Teacher education via distance Development and status Sólveig Jakobsdóttir, associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.orgÞuríður Jóhannsdóttir, assistant professor, email@example.com Presentation for visitors from University of Trondheim April 20, 2012
Teacher education (B.Ed.) at a distance at KHÍ-HÍ - OverviewPeriod - Pro- Special Developmentsyears gram program Director 4 year (not 3)1 1993- x x Campus sessions +online teaching and learning: 2002 (e-mail, discussion boards, webs, LMS‘s)2 2003- x Aim that all courses are available as DE, up to 50% 2007 students or more DE (WebCT, netmeetings)3 2007- Curriculum changes, course content, size, number, drop- 2008 out problems among DE s‘s; co-teaching starting4 2008- Merging with University of Iceland; 2009 economic crash5 2010- Co-teaching DE and campus students in most courses 2011+ (Moodle adopted)
For further informationPeriod 1• Jón Jónasson. (2001). On-line distance education: a feasible choice in teacher education in Iceland? M.Ed. thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. http://notendur.hi.is/jonjonas//skrif/mphil/thesis.pdfPeriod 1-2• Jóhannsdóttir, T. (2010). Deviations from the conventional: contradictions as sources of change in teacher education. In V. Ellis, A. Edwards & P. Smagorinsky (Eds.), Cultural-Historical pespectives on teacher education and development (pp. 163-279). London: Routledge.• Jóhannsdóttir, T. J. (2010). Teacher education and school-based distance learning: individual and systemic development in schools and a teacher education programme. PhD thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavík. http://hdl.handle.net/1946/7119• Jóhannsdóttir, u., & Skjelmo, R. (2004). Flexibility and Responsibility in Teacher Education: Experiences and Possibilities in Iceland and North Norway. In L. Pekkala, W. Greller, A. Krylov, O. Snellman & J. Spence (Eds.), On Top of It: Overcoming the Challenges of ICT and Distance Education in the Arctic (pp. 85-98). Rovaniemi: University of the Arctic Press, University of Lapland.Period 3• Jakobsdóttir, S. (2008). The role of campus-sessions and face-to-face meetings in distance education. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2008(II).http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2008/Jakobsdottir.htmPeriod 4• Geirsdóttir, G., Pálmadóttir, H., Ólafsson, R., Jakobsdóttir, S., Pálmason, o. og Jóhannsdóttir, u. (2007). Mótun stefnu í fjarkennslumálum hins sameinaða háskóla - Lokaskýrsla verkefnishóps - [Translated: Shaping the distance education policy for a joined university - final report]. Reykjavík, Iceland: Kennaraháskóli Íslands, Háskóli Íslands. http://www.hi.is/files/asset/stjornsysla/kennslusvid/kennslumidstod/071116_verkefnishopur_um_fjarnam_lokaskyrsla.pdfPeriod 5• Jakobsdóttir, S. og Jóhannsdóttir, T. (2010). Merging online and "traditional" courses and student groups: A "natural" trend or a temporary tactic - why and how? In A. Tait og A. Szucs (Eds.), Media inspirations for learning: What makes the impact?. EDEN 2010 Annual conference book of abstracts. Budapest: European Distance and E-Learning Network.• Þuríður Jóhannsdóttir og Sólveig Jakobsdóttir. (2011). Samkennsla stað- og fjarnema við Menntavísindasvið Háskóla Íslands: Reynsla og viðhorf kennara og nemenda – togstreita og tækifæri [Co-teaching campus-based students and distance students at the School of Education, University of Iceland: Experience and views of teachers and teacher students – conflicts and opportunities]. Netla - veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun. http://netla.hi.is/menntakvika2011/033.pdf
Merging of two Icelandic-uni’s, 2008 Iceland University of Education (IUE) University of Iceland (UI) Many different committees set up to ease the merging including a DE policy group Workgroup toWorkgroup to identify ways to: identify ways to:reduce DE drop-out reduce drop-outOrganize f2f sessions rate
Some challenges and opportunitiesChallenges OpportunitiesDivide - differences Dividend- what can we learn from each other?Lack of data Collect data, take a close look at the situationLack of policy, benchmarking Work on vision, policy, benchmarkingDrop-out Find ways to reduceOrganization, blend of f2f and Find ways to improve?onlineTeaching methods Increase variety?LMS, learning environments Go to open source? More use of social software?
IUE + UI: Merging universities: no of DE students in each, 2007-8No and Kennaraháskóli Íslands University of% of Iceland University of Education Icelandstudents Under- Grad. Total Total grad. No of 1.703 679 2.382 9.783 students No of DE 920 679 1599 267 students % DE 54,0 100,0 67,1 2,7 students
DE – more differencesIUE UI• 52% of courses DE • 5% of courses DE (100% of the post-grad) (0-14% by department)• DE since 1979, • DE since 1997, online/blended since 1993 videoconferences, online;• Main LMS: WebCT from ca. DE students co-taught in 2001 with students in f2f courses• Long list of systems/tools • Main LMS: Moodle email/postlists, open webs, • Some earlier experience Webboard, WCB, with WebCT, and It’s LearningSpace, It’s learning. learning More recently Elgg (PLE), wiki’s...
Vision (a draft)• UI is the nation’s university which aims at providing/doing outstanding teaching, research and support services for students and teachers. UI policy in DE will help establish those goals• The UI will in the next years increase flexibility in learning and teaching by offering more distance and blended learning options. By doing so the united university can increase equality, improve access to higher education, and enable cross-curricular learning• Within the next five years DE will be a real choice within all departments and a way to strengthen the UI competitive edge.
Needs• Needs/rights of individual and groups for access to education regardless of place or their situation• Needs of the knowledge society where economice growth is based on education level• Needs of the university to spend money well, create better service for students, improve learning/teaching and provide a better competitive edge
Groups/individuals• People who live outside the capital area or abroad• People who want to work with their studies• People who need to stay at home (e.g. Because of family, illess, handicap)• Icelandic students who want to take courses at foreign university• Foreign students who want to study at UI• Campus students who want to take part of their studies via distance (cross-curricular, scheduling problems, convenience ...)• High school/junior college students who want to take college credit/advanced placement
Some main goals• The united university will icrease DE substantially (at least to 25% overall)• Schools/departments will decide and be responsible for which programs and/or courses are available based on awareness on the needs and demands for their respective fields• The unversity will provide structure for the planning process and necessary support for the development• Quality issues, international benchmarking
Need to reduce costs• LMS – moving to Moodle (from Blackboard) summer 2011 - in sync with global trend towards open software and OER’s• Co-teaching distance and campus-based students – rule rather than exception, 2010-? „Flexible learning“ in place of distance learning? A “natural” trend or a temporary tactic?
Co-teaching• Most academic staff at UISE teach both in the DE and regular program• A few years ago, some started co-teaching when they were teaching both types of courses at the same time• In the spring semester 2009 – 19 cases where the two course types had been merged
Co-teaching Advantages can include• Less workload when utilizing online resources for both groups• Courses have been available which otherwise could not have been offered (too few students)• Less expense to run a combined class Disadvantages can include• Increased work-complicated planning• Difficulties running live f2f sessions (low attendance or technical problems)• DE s’s sometimes feel left out during live sessions• Campus s´s: technology during recordings bothersome Scheduling difficulties for online/ synchronous meetings• Worry by some t’s: more tendency for dropout
Co-teaching campus-based and distance students Experience and views of teachers and students• Study to examine the experience of co-teaching campus- based and distance undergraduate students at the Faculty of Teacher Education• In the school year 2010–2011, it was made a rule rather than the exception to merge teaching of these student groups, before it had only been done when student groups were small• Data gathered with questionnaires among teachers and students and with interviews with 9 teachers and 22 students in 8 courses
ResultsThe experience was mixed• Majority of teachers and students felt that the co-teaching model was not as good as teaching separate groups• The distance students complained that they were not as well served in the co-teaching model and on the other hand the campus-based students worried about getting fewer face-to-face lessons• The teachers shared those worries and among their concern was how passive the distance students were on the course-webs• The main benefit of teaching the two student groups together appeared to be that the courses would otherwise not be taught• However, the majority of participants thought that this teaching mode should be developed further but not abandoned• Preliminary data indicates ca. 25% cost cutting regarding teaching cost (working hours)
Teacher education (B.Ed.) at a distanceNumber and % of DE students at UISE (IUE) preparing to teach at the primary and lower secondary level 500 471 463 450 425 412 416 400 375 355 355 341 350 300 287 DE students, no. 250 DE students % 190 Reg. Students, no. 200 180 150 100 47 42 49 34 41 50 31 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Question• Is our distance education "cool (ing down)"?
For further informationDanaher, P. A. og Umar, A. (Eds.). (2010). Perspectives on distanceeducation: teacher education through open and distance learning.Vancouver, Canada: Commonwealth of Learning.http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=332