit (CPU) contains electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The CPU interprets instructions to the computer, performs the logical and arithmetic processing operations, and causes the input and output operations to occur. • It is considered the “brain” of the computer.
  • 12. RAM • Short for Random Access Memory, RAM, also known as main memory or system memory, is a term commonly used to describe the memory within a computer. • Unlike ROM, RAM is a volatile memory and requires power; if power is lost, all data is also lost.
  • 13. ROM • Computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be read. • Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile, whereas RAM is volatile.
  • 14. Hard Disk Drive • A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive or hard disk) is a non-volatile, random access digital data storage device.
  • 16. Units of Measure for Digital Information • A Bit: is a binary digit, the smallest increment of data on a computer. A bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1, corresponding to the electrical values of off or on, respectively. • Because bits are so small, you rarely work with information one bit at a time. • Bits are usually assembled into a group of eight to form a byte. • A byte contains enough information to store a single ASCII character, like "h".
  • 17. • A kilobyte (KB) is 1,024 bytes, not one thousand bytes as might be expected, because computers use binary (base two) math, instead of a decimal (base ten) system. • Computer storage and memory is often measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). 1 MB is 1,024 kilobytes, or 1,048,576 (1024x1024) bytes, not one million bytes. • Similarly, one 1 GB is 1,024 MB, or 1,073,741,824 (1024x1024x1024) bytes. • A terabyte (TB) is 1,024 GB • A petabyte (PB) is 1,024 TB. • An exabyte (EB) is 1,024 PB. • A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024 EB. • Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is 1,024 ZB.
  • 18. Discrepancy in Storage Unit • Many hard drive manufacturers use a decimal number system to define amounts of storage space. As a result, 1 MB is defined as one million bytes, 1 GB is defined as one billion bytes, and so on. • Since your computer uses a binary system as mentioned above, you may notice a discrepancy between your hard drive's published capacity and the capacity acknowledged by your computer.
  • 19. Base 2 and Base 10 We count in base 10 by powers of 10: 101 = 10 102 = 10*10 = 100 103 = 10*10*10 = 1,000 Computers count by base 2: 21 = 2 22 = 2*2 = 4 23 = 2*2*2 = 8 210 = 1,024 220 = 1,048,576
  • 20. 20 What Does A Computer Do? Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle.  Input  Process  Output  Storage
  • 21. Data and Information • All computer processing requires data, which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase. • Computers manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. • During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report. • The information can also be put in computer storage for future use.
  • 22. Primary Components Of A Computer • Input devices. • Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit). • Memory. • Output devices. • Storage devices.
  • 23. Types of Computers Personal Computers • Desktops • Laptops • Notebooks
  • 24. Parts of Computer System Unit • Power Button • USB Port • CD/DVD ROM • Power Supply • Keyboard and Mouse Ports • Peripheral Ports • Speaker/Microphone Ports
  • 25. Input, Output and Storage Devices • Input Device: is any hardware device that sends data to the computer. • Examples are: - Keyboard - Mouse - Microphone - Scanning Machine - Digital Camera - Etc
  • 26. Keyboard Escape Key Pause/Break Backspace TAB Functional Keys Scroll/Lock Control, Alternate, Shift Arrows Calculator Print Screen Windows Key Space Insert Home Page Up Delete End Page Down
  • 27. Mouse
  • 28. Mouse Properties Switching Primary and Secondary Buttons 1. Start 2. Control Panel 3. Printers and Other Hardware (Win XP) Hardware and Sound (Win Vista and 7) 4. Mouse (Mouse Dialog Box)
  • 29. 5. Click to switch buttons
  • 30. 30 Output Devices • Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. • The two output devices more commonly used are the printer and the computer screen. • Others Include: • Speakers • Projectors
  • 31. Storage Devices • Secondary storage devices are used to store data when they are not being used in memory. • The most common types of Secondary storage used on personal computers are: - Hard Disks - CD-R/CD-RW/DVD-R/DVD-RW - Removable Flash Disks
  • 33. What is a Software? • Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it • Types of Software: - Operating Systems (System Software) - Application Software
  • 34. Operating Systems • An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for application software. • Examples of Operating Systems • Windows XP • Windows Vista • Windows 7 • Linux (Red Hat, Ubuntu, OpenSuse…)
  • 35. Application Software • Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. • Some of the more commonly used Microsoft Office packages are: • Word processing • Electronic spreadsheet • Database • Presentation graphics
  • 36. Word Processing • Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents.
  • 37. Electronic Spreadsheets • Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.
  • 38. Database Software • Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities.
  • 39. Presentation Graphics • Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen.
  • 40. Programs and Data • All software is divided into two general categories: data and programs. • Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data. • Data exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes stored in Computers.