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Unit 6Unit 6
Renaissance and ReformationRenaissance and Reformation
in Europe 1400-1648in Europe 1400-1648
Unit 6A – European Renaissance
A rebirth of Ancient Ideas in Art,
Architecture and thinking
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What was the Renaissance?
• Rebirth of European learning and science
• Rediscovery of Greco-roman ideas
• Rebirth of Humanism
• Starts in the northern Italian city states because of
the money from the spice trade
• Mostly an artistic movement in southern Europe
(Italy)
• Mostly a literary movement in northern Europe
(England)
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Humanism
• Really an old idea from Ancient Greece and Rome
• Based on the Socratic and Platonic ideas of
observation and reasoning
• Idea that man, not God, was the center of the
universe
• Man controls his own destiny
• Man can learn about and understand his world by
observation and reason without God’s help
• Helped spark a new age of secular learning and the
development of early modern schools and
universities such as Oxford and Cambridge
• Led many to question both governments and the
institutional Church
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Northern Italian City-States (1450)
Seperate political units
united by a common
culture
Each city-state was
independent, but still part
of the “Holy Roman
Empire”
Rivals and business
partners – at times traded
with each other – at times
warred with each other.
Papal States – kingdom
under the Pope’s control
Spice trade –
the engine that drove the Renaissance
• Exclusive contracts in the spice
trade brought riches to the
different Italian city states
• Venice, Genoa and Florence
were the wealthiest and most
important
• Europeans craved spices
▫ Covered the taste of bad meat
▫ Used for medicinal purposes
▫ No refrigeration: food went
bad quickly
• Arabs controlled the trade
coming from Asia
▫ Muslim trade routes ran
through Egypt to Mecca and
out to India and Indonesia
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Map of Spice Routes from Asia
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Northern Italian Renaissance
• Spices brought money
• Different cities signed exclusive contracts with Arab spice
merchants
• Italian City States began to compete against each other for
prestige, beauty and knowledge
• Venice – city of merchants run by the “Doge” (an elected
official)
• Florence – run by the Medici family (a very powerful banking
family with considerable influence over the papacy)
• mostly an artistic movement (rediscovery of Greco-Roman 3-
Dimensional ideas)
• Today these cities are like outdoor museums – even the
buildings themselves are works of art, not to mention the
priceless pieces of art contained within them
Northern Italian City Leaders –
patrons to the artists
Patron – wealthy
merchant or political
leader that provided
financial and political
support to the artists
They often used their
influence and prestige to
get particular artists
Different city states
competed with each
other – trying to out do
each other
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Medici family of Florence
Powerful and wealthy merchant and
banking family
Established a strong financial
working relationship with the
Vatican and the Papacy
Eventually put members of their
own family on the throne of St.
Peter’s
Linked to Europe’s royal houses
across Europe by 1650
Ran Florence for about 3 centuries
Patrons to dozens of artists
including Leonardo, Michaelangelo
and Bottecelli
Driving force behind Brunelleschi’s
Dome on the Duomo
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Cosimo de Medici 12/14/15
Doge of Venice
Not a family, but instead
an elected official –
elected for life – serves
like a monarch of the
aristocracy and wealthy
Always a weathy
merchant in the Venetian
Republic
Had the power to enforce
laws, but needed council
approval to make them
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Inside the Doge’s Palace in Venice12/14/15
Venice 12/14/15
A look back at medieval art 12/14/15
Early Renaissance Art
Later Renaissance Art
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• Leonardo da Vinci
• Michelangelo
• Donatello
• Raphael
Great Italian Artists of the Renaissance
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Donatello
 Early renaissance artist
(before the other masters)
 One of the first to
rediscover the Greco-
Roman 3-D forms
 Worked in Florence and
the surrounding area – his
sculptures are found
throughout the city
 David (seen here) – first
free standing nude since
ancient times – first major
Renaissance sculpture (in
bronze – 1430)
Bringing forth human emotions
Donatello’s Mary Magdalene
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Leonardo Da Vinci
• Inventor, scientist and
artist who applied Greco-
Roman ideas of science
and math to the world
around him
• Ultimate Humanist
Famous for his drawings,
sculptures and paintings
• Came up with “modern”
machines such as the
helicopter and glider
• Known as the
“Renaissance Man”
Leonardo’s art 12/14/15
Last Supper – in Milan, Italy 12/14/15
Leonardo’s Science
Leonardo believed he could
observe the world around
him and then figure it out
Did much of his scientific
work in secret – wrote
backwards in his journals
so they couldn’t be read
Some of his work went
against church teaching,
but he had very powerful
friends and allies
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Leonardo’s Inventions
Mostly for wartime use
– his patrons often
wanted something that
would give them an
advantage over
enemies
Many were hundreds
of years ahead of their
time
Came up with gliders,
robots and tanks
Building Leonardo’s Tank
yes -- it works
Leonardo’s ideas for Machine Guns
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Michelangelo
• Greatest and most well known
Renaissance pure artist
• Sculptor first – painter second
• Took Greco-Roman ideas of
how to show depth and
perspective to give his figures
raw emotion
• Worked all over Italy, but
especially in Florence and
Rome (the Vatican)
• Lived to be 90 years old and
worked up to the end – that
allowed him to produce an
immense volume of work
• Some of the most famous
sculptures and paintings in the
world are his
Michelangelo’s David
Commissioned by the
Medici family of Florence
Originally sat outside the
Florence town hall, but
moved inside the
Academia Museum in the
late 1800s due to acid
rain
Immense – 17 ft tall
Symbol of the power of
the city – David’s eyes are
fixed on Rome as a
warning
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 1508-1512
A Picture of God?
Michelangelo’s Last Judgement 1536-41
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Raphael
• Worked in Florence and Rome
– studied the works of
Leonardo and Michelangelo –
has been accused of “copying”
their styles
• Greatest artist of the late
renaissance period (16th
century)
• Pope Julius II (pictured here)
was a major patron
• Most well known painting is
the School of Athens in Rome
• died at age 37
Raphael’s School of Athens 1509-1511
Raphael the Entombment of Christ 1507
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Northern Italian Renaissance Art
• Some of the most famous
art in the world is found
within the cities of
Northern Italy
• It’s like walking through
a museum – around every
corner is another
recognizable piece of art
or architecture
• Even the buildings
themselves are pieces of
art – many were designed
by Renaissance artists
Brunelleschi’s Dome
Fillipo Brunelleschi – artist /
architect in Florence – sponsored
by the Medici family
Came up with the design for the
dome on the duomo (Cathedral)
Cathedral was uncovered for over
100 years – no one could figure
out how to build it (supporting
that much weight was a problem)
Brunelleschi studied the Pantheon
in Rome (dome from ancient
times)
Final idea – double layered dome
with stone ribs to support the
weight
First large scale dome since ancient
times – inspired the dome on St.
Peter’s at the Vatican in Rome
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Cross Section of Brunelleschi’s Dome
Renaissance Literature
Rediscovery of old Greco-
Roman ideas and stories
Authors used logic and
humanistic techniques to
“modernize” the stories
Wrote not in Greek or Latin,
but rather in native languages
Works spread because of the
printing press
Greatest writers
Petrarch
Machiavelli
Shakespeare
Petrarch – “Father of Humanism”
• One of the earliest humanists
• Rediscovered the letters of
Cicero, a Roman poet of the 1st
century BCE
• Wrote that secular (non-
religious) thinking didn’t
necessarily mean that one
didn’t believe in or have a
relationship with God
• Argued for the immense
moral and practical value of
the study of ancient
philosophy, history and
thought
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Machiavelli
Northern Italy’s Literary Genius of the Renaissance
•Florentine writer,
politician and historian
•Many different types of
writings – novels, plays
and other works
•History of Florence and
other Affairs in Italy
(multiple books)
•The Prince
Machiavelli – The Prince 1513
▫Written as a message to the
Medici family, for whom
Machiavelli worked
▫Book is a critique of how a ruler
should treat his people
▫He believed that it is better to be
feared than loved as a ruler
If a ruler is loved – people can
turn on him if they disagree
If a ruler is feared – the people
will never rise up against him
▫Machiavelli considered the mass
of people to be ignorant and
unworthy of political rights
▫A government’s job was to create
a sense of order and stability
William Shakespeare
• English Renaissance playwright and
author
• Rediscovered old Greco-Roman themes
in literature and drama and brought
them into the “modern age”
• Many of his plays are simply old stories
with “modern” characters (modern to
his time) – that’s why they are still read
today – the themes are timeless
• Globe Theatre – brought plays to the
masses
▫ Romeo and Juliet
▫ Hamlet
▫ Julius Caesar
▫ Othello
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Roman Renaissance
• Outgrowth of the Northern
Italian renaissance
• Popes had the most money
and could afford to pay for
the best artists –
Michelangelo is perhaps the
most important
• If the Church needed money,
it just had to issue a special
indulgence for the building of
St. Peter’s or anything else
(spices were unnecessary)
• Millions of pounds of gold
flowed into Rome
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Indulgences
• Way for human beings to reduce the time they spent in
Purgatory (between Heaven and Hell)
• Could also be used for getting rid of sins
• Issued directly by the Church in Rome or by different
bishops around Europe in the name of the Pope
• 1095 – Pope Urban II issues indulgences to all who go on
Crusade to Jerusalem (all sins forgiven – even those not
yet committed)
• Originally supposed to be about good works, prayer,
confession and penitance, but by the time of the
Renaissance, the Church had figured out that
indulgences could be used to finance projects and make a
lot of money.
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An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel
With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all sins
and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days – Johann
Tetzel
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Unit 6BUnit 6B
ProtestantProtestant
ReformationReformation
“Protestant” Reformation
•Reformation – a reform movement
•Protestant – one who protests
•Protestant Reformation – reform
movement outside the Catholic
Church
•Catholic (Counter) Reformation –
reform movement inside the Catholic
Church
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Late Medieval / Renaissance Church
• Bad Popes – many of them corrupt and under the control of
wealthy families, especially in Florence and other Italian city
states
• Some popes had mistresses and illegitimate children – one ran
a brothel (John XII) from inside the Vatican (10th
century)
• Church had lost touch with ordinary Christians
• Church used its power and authority to keep the people
ignorant and illiterate – people couldn’t think for themselves
• Indulgences – money is flowing to Rome – people will give
everything they have in the hope of reaching Heaven – Church
taught that salvation could only be achieved INSIDE THE
CATHOLIC CHURCH
• Worship of “relics” was out of control – people paid to see
everything from the bones of saints to pieces of the cross
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Indulgences
• Way for human beings to reduce the time they spent in
Purgatory (between Heaven and Hell)
• Could also be used for getting rid of sins
• Issued directly by the Church in Rome or by different
bishops around Europe in the name of the Pope
• 1095 – Pope Urban II issues indulgences to all who go on
Crusade to Jerusalem (all sins forgiven – even those not
yet committed)
• Originally supposed to be about good works, prayer,
confession and penitance, but by the time of the
Renaissance, the Church had figured out that
indulgences could be used to finance projects and make a
lot of money.
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An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel
With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all
sins and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days –
Johann Tetzel
Relics – holy bits and pieces of the past
• Could be almost anything
• bones
• skulls
• pieces of the True Cross
• clothing
• Pilgrims came to see them
• Church gave special
“indulgences” for viewing
them and praying to them
• Wealthy Europeans (nobility)
collected them
• Can still buy them on Ebay
(this one has a piece of the
cross, a piece of the shoud that
covered Jesus and a piece of
the rope that bound his dead
body)
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Martin Luther: Who was he?
• Monk and religious scholar from
the German lands (Saxony)
• Trained in the law before going
into the seminary – understands
legal arguments and the use of
logical reasoning
• One of the most educated men at
the time in Europe
• Also a man of the people
• Understood the power of the
people and used it to his
advantage
• Wrote in German
• Challenged the Church on the
sale of indulgences and the
worship of relics
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Martin Luther:
Why did he Challenge the Church?
 “When the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from
purgatory springs.” – saying attributed to Johann Tetzel
(famous seller of indulgences in Saxony)
 Purgatory – place between heaven and hell where sins were
punished and the soul was “purified” before going to
heaven (mentioned for the first time in Church documents
in 1031 at the Council of Florence)
 Indulgences – like “get out of sin cards” – given for money
paid by Christians to get rid of sin on earth and /or as a
means to lessen the number of days someone spent in
purgatory – could be purchased for others as well
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An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel
With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all
sins and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days –
Johann Tetzel
95 Theses – 31 Oct 1517
•95 specific arguments against
corruption in the Catholic
Church
•Written by Luther in response
to Tetzel and the selling of
Indulgences in Saxony
•Romans 1:17 -- “He who
through faith is righteous shall
live”
•Nailed to the door of the
cathedral at Wittenberg,
Saxony (in the Holy Roman
Empire)
•Called for the Church to turn
away from corruption and
indulgences
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What was the key to Luther’s Success?
• He wrote in German language so the people could read
it (or have it read to them)
• His writings were published on the newly created
printing presses – allowed his message to be spread
quickly – thousands of copies of Luther’s 95 theses
were made and distributed all over Europe
• Brought the idea of salvation to the common people
• Church had been weakened in the eyes of many people
• Many German princes (especially Prince Fredrick of
Saxony) in the Holy Roman Empire stood by Luther
and against the pope – some for political and economic
reasons, others because they believed in Luther’s ideas
regarding salvation and they liked the idea of a
“German Church”
Gutenberg Printing Press
• Invented early 1440s
• Johannes Gutenberg –
goldsmith from
Germany (close to
Wittenberg)
• Introduced metal
movable type to Europe
• Allowed books and
pamphlets to be mass-
produced
• Key to Luther’s success
– allows his material to
be seen and read across
the German lands
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Luther’s Ideas
• Justification (salvation) by faith alone with no “works” of any
kind necessary – one could not “earn” redemption by doing
good deeds
• The Bible is the word of God and therefore must be true –
anything outside the Bible is unnecessary
• Print the Bible in local languages so the people could read it
themselves (first non-Latin Bible will be in German in1522 – it
was dedicated to Prince Fredrick of Saxony)
• People needed to be educated so they could understand and read
the Bible – allows people to think for themselves and not just be
told what to do – this also opens the door for the education of
the people in other areas – citizens in “protestant” areas of
Europe will generally be more literate than in Catholic ones well
into the 20th
century
Diet of Worms 1521
Luther called before the
German Parliament and
the Holy Roman Emperor
to answer for his crimes
against the Church
Luther told to deny his
own works and to recant
his positions
He refused, saying that to
do so would be to deny
scripture and imperil his
soul
The emperor declared
him an outlaw, but he was
protected by powerful
princes
Luther’s legacy – Protestants
Luther kicked open the door to others questioning the
Church based on their own thoughts
Different interpretations of the Bible and the road to
salvation brought different ideas and churches
Lutheran
Salvation through faith alone
Calvin
Salvation through predestination and God’s grace
English Church
Salvation through membership in the Anglican
Church and loyalty to the monarch
John Calvin -- Predestination
▫16th century Swiss lawyer
in Geneva
▫Based his ideas on the Book
of Revelation (14:1-3)
▫Predestination – only
144,000 going to heaven in
the end
▫Heavy influence on colonial
Puritans and modern
Congregationalist churches
of New England – legacy is
now part of the American
idea of supremacy (we’re
God’s chosen people)
▫Ideas based on logic
▫also influenced Scottish
Presbyterians
Calvinist Spread -- Map
English Reformation – 4 step process
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
Break with Rome
creation of the English Catholic Church
Edward IV (1547-1553)
hard line Lutheran protestant
Mary I (1553-1558)
Bloody Mary -- goes back to hard-line Catholic
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Virgin Queen
Creates the Anglican Church
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
▫“Defender of the Faith” -- Opposed
Luther and strongly supported the Pope
in 1517
▫Married to Catherine of Aragon –
marriage had been arranged by Henry
VII and Phillip II of Spain
▫When Catherine failed to produce a
male heir, Henry asked the pope for a
divorce – pope wouldn’t grant it
(Charles V, the emperor of the HRE ,
was Catherine’s uncle )
▫Broke with the Roman Catholic Church
and created the Church of England
(Protestant in name – Catholic in
practice)
▫Eventually had 6 wives – 1st
three are
really important (they gave him
legitimate children)
▫Tradition says he had 150+ children
(no way to get an exact count as Henry
really believed in sharing himself with
his female subjects)
St. Thomas More
• Henry VIII’s Chancellor and
personal friend
• Perhaps the king’s closest
advisor before the split with
Rome
• Wrote extensively on matters of
government, philosophy and
the relationship between God
and Man
• Very Devout Catholic
• Refused to endorse Henry’s
decision to break with Rome
• Believed absolutely in the
primacy of the pope
• Beheaded by Henry for treason
against the crown
• Made a saint by the Catholic
Church for standing by his faith
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English Reformation
part 2 – Henry’s Kids
 Edward VI (1547-53)
 Son of Henry’s 3rd
wife – Jane Seymour
 hard line Lutheran
 Very sick – lives only into his late teens
 Mary I (1553-58)
 Daughter of Catherine of Aragon
 Hard line Roman Catholic
 Executes thousands of citizens who refuse to reconvert
 Known in history as “Bloody Mary”
 Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
 Created a compromise church – The Anglican Church
 Oath of allegiance to her as the head of the Church
 Defeats the Spanish Armada in a great naval battle (1588)
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Edward VI (1547-1553)
• Henry’s only legitimate male
heir
• Son of Henry’s third wife –
Jane Seymour
• Raised Protestant (Lutheran)
by his uncle (mom died in
childbirth)
• Came to throne at age 9
• Regent Council (run by his
uncle Edward) ran England
during his reign
• Very sickly – died at age 15 –
probably from turberculosis
• Fully changed the English
Church to Lutheran-style
protestant
• Left no heirs
Mary I (1553-1558)
• Henry VIII’s oldest daughter
• Daughter of Catherine of
Aragon (grand-daughter of
Isabella of Spain)
• Raised hard-line Catholic
• Returns England to the
Roman Catholic fold
• “Bloody Mary” – villified by
Protestants over the centuries
• Executed hundreds of her own
people for refusing to re-
convert to Catholicism
• Died in 1547 during a flu
outbreak – probably had
ovarian cancer as well
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
• daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
(Henry’s 2nd
wife)
• After her mother’s execution, raised as a
child of the Renaissance -- highly
educated and a moderate Protestant
• Came to the throne at age 25 after her
half-sister Mary’s death in 1558
• Determined to come up with a
compromise solution to the religious strife
in her realm
• Created the “Anglican” Church –
compromise church with both Catholic
and Lutheran ideas
• Church structure still important, but faith
was the key to salvation
• Put monarch as the head of the church –
required an oath of loyalty from her
subjects
• Never married – no heirs
• Will be discussed again during
Exploration and Discovery (Unit 7)
James I (1603-1625)
• Elizabeth’s cousin
• From Scotland – ruled Scotland as
James VI (1567-1625)
• Great-grandson of Henry VII
• Assumed throne after Elizabeth died
after an agreement with the Privy
Council in England
• Not part of the English Reformation
– Church was already changed
• Pledged to look the other way
towards Catholics in his realm – as
long as they were quiet
• Loved by most – but still had issues
with “puritans” who thought the
church was too Catholic
• Colonization of VA and Plymouth
takes place during his reign
• King James Version – English
language Bible created in 1611
King James Version of the Bible (1611)
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Reformation Europe (Late 16c)
Major Protestant Reformers
• Luther
▫ Northern Germanic Lands (H.R.E.)
▫ Justification by Faith Alone
• Calvin
▫ Swiss Lands -- influence in Scotland, France and the
Netherlands
▫ Ideas behind Predestination
• English
▫ England
▫ Henry VIII and his Kids
▫ Creation of the Anglican (English) Church
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Catholic (Counter) Reformation
• Eventually the Catholic Church had to respond to the
charges leveled by Luther and other reformers
• Council of Trent (1563)
• Church meeting called by Pope Paul III in response
to the rise of Lutheranism
• Examined the corruption in the Church
• Decreed that salvation required faith WITHIN the
Catholic Church
• Reaffirmed relics and indulgences, but banned their
sale
• Reaffirmed celebate priesthood
• Condemned the use of local languages for scripture
and the mass
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Council of Trent (1563)
St. Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits
•Ignatius Loyola
▫Spanish soldier and nobleman
▫Founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
in 1534
▫Dedicated to absolute obedience to the
pope, but also at the forefront in
cleaning up the Church – a reformation
from within the Church in response to
Luther, Calvin and other Protestants
▫Opened schools and colleges – was
dedicated to teaching more people to
read both the bible and other works
▫Emphasized a Classical Education
(Greco-Roman) with faith woven into
the curriculum
▫Jesuits and others succeeded in
cleaning up the Church from within
– the Church maintains its reliance
on “Faith through Works” as the
path to salvation
Both sides believed the other was wrong –
a war was bound to happen
Protestant (of all denominations)
Northern German Lands
Switzerland
Pockets of France and Northern Poland
Netherlands
British Isles (not Ireland)
Remain Catholic
Italy
Spain and Portugal
Poland
Austrian Empire
Belgium
Southern Germany (Bavaria)
Even in Catholic areas, however, the power of the Church was weakened
Thirty Years War
• War between Catholics and Protestants (1618 to 1648)
• Culmination of a series of sporadic wars that first broke out in the
German lands during the time of Luther (1520s)
• Motives were political and economic as well, especially with the
Hapsburg family in the Austrian empire
• Brutal warfare with horrible atrocities on both sides – the most
destructive war in European history before the outbreak of World
War I in 1914 – millions were killed
• Forever shatters idea of religious unity in Germany
• Treaty of Westphalia (1648) – Catholic nations are forced to
recognize the existence of Protestant states (countries not-allied to
the pope) – this forever shatters Catholic unity and really damages
the authority of the pope, even with the remaining Catholic
countries of Europe
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Map of Europe in 1648 after Westphalia
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1648 – A Watershed Year
• Before 1648 – development of multinational states and empires
▫ Egyptian Alexander the Great
▫ Persians Carthaginians
▫ Romans Byzantines
▫ Russians Islamic Empires
▫ Latin Christendom (multiple nations under one pope)
• After 1648 – development and of nation-states (countries) based on the
different peoples of Europe – idea continues to today’s world
▫ On Europe’s edges – religion will help unify the people in a given
nation (France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Russia, England) – anyone
who is not part of the nation’s religious tradition will need to leave –
some of this leads to colonization in the new world, where thousands
will come in search of religious choice (not necessarily religious
freedom)
▫ In Central Europe – religion will not play a role in how to define the
people – thus “Germany” can not be created until the Germans
themselves solve the question of how to define their nation without
religion – it won’t happen until the 1870s
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World / European History Unit 6 -- Renaissance And Reformation

  • 1. 12/14/15 1 Unit 6Unit 6 Renaissance and ReformationRenaissance and Reformation in Europe 1400-1648in Europe 1400-1648
  • 2. Unit 6A – European Renaissance A rebirth of Ancient Ideas in Art, Architecture and thinking 12/14/15
  • 3. 12/14/15 3 What was the Renaissance? • Rebirth of European learning and science • Rediscovery of Greco-roman ideas • Rebirth of Humanism • Starts in the northern Italian city states because of the money from the spice trade • Mostly an artistic movement in southern Europe (Italy) • Mostly a literary movement in northern Europe (England)
  • 4. 12/14/15 4 Humanism • Really an old idea from Ancient Greece and Rome • Based on the Socratic and Platonic ideas of observation and reasoning • Idea that man, not God, was the center of the universe • Man controls his own destiny • Man can learn about and understand his world by observation and reason without God’s help • Helped spark a new age of secular learning and the development of early modern schools and universities such as Oxford and Cambridge • Led many to question both governments and the institutional Church
  • 5. 12/14/15 5 Northern Italian City-States (1450) Seperate political units united by a common culture Each city-state was independent, but still part of the “Holy Roman Empire” Rivals and business partners – at times traded with each other – at times warred with each other. Papal States – kingdom under the Pope’s control
  • 6. Spice trade – the engine that drove the Renaissance • Exclusive contracts in the spice trade brought riches to the different Italian city states • Venice, Genoa and Florence were the wealthiest and most important • Europeans craved spices ▫ Covered the taste of bad meat ▫ Used for medicinal purposes ▫ No refrigeration: food went bad quickly • Arabs controlled the trade coming from Asia ▫ Muslim trade routes ran through Egypt to Mecca and out to India and Indonesia 12/14/15 6
  • 7. 12/14/15 7 Map of Spice Routes from Asia
  • 8. 12/14/15 8 Northern Italian Renaissance • Spices brought money • Different cities signed exclusive contracts with Arab spice merchants • Italian City States began to compete against each other for prestige, beauty and knowledge • Venice – city of merchants run by the “Doge” (an elected official) • Florence – run by the Medici family (a very powerful banking family with considerable influence over the papacy) • mostly an artistic movement (rediscovery of Greco-Roman 3- Dimensional ideas) • Today these cities are like outdoor museums – even the buildings themselves are works of art, not to mention the priceless pieces of art contained within them
  • 9. Northern Italian City Leaders – patrons to the artists Patron – wealthy merchant or political leader that provided financial and political support to the artists They often used their influence and prestige to get particular artists Different city states competed with each other – trying to out do each other 12/14/15
  • 10. Medici family of Florence Powerful and wealthy merchant and banking family Established a strong financial working relationship with the Vatican and the Papacy Eventually put members of their own family on the throne of St. Peter’s Linked to Europe’s royal houses across Europe by 1650 Ran Florence for about 3 centuries Patrons to dozens of artists including Leonardo, Michaelangelo and Bottecelli Driving force behind Brunelleschi’s Dome on the Duomo 12/14/15
  • 11. Cosimo de Medici 12/14/15
  • 12. Doge of Venice Not a family, but instead an elected official – elected for life – serves like a monarch of the aristocracy and wealthy Always a weathy merchant in the Venetian Republic Had the power to enforce laws, but needed council approval to make them 12/14/15
  • 13. Inside the Doge’s Palace in Venice12/14/15
  • 15. A look back at medieval art 12/14/15
  • 18. 12/14/15 18 • Leonardo da Vinci • Michelangelo • Donatello • Raphael Great Italian Artists of the Renaissance
  • 19. 12/14/15 19 Donatello  Early renaissance artist (before the other masters)  One of the first to rediscover the Greco- Roman 3-D forms  Worked in Florence and the surrounding area – his sculptures are found throughout the city  David (seen here) – first free standing nude since ancient times – first major Renaissance sculpture (in bronze – 1430)
  • 20. Bringing forth human emotions Donatello’s Mary Magdalene
  • 21. 12/14/15 21 Leonardo Da Vinci • Inventor, scientist and artist who applied Greco- Roman ideas of science and math to the world around him • Ultimate Humanist Famous for his drawings, sculptures and paintings • Came up with “modern” machines such as the helicopter and glider • Known as the “Renaissance Man”
  • 23. Last Supper – in Milan, Italy 12/14/15
  • 24. Leonardo’s Science Leonardo believed he could observe the world around him and then figure it out Did much of his scientific work in secret – wrote backwards in his journals so they couldn’t be read Some of his work went against church teaching, but he had very powerful friends and allies 12/14/15
  • 25. Leonardo’s Inventions Mostly for wartime use – his patrons often wanted something that would give them an advantage over enemies Many were hundreds of years ahead of their time Came up with gliders, robots and tanks
  • 27. Leonardo’s ideas for Machine Guns
  • 28. 12/14/15 28 Michelangelo • Greatest and most well known Renaissance pure artist • Sculptor first – painter second • Took Greco-Roman ideas of how to show depth and perspective to give his figures raw emotion • Worked all over Italy, but especially in Florence and Rome (the Vatican) • Lived to be 90 years old and worked up to the end – that allowed him to produce an immense volume of work • Some of the most famous sculptures and paintings in the world are his
  • 29. Michelangelo’s David Commissioned by the Medici family of Florence Originally sat outside the Florence town hall, but moved inside the Academia Museum in the late 1800s due to acid rain Immense – 17 ft tall Symbol of the power of the city – David’s eyes are fixed on Rome as a warning
  • 30. Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 1508-1512
  • 31. A Picture of God?
  • 33. 12/14/15 33 Raphael • Worked in Florence and Rome – studied the works of Leonardo and Michelangelo – has been accused of “copying” their styles • Greatest artist of the late renaissance period (16th century) • Pope Julius II (pictured here) was a major patron • Most well known painting is the School of Athens in Rome • died at age 37
  • 34. Raphael’s School of Athens 1509-1511
  • 35. Raphael the Entombment of Christ 1507
  • 36. 12/14/15 36 Northern Italian Renaissance Art • Some of the most famous art in the world is found within the cities of Northern Italy • It’s like walking through a museum – around every corner is another recognizable piece of art or architecture • Even the buildings themselves are pieces of art – many were designed by Renaissance artists
  • 37. Brunelleschi’s Dome Fillipo Brunelleschi – artist / architect in Florence – sponsored by the Medici family Came up with the design for the dome on the duomo (Cathedral) Cathedral was uncovered for over 100 years – no one could figure out how to build it (supporting that much weight was a problem) Brunelleschi studied the Pantheon in Rome (dome from ancient times) Final idea – double layered dome with stone ribs to support the weight First large scale dome since ancient times – inspired the dome on St. Peter’s at the Vatican in Rome 12/14/15
  • 38. Cross Section of Brunelleschi’s Dome
  • 39. Renaissance Literature Rediscovery of old Greco- Roman ideas and stories Authors used logic and humanistic techniques to “modernize” the stories Wrote not in Greek or Latin, but rather in native languages Works spread because of the printing press Greatest writers Petrarch Machiavelli Shakespeare
  • 40. Petrarch – “Father of Humanism” • One of the earliest humanists • Rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman poet of the 1st century BCE • Wrote that secular (non- religious) thinking didn’t necessarily mean that one didn’t believe in or have a relationship with God • Argued for the immense moral and practical value of the study of ancient philosophy, history and thought
  • 41. 12/14/15 41 Machiavelli Northern Italy’s Literary Genius of the Renaissance •Florentine writer, politician and historian •Many different types of writings – novels, plays and other works •History of Florence and other Affairs in Italy (multiple books) •The Prince
  • 42. Machiavelli – The Prince 1513 ▫Written as a message to the Medici family, for whom Machiavelli worked ▫Book is a critique of how a ruler should treat his people ▫He believed that it is better to be feared than loved as a ruler If a ruler is loved – people can turn on him if they disagree If a ruler is feared – the people will never rise up against him ▫Machiavelli considered the mass of people to be ignorant and unworthy of political rights ▫A government’s job was to create a sense of order and stability
  • 43. William Shakespeare • English Renaissance playwright and author • Rediscovered old Greco-Roman themes in literature and drama and brought them into the “modern age” • Many of his plays are simply old stories with “modern” characters (modern to his time) – that’s why they are still read today – the themes are timeless • Globe Theatre – brought plays to the masses ▫ Romeo and Juliet ▫ Hamlet ▫ Julius Caesar ▫ Othello 12/14/15 43
  • 44. Roman Renaissance • Outgrowth of the Northern Italian renaissance • Popes had the most money and could afford to pay for the best artists – Michelangelo is perhaps the most important • If the Church needed money, it just had to issue a special indulgence for the building of St. Peter’s or anything else (spices were unnecessary) • Millions of pounds of gold flowed into Rome 12/14/15 44
  • 45. Indulgences • Way for human beings to reduce the time they spent in Purgatory (between Heaven and Hell) • Could also be used for getting rid of sins • Issued directly by the Church in Rome or by different bishops around Europe in the name of the Pope • 1095 – Pope Urban II issues indulgences to all who go on Crusade to Jerusalem (all sins forgiven – even those not yet committed) • Originally supposed to be about good works, prayer, confession and penitance, but by the time of the Renaissance, the Church had figured out that indulgences could be used to finance projects and make a lot of money. 12/14/15
  • 46. 12/14/15 46 An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all sins and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days – Johann Tetzel
  • 48. “Protestant” Reformation •Reformation – a reform movement •Protestant – one who protests •Protestant Reformation – reform movement outside the Catholic Church •Catholic (Counter) Reformation – reform movement inside the Catholic Church 12/14/15 48
  • 49. Late Medieval / Renaissance Church • Bad Popes – many of them corrupt and under the control of wealthy families, especially in Florence and other Italian city states • Some popes had mistresses and illegitimate children – one ran a brothel (John XII) from inside the Vatican (10th century) • Church had lost touch with ordinary Christians • Church used its power and authority to keep the people ignorant and illiterate – people couldn’t think for themselves • Indulgences – money is flowing to Rome – people will give everything they have in the hope of reaching Heaven – Church taught that salvation could only be achieved INSIDE THE CATHOLIC CHURCH • Worship of “relics” was out of control – people paid to see everything from the bones of saints to pieces of the cross 12/14/15 49
  • 50. Indulgences • Way for human beings to reduce the time they spent in Purgatory (between Heaven and Hell) • Could also be used for getting rid of sins • Issued directly by the Church in Rome or by different bishops around Europe in the name of the Pope • 1095 – Pope Urban II issues indulgences to all who go on Crusade to Jerusalem (all sins forgiven – even those not yet committed) • Originally supposed to be about good works, prayer, confession and penitance, but by the time of the Renaissance, the Church had figured out that indulgences could be used to finance projects and make a lot of money. 12/14/15
  • 51. 12/14/15 51 An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all sins and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days – Johann Tetzel
  • 52. Relics – holy bits and pieces of the past • Could be almost anything • bones • skulls • pieces of the True Cross • clothing • Pilgrims came to see them • Church gave special “indulgences” for viewing them and praying to them • Wealthy Europeans (nobility) collected them • Can still buy them on Ebay (this one has a piece of the cross, a piece of the shoud that covered Jesus and a piece of the rope that bound his dead body)
  • 53. 12/14/15 53 Martin Luther: Who was he? • Monk and religious scholar from the German lands (Saxony) • Trained in the law before going into the seminary – understands legal arguments and the use of logical reasoning • One of the most educated men at the time in Europe • Also a man of the people • Understood the power of the people and used it to his advantage • Wrote in German • Challenged the Church on the sale of indulgences and the worship of relics
  • 54. 12/14/15 54 Martin Luther: Why did he Challenge the Church?  “When the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.” – saying attributed to Johann Tetzel (famous seller of indulgences in Saxony)  Purgatory – place between heaven and hell where sins were punished and the soul was “purified” before going to heaven (mentioned for the first time in Church documents in 1031 at the Council of Florence)  Indulgences – like “get out of sin cards” – given for money paid by Christians to get rid of sin on earth and /or as a means to lessen the number of days someone spent in purgatory – could be purchased for others as well
  • 55. 12/14/15 55 An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all sins and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days – Johann Tetzel
  • 56. 95 Theses – 31 Oct 1517 •95 specific arguments against corruption in the Catholic Church •Written by Luther in response to Tetzel and the selling of Indulgences in Saxony •Romans 1:17 -- “He who through faith is righteous shall live” •Nailed to the door of the cathedral at Wittenberg, Saxony (in the Holy Roman Empire) •Called for the Church to turn away from corruption and indulgences
  • 57. 12/14/15 57 What was the key to Luther’s Success? • He wrote in German language so the people could read it (or have it read to them) • His writings were published on the newly created printing presses – allowed his message to be spread quickly – thousands of copies of Luther’s 95 theses were made and distributed all over Europe • Brought the idea of salvation to the common people • Church had been weakened in the eyes of many people • Many German princes (especially Prince Fredrick of Saxony) in the Holy Roman Empire stood by Luther and against the pope – some for political and economic reasons, others because they believed in Luther’s ideas regarding salvation and they liked the idea of a “German Church”
  • 58. Gutenberg Printing Press • Invented early 1440s • Johannes Gutenberg – goldsmith from Germany (close to Wittenberg) • Introduced metal movable type to Europe • Allowed books and pamphlets to be mass- produced • Key to Luther’s success – allows his material to be seen and read across the German lands
  • 59. 12/14/15 59 Luther’s Ideas • Justification (salvation) by faith alone with no “works” of any kind necessary – one could not “earn” redemption by doing good deeds • The Bible is the word of God and therefore must be true – anything outside the Bible is unnecessary • Print the Bible in local languages so the people could read it themselves (first non-Latin Bible will be in German in1522 – it was dedicated to Prince Fredrick of Saxony) • People needed to be educated so they could understand and read the Bible – allows people to think for themselves and not just be told what to do – this also opens the door for the education of the people in other areas – citizens in “protestant” areas of Europe will generally be more literate than in Catholic ones well into the 20th century
  • 60. Diet of Worms 1521 Luther called before the German Parliament and the Holy Roman Emperor to answer for his crimes against the Church Luther told to deny his own works and to recant his positions He refused, saying that to do so would be to deny scripture and imperil his soul The emperor declared him an outlaw, but he was protected by powerful princes
  • 61. Luther’s legacy – Protestants Luther kicked open the door to others questioning the Church based on their own thoughts Different interpretations of the Bible and the road to salvation brought different ideas and churches Lutheran Salvation through faith alone Calvin Salvation through predestination and God’s grace English Church Salvation through membership in the Anglican Church and loyalty to the monarch
  • 62. John Calvin -- Predestination ▫16th century Swiss lawyer in Geneva ▫Based his ideas on the Book of Revelation (14:1-3) ▫Predestination – only 144,000 going to heaven in the end ▫Heavy influence on colonial Puritans and modern Congregationalist churches of New England – legacy is now part of the American idea of supremacy (we’re God’s chosen people) ▫Ideas based on logic ▫also influenced Scottish Presbyterians
  • 64. English Reformation – 4 step process Henry VIII (1509-1547) Break with Rome creation of the English Catholic Church Edward IV (1547-1553) hard line Lutheran protestant Mary I (1553-1558) Bloody Mary -- goes back to hard-line Catholic Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Virgin Queen Creates the Anglican Church
  • 65. Henry VIII (1509-1547) ▫“Defender of the Faith” -- Opposed Luther and strongly supported the Pope in 1517 ▫Married to Catherine of Aragon – marriage had been arranged by Henry VII and Phillip II of Spain ▫When Catherine failed to produce a male heir, Henry asked the pope for a divorce – pope wouldn’t grant it (Charles V, the emperor of the HRE , was Catherine’s uncle ) ▫Broke with the Roman Catholic Church and created the Church of England (Protestant in name – Catholic in practice) ▫Eventually had 6 wives – 1st three are really important (they gave him legitimate children) ▫Tradition says he had 150+ children (no way to get an exact count as Henry really believed in sharing himself with his female subjects)
  • 66. St. Thomas More • Henry VIII’s Chancellor and personal friend • Perhaps the king’s closest advisor before the split with Rome • Wrote extensively on matters of government, philosophy and the relationship between God and Man • Very Devout Catholic • Refused to endorse Henry’s decision to break with Rome • Believed absolutely in the primacy of the pope • Beheaded by Henry for treason against the crown • Made a saint by the Catholic Church for standing by his faith 12/14/15 66
  • 67. English Reformation part 2 – Henry’s Kids  Edward VI (1547-53)  Son of Henry’s 3rd wife – Jane Seymour  hard line Lutheran  Very sick – lives only into his late teens  Mary I (1553-58)  Daughter of Catherine of Aragon  Hard line Roman Catholic  Executes thousands of citizens who refuse to reconvert  Known in history as “Bloody Mary”  Elizabeth I (1558-1603)  Created a compromise church – The Anglican Church  Oath of allegiance to her as the head of the Church  Defeats the Spanish Armada in a great naval battle (1588) 12/14/15 67
  • 68. Edward VI (1547-1553) • Henry’s only legitimate male heir • Son of Henry’s third wife – Jane Seymour • Raised Protestant (Lutheran) by his uncle (mom died in childbirth) • Came to throne at age 9 • Regent Council (run by his uncle Edward) ran England during his reign • Very sickly – died at age 15 – probably from turberculosis • Fully changed the English Church to Lutheran-style protestant • Left no heirs
  • 69. Mary I (1553-1558) • Henry VIII’s oldest daughter • Daughter of Catherine of Aragon (grand-daughter of Isabella of Spain) • Raised hard-line Catholic • Returns England to the Roman Catholic fold • “Bloody Mary” – villified by Protestants over the centuries • Executed hundreds of her own people for refusing to re- convert to Catholicism • Died in 1547 during a flu outbreak – probably had ovarian cancer as well
  • 70. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) • daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn (Henry’s 2nd wife) • After her mother’s execution, raised as a child of the Renaissance -- highly educated and a moderate Protestant • Came to the throne at age 25 after her half-sister Mary’s death in 1558 • Determined to come up with a compromise solution to the religious strife in her realm • Created the “Anglican” Church – compromise church with both Catholic and Lutheran ideas • Church structure still important, but faith was the key to salvation • Put monarch as the head of the church – required an oath of loyalty from her subjects • Never married – no heirs • Will be discussed again during Exploration and Discovery (Unit 7)
  • 71. James I (1603-1625) • Elizabeth’s cousin • From Scotland – ruled Scotland as James VI (1567-1625) • Great-grandson of Henry VII • Assumed throne after Elizabeth died after an agreement with the Privy Council in England • Not part of the English Reformation – Church was already changed • Pledged to look the other way towards Catholics in his realm – as long as they were quiet • Loved by most – but still had issues with “puritans” who thought the church was too Catholic • Colonization of VA and Plymouth takes place during his reign • King James Version – English language Bible created in 1611
  • 72. King James Version of the Bible (1611)
  • 74. Major Protestant Reformers • Luther ▫ Northern Germanic Lands (H.R.E.) ▫ Justification by Faith Alone • Calvin ▫ Swiss Lands -- influence in Scotland, France and the Netherlands ▫ Ideas behind Predestination • English ▫ England ▫ Henry VIII and his Kids ▫ Creation of the Anglican (English) Church 12/14/15 74
  • 75. Catholic (Counter) Reformation • Eventually the Catholic Church had to respond to the charges leveled by Luther and other reformers • Council of Trent (1563) • Church meeting called by Pope Paul III in response to the rise of Lutheranism • Examined the corruption in the Church • Decreed that salvation required faith WITHIN the Catholic Church • Reaffirmed relics and indulgences, but banned their sale • Reaffirmed celebate priesthood • Condemned the use of local languages for scripture and the mass 12/14/15 75
  • 77. St. Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits •Ignatius Loyola ▫Spanish soldier and nobleman ▫Founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1534 ▫Dedicated to absolute obedience to the pope, but also at the forefront in cleaning up the Church – a reformation from within the Church in response to Luther, Calvin and other Protestants ▫Opened schools and colleges – was dedicated to teaching more people to read both the bible and other works ▫Emphasized a Classical Education (Greco-Roman) with faith woven into the curriculum ▫Jesuits and others succeeded in cleaning up the Church from within – the Church maintains its reliance on “Faith through Works” as the path to salvation
  • 78. Both sides believed the other was wrong – a war was bound to happen Protestant (of all denominations) Northern German Lands Switzerland Pockets of France and Northern Poland Netherlands British Isles (not Ireland) Remain Catholic Italy Spain and Portugal Poland Austrian Empire Belgium Southern Germany (Bavaria) Even in Catholic areas, however, the power of the Church was weakened
  • 79. Thirty Years War • War between Catholics and Protestants (1618 to 1648) • Culmination of a series of sporadic wars that first broke out in the German lands during the time of Luther (1520s) • Motives were political and economic as well, especially with the Hapsburg family in the Austrian empire • Brutal warfare with horrible atrocities on both sides – the most destructive war in European history before the outbreak of World War I in 1914 – millions were killed • Forever shatters idea of religious unity in Germany • Treaty of Westphalia (1648) – Catholic nations are forced to recognize the existence of Protestant states (countries not-allied to the pope) – this forever shatters Catholic unity and really damages the authority of the pope, even with the remaining Catholic countries of Europe 12/14/15 79
  • 80. Map of Europe in 1648 after Westphalia 12/14/15 80
  • 81. 1648 – A Watershed Year • Before 1648 – development of multinational states and empires ▫ Egyptian Alexander the Great ▫ Persians Carthaginians ▫ Romans Byzantines ▫ Russians Islamic Empires ▫ Latin Christendom (multiple nations under one pope) • After 1648 – development and of nation-states (countries) based on the different peoples of Europe – idea continues to today’s world ▫ On Europe’s edges – religion will help unify the people in a given nation (France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Russia, England) – anyone who is not part of the nation’s religious tradition will need to leave – some of this leads to colonization in the new world, where thousands will come in search of religious choice (not necessarily religious freedom) ▫ In Central Europe – religion will not play a role in how to define the people – thus “Germany” can not be created until the Germans themselves solve the question of how to define their nation without religion – it won’t happen until the 1870s 12/14/15 81