Main Ideas Abnormalities are the result of Thinking betweenstimulus and response errors in thinking
Cognitive Approach contd...• Errors in thinking• Heavily influenced by the behavioural approach• Thinking between the stimulus and the response• Mental disorders are linked directly to distortions in the thinking process
Cognitive Explanations 1.Cognitive BiasNegative automatic thoughts (NAT’s) 2. Negative Triad Negative views of self, world and future
E.g. of Cognitive BiasMinimisation• Minimising successes – e.g. Good exam grade was luckMaximisation• Maximising trivial failures – e.g. Failing at Sudoku puzzleSelective Abstraction• Focussing on negative aspects of life, ignoring wider pictureAll or Nothing thinking• Black and white thinking (ignoring middle ground) e.g. Success OR failure
Negative Triad Beck’s model of depression 3 main forms of negative thinking “I am worthless” Self World Future“Everything is “Nothing will against me” ever change”
How would the cognitive approach investigate abnormality?ExperimentsAssumptions of the cognitive approachare often tested experimentallyIf a cognitive therapy works it suggests that the cause was cognitiveThase et al (2007) compared cognitive therapies withantidepressants (the IV) and measured the effectiveness ofeach in treating depression (the DV)Evidence like this has provided a huge amount of support forthe cognitive approach
Effectiveness of therapies E.g. CBT has been found to be as effective as prozac in treating depressionThis is positive because it shows that changing thinking can work so there must be a cognitive element to the disorder.
Support for the negative triadFor example, Beck compared people with depression to those without, depressed individuals are more negative in terms of themselves, world and the futurePositive as it suggests that the negative triad is an accurate illustration of depressed thinking
Blames the patient For example, the approach considers the individuals disorder to be caused by their faulty thinking This is problematic as situational factors are overlooked and it might notbe beneficial to place blame on a personprone to negative thoughts & depression.
Cause and Effect?For example, do NAT’s cause depressionor does the depression cause the NAT’s?This is problematic because it’s hard todetermine cause & effect and raises thequestion over the best way to treat the patient
Key terms / Buzz words Cause and Experiments Errors in Effect Behavioural thinking All or Nothing approach Minimisation Cognitive Bias Maximisation NAT’s Selective Therapies are abstractionNegative effective Support fortriad World negative Self triad Cog therapy Thase et al Future Vs. drugs (2007) Blame patient