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Navigating digital landscapes to
foster creativity and innovation
Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester
15th August 2013...
About me…
• Irish but living in England
• PhD in Chemistry
• Two girls (14 and 18)
• Professor of Learning
Innovation at t...
Institute of Learning Innovation
• Mission
– To research and apply learning
innovations to inform policy and
shape practic...
Areas of activity
• Research
• Teaching
• Supervision
• Consultancy
• Visiting scholars
• Institutional advice
Brochure: http://tinyurl.com/pewrek4
Outline
• Why e-learning?
• E-learning timeline and digital
landscapes
• Emergent technologies
• A pedagogical meta-model
...
Why e-learning?
• For learning
– Potential to support interaction, communication
and collaboration
– Developing digital li...
E-Learning timeline
Multimediaresources
80s
TheInternetandtheWeb
93
LearningManagementSystems
95
OpenEducationalResources
...
Digital landscapes
http://wronghands1.wordpress.com/2013/03/31/vintage-social-networking/
Open
Social
Distributed
Particip...
Technological trends
• MOOCs
• Tablet computing
• Games and gamification
• Learning analytics
• 3D-printing
• Wearable tec...
The MATEL study
• Productivity and creativity
• Networked collaboration
• Content creation
• Visualisation and simulation
...
Co-evolution of tools and practice
Evolving
practices
Characteristics of
tools
Reflection
Dialogue
Aggregation
Interactivi...
Individual Social
Information
Experience
A pedagogical meta-model
Conole, et al., 2004
Conole, 2010
Non Reflective
Reflect...
Individual Social
Information
Experience
A pedagogical meta-model
Jarvis, 2004
Non Reflective
Reflective
Pre-conscious lea...
Individual Social
Information
Experience
A pedagogical meta-model
Dewey, 1916
Non Reflective
Reflective
Reflective learning
Individual Social
Information
Experience
A pedagogical meta-model
Laurillard, 2002
Non Reflective
Reflective
Dialogic lear...
Pedagogical approaches
Drill & practice
learning
Mobile
learning
Situated
learning
Immersive
learning
Drill and practice learning
Study calendars
E-books
Learning resources
Online modules
Annotation tools
Mind mapping tools
Communication mechanisms
Mob...
Mobile is important
• In mid-2012, 51% of UK
citizens owned a
smartphone (The Paypers,
2012)
• 14% of adults in Europe
own...
Flexibility and mobility
Small, compact size
Readability
Easy on the eyes
Access from a single
device without internet
Por...
Natalie Auer, PhD student
Situated learning
Archeological digs
Medical wards
Art exhibitions
Cyber-law
Virtual language exchange
Beyond formal schoo...
SWIFT – Learning in virtual worlds
Features:
• Harnesses imagination
• Experiential learning
• Creates learning context
• ...
SCENE – Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
Aims:
• Promote the use of PBL
as a teaching method
in the EU
• Train teachers, train...
Immersive learning
Promise and reality
Social and
participatory media
offer new ways to
communicate and
collaborate
Wealth of free
resources ...
Digital literacy skills
http://edudemic.com/2013/04/important-21st-century-skills/
Creativity
Multi-tasking
Performance
Si...
Academic
literacies
New
literacies
Media
literacies
Digital
literacies
Information literacies
Jane Secker
(2011)Future wor...
The 7Cs of Learning Design
Conceptualise
Vision
CommunicateCapture ConsiderCollaborate
Activities
Combine
Synthesis
Consol...
Conceptualise
• Vision for the course,
including:
– Why, who and what you want to
design
– The key principles and
pedagogi...
Course features
• Pedagogical approaches
• Principles
• Guidance and support
• Content and activities
• Reflection and dem...
6 frames of informed design
• Content
• Competency
• Learning to learn
• Personal relevance
• Social impact
• Relational
C...
Capture
• Finding and creating
interactive materials
– Undertaking a resource audit of
existing OER
– Planning for creatio...
Communicate
• Designing activities that foster
communication, such as:
– Looking at the affordances of
the use of differen...
Collaborate
• Designing activities that foster
collaboration, such as:
– Looking at the affordances of
the use of differen...
Consider
• Designing activities that foster
reflection
• Mapping Learning Outcomes
(LOs) to assessment
• Designing assessm...
Combine
• Combining the learning activities
into the following:
– Course View which provides a
holistic overview of the na...
Course View
E-tivity Rubric: http://tinyurl.com/SPEED-e5
Purpose: To start mapping out your module/course, including your ...
Activity profile
• Types of learner activities
– Assimilative
– Information Handling
– Communication
– Production
– Experi...
Start End
Learning
Outcomes
LO1
LO2
LO3
LO4
Assessment LO1
LO2 LO3 LO4
Week 1
Topic 1
Week 2
Topic 2
Week 3
Topic 3
Week 4...
Consolidate
• Putting the completed design
into practice
– Implementation: in the classroom,
through a VLE or using a
spec...
http://www.larnacadeclaration.org/
• Definition of Learning Design
• Teachers need guidance to make informed
design decisi...
The METIS
Integrated Learning Design Environment
• Conceptualize
• Author
• Implement
http://ilde.upf.edu/
Future challenges
• Disaggregation
of Education
• Digital skills
and jobs gap
• Future of work
http://www.flickr.com/photo...
Resources Learning
pathways
Support Accreditation
Disaggregation of education
http://openclipart.org/
Resources
• Over ten years of the Open
Educational Resource (OER)
movement
• Hundreds of OER
repositories worldwide
• Pres...
The OPAL metromap
http://www.oer-quality.org/
Evaluation shows lack of uptake
by teachers and learners
Shift from developm...
POERUP outputs
• An inventory of more than 100 OER initiatives
http://poerup.referata.com/wiki/Countries_with_OER_initiati...
OER community case studies
• 7 case studies
– Futurelearn
– OER University
– MOOC UVA
– BC Campus
– Wikiwijs
– HwB
– Book ...
The emergence of MOOCs
• CCK08
– Connectivist MOOC (cMOOC)
– Siemens, Downes and Cormier
– Evaluation (Fini, 2009)
– http:...
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
Free
Distributed global community
Social inclusion
High dropout rates
Learning income ...
Dimension Characteristics
Context
Open Degree to which the MOOC is open
Massive How large the MOOC is
Diversity The divers...
Learning pathways
• Guided pathways
through materials
• Can promote different
pedagogical
approaches
– Associative
– Const...
Support
• Computer assisted
• Peer support
• Tutor support
• Community support
• Mentoring
Accreditation
www.p2pu.org/en/
Peer to Peer University
wikieducator.org/OER_university/
OER University
http://openbadges.o...
Digital skills and jobs gap
http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/grand-coalition-digital-jobs-0
Future of work
• 24/7 culture
• Working across multiple
spaces
• Aging workforce
• Millennials and Gen Y
• Mobile working
...
Conclusion
• Nature of learning, teaching
and research is changing
• Changing roles
• Technology Enhanced
Learning spaces
...
http://www.slideshare.net/GrainneConole
http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/beyond-distance-research-alliance
grainne.conole@...
References
• Conole, G. (2010) Review of pedagogical frameworks and models
and their use in e-learning,
http://cloudworks....
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  1. 1. Navigating digital landscapes to foster creativity and innovation Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester 15th August 2013 Creating Knowledge Conference Lund, Sweden National Teaching Fellow 2012 Ascilite fellow 2012EDEN fellow 2013
  2. 2. About me… • Irish but living in England • PhD in Chemistry • Two girls (14 and 18) • Professor of Learning Innovation at the University of Leicester
  3. 3. Institute of Learning Innovation • Mission – To research and apply learning innovations to inform policy and shape practice • Vision – To enable creativity, quality and innovation in learning and teaching to enhance the learner experience
  4. 4. Areas of activity • Research • Teaching • Supervision • Consultancy • Visiting scholars • Institutional advice
  5. 5. Brochure: http://tinyurl.com/pewrek4
  6. 6. Outline • Why e-learning? • E-learning timeline and digital landscapes • Emergent technologies • A pedagogical meta-model • Pedagogical approaches • Learning design and digital literacies • Future challenges
  7. 7. Why e-learning? • For learning – Potential to support interaction, communication and collaboration – Developing digital literacy skills – Promoting different pedagogical approaches – Fostering creativity and innovation – Connecting students beyond the formal course • For life – Preparing students for an uncertain future – Improving employability opportunities – Increased importance of technology in society
  8. 8. E-Learning timeline Multimediaresources 80s TheInternetandtheWeb 93 LearningManagementSystems 95 OpenEducationalResources 01 Mobiledevices 98 Gamingtechnologies 00 Socialandparticipatorymedia 04 Virtualworlds 05 E-booksandsmartdevices MassiveOpenOnlineCourses 07 08 LearningDesign 99 Learningobjects 94 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/interp/rectorsconference2012/files_en/index2_en.html
  9. 9. Digital landscapes http://wronghands1.wordpress.com/2013/03/31/vintage-social-networking/ Open Social Distributed Participatory Distributed Networked Complex Dynamic Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  10. 10. Technological trends • MOOCs • Tablet computing • Games and gamification • Learning analytics • 3D-printing • Wearable technologies http://www.nmc.org/horizon-project
  11. 11. The MATEL study • Productivity and creativity • Networked collaboration • Content creation • Visualisation and simulation • Learning Management Systems • Learning environment • Games • Devices, interfaces and connectivity http://www.menon.org/matel/
  12. 12. Co-evolution of tools and practice Evolving practices Characteristics of tools Reflection Dialogue Aggregation Interactivity Characteristics of people Preferences Skills Interests Context
  13. 13. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Conole, et al., 2004 Conole, 2010 Non Reflective Reflective Mapping different types of learning to three dimensions of learning
  14. 14. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Jarvis, 2004 Non Reflective Reflective Pre-conscious learning
  15. 15. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Dewey, 1916 Non Reflective Reflective Reflective learning
  16. 16. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Laurillard, 2002 Non Reflective Reflective Dialogic learning
  17. 17. Pedagogical approaches Drill & practice learning Mobile learning Situated learning Immersive learning
  18. 18. Drill and practice learning
  19. 19. Study calendars E-books Learning resources Online modules Annotation tools Mind mapping tools Communication mechanisms Mobile learning
  20. 20. Mobile is important • In mid-2012, 51% of UK citizens owned a smartphone (The Paypers, 2012) • 14% of adults in Europe owned tablet in 2012 (Lomas, 2013) • 35% of UoL Medical School 3rd years own an iPad Terese Bird
  21. 21. Flexibility and mobility Small, compact size Readability Easy on the eyes Access from a single device without internet Portability Capacity Long battery life Continue reading, Bookmark Photo by Kzeng on Flickr Photo by Yummy Pancake on Flickr
  22. 22. Natalie Auer, PhD student
  23. 23. Situated learning Archeological digs Medical wards Art exhibitions Cyber-law Virtual language exchange Beyond formal schooling http://www.jibbigo.com/
  24. 24. SWIFT – Learning in virtual worlds Features: • Harnesses imagination • Experiential learning • Creates learning context • Computer as personal tutor Example applications: • Practical subjects • Language practice • Abstract concepts • Artistic creation Paul Rudman
  25. 25. SCENE – Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Aims: • Promote the use of PBL as a teaching method in the EU • Train teachers, trainers and head teachers on PBL pedagogy Online course video, discussion forums, virtual classrooms PBL repository To share PBL scenarios Virtual Facilitator To assist learners Paul Rudman and Pal Edirisingha
  26. 26. Immersive learning
  27. 27. Promise and reality Social and participatory media offer new ways to communicate and collaborate Wealth of free resources and tools Not fully exploited Replicating bad pedagogy Lack of time and skills
  28. 28. Digital literacy skills http://edudemic.com/2013/04/important-21st-century-skills/ Creativity Multi-tasking Performance Simulation Appropriation Play Distributed cognition Judgment Collective Intelligence Transmedia Navigation Networking Negotiation Jenkins et al., 2006 Lisa Marie Blaschke on fb
  29. 29. Academic literacies New literacies Media literacies Digital literacies Information literacies Jane Secker (2011)Future work skills report http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/front//docs/sponsored/phoenix/future_work_skills_2020.pdf
  30. 30. The 7Cs of Learning Design Conceptualise Vision CommunicateCapture ConsiderCollaborate Activities Combine Synthesis Consolidate Implementation http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/oer/oers/beyond-distance-research-alliance/7Cs-toolkit
  31. 31. Conceptualise • Vision for the course, including: – Why, who and what you want to design – The key principles and pedagogical approaches – The nature of the learners Conceptualise Course Features 6 design frames Personas
  32. 32. Course features • Pedagogical approaches • Principles • Guidance and support • Content and activities • Reflection and demonstration • Communication and collaboration http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/5950
  33. 33. 6 frames of informed design • Content • Competency • Learning to learn • Personal relevance • Social impact • Relational Christine Bruce, http://www.ics.heacademy.ac.uk/italics/vol5-1/pdf/sixframes_final%20_1_.pdf
  34. 34. Capture • Finding and creating interactive materials – Undertaking a resource audit of existing OER – Planning for creation of additional multimedia such as interactive materials, podcasts and videos – Mechanism for enabling learners to create their own content Capture Resource Audit Learner Generate Content
  35. 35. Communicate • Designing activities that foster communication, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote communication – Designing for effective online moderating Communicate Affordances E-moderating
  36. 36. Collaborate • Designing activities that foster collaboration, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote collaboration – Using CSCL (collaborative) Pedagogical Patterns such as JIGSAW, Pyramid, etc. Collaborate Affordances CSCL Ped. Patterns
  37. 37. Consider • Designing activities that foster reflection • Mapping Learning Outcomes (LOs) to assessment • Designing assessment activities, including – Diagnostic, formative, summative assessment and peer assessment Collaborate LOs/Assessment Assessment Ped. Patterns
  38. 38. Combine • Combining the learning activities into the following: – Course View which provides a holistic overview of the nature of the course – Activity profile showing the amount of time learners are spending on different types of activities – Storyboard: a temporal sequence of activities mapped to resources and tools – Learning pathway: a temporal sequence of the learning designs Combine Course View Activity Profile Storyboard Learning Pathway
  39. 39. Course View E-tivity Rubric: http://tinyurl.com/SPEED-e5 Purpose: To start mapping out your module/course, including your plans for guidance and support, content and the learner experience, reflection and demonstration, and communication and collaboration.
  40. 40. Activity profile • Types of learner activities – Assimilative – Information Handling – Communication – Production – Experiential – Adaptive – Assessment
  41. 41. Start End Learning Outcomes LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 Assessment LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 Week 1 Topic 1 Week 2 Topic 2 Week 3 Topic 3 Week 4 Topic 4
  42. 42. Consolidate • Putting the completed design into practice – Implementation: in the classroom, through a VLE or using a specialised Learning Design tool – Evaluation of the effectiveness of the design – Refinement based on the evaluation findings – Sharing with peers through social media and specialised sites like Cloudworks Combine Implementation evaluation Refinement Sharing
  43. 43. http://www.larnacadeclaration.org/ • Definition of Learning Design • Teachers need guidance to make informed design decisions that are pedagogically effective and make appropriate use of technologies
  44. 44. The METIS Integrated Learning Design Environment • Conceptualize • Author • Implement http://ilde.upf.edu/
  45. 45. Future challenges • Disaggregation of Education • Digital skills and jobs gap • Future of work http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrsdkrebs/6400358699/
  46. 46. Resources Learning pathways Support Accreditation Disaggregation of education http://openclipart.org/
  47. 47. Resources • Over ten years of the Open Educational Resource (OER) movement • Hundreds of OER repositories worldwide • Presence on iTunesU
  48. 48. The OPAL metromap http://www.oer-quality.org/ Evaluation shows lack of uptake by teachers and learners Shift from development to community building and articulation of OER practice
  49. 49. POERUP outputs • An inventory of more than 100 OER initiatives http://poerup.referata.com/wiki/Countries_with_OER_initiatives • 11 country reports and 13 mini-reports http://poerup.referata.com/wiki/Countries • 7 in-depth case studies • 3 EU-wide policy papers
  50. 50. OER community case studies • 7 case studies – Futurelearn – OER University – MOOC UVA – BC Campus – Wikiwijs – HwB – Book in progress • Data collection – Survey – Interviews • Methodology – Social Network Analysis to identify the nature of the interactions and key players POERUP outputs
  51. 51. The emergence of MOOCs • CCK08 – Connectivist MOOC (cMOOC) – Siemens, Downes and Cormier – Evaluation (Fini, 2009) – http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/643/1402 • Emergence of large-scale xMOOCs • UK-based FutureLearn • What are MOOCs? – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW3gMGqcZQc • List of MOOCs – http://www.mooc-list.com/ • EFQUEL series of blogs – http://mooc.efquel.org/
  52. 52. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Free Distributed global community Social inclusion High dropout rates Learning income not learning outcome Marketing exercise http://alternative-educate.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/audio-ascilite-2012-great-debate-moocs.html
  53. 53. Dimension Characteristics Context Open Degree to which the MOOC is open Massive How large the MOOC is Diversity The diversity of the learners Learning Use of multimedia Extent of use of rich multimedia Degree of communication Amount of communication incorporated Degree of collaboration Amount of collaboration incorporated Amount of reflection Ways in which reflection is encouraged Learning pathway Degree to which the learning pathway is supported Quality assurance Degree of quality assurance Certification Mechanisms for accreditation Formal learning Feed into formal learning offerings Autonomy Degree of learner autonomy A taxonomy of MOOCs http://e4innovation.com/?p=727
  54. 54. Learning pathways • Guided pathways through materials • Can promote different pedagogical approaches – Associative – Constructivist – Situative – Connectivist Collaborative Pedagogical Patterns
  55. 55. Support • Computer assisted • Peer support • Tutor support • Community support • Mentoring
  56. 56. Accreditation www.p2pu.org/en/ Peer to Peer University wikieducator.org/OER_university/ OER University http://openbadges.org/ Mozilla badges
  57. 57. Digital skills and jobs gap http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/grand-coalition-digital-jobs-0
  58. 58. Future of work • 24/7 culture • Working across multiple spaces • Aging workforce • Millennials and Gen Y • Mobile working • Innovation, collaboration and new organisational structures http://www.sourcewire.com/news/77099/is-this-the-end-of-work-as-we-know-it
  59. 59. Conclusion • Nature of learning, teaching and research is changing • Changing roles • Technology Enhanced Learning spaces • It’s about – Harnessing new media – Adopting open practices • New business models are emerging
  60. 60. http://www.slideshare.net/GrainneConole http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/beyond-distance-research-alliance grainne.conole@le.ac.uk http://e4innovation.com
  61. 61. References • Conole, G. (2010) Review of pedagogical frameworks and models and their use in e-learning, http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2982. • Conole, G. and P. Alevizou (2010) Review of the use(s) of Web 2.0 in Higher Education. • Conole, G., M. Dyke, et al. (2004). "Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design." Computers and Education 43(1-2): 17-33. • Dewey, J. (1916). Experience and Nature. New York, Dover. • Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning. London, RoutledgeFalmer. • Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching, Routledge %@ 0415256798, 9780415256797. • Secker, J.(2011), http://www.slideshare.net/seckerj/information- literacy-e-learning-and-the-changing-role-of-the-librarian • Learning Design workshop resources http://tinyurl.com/LD- workshop

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