1- What was Baroque?-It is a period which started in the 17th century in Italy, and lasted formost of the 18th century, expanding to Europe.-Baroque was influenced by the religious conflicts in the 16th century,that had divided Europe into two religious blocs.-Catholic countries: intense spirituality.-Protestant countries: individualistic way of life.
Baroque culture-All branches of culture stood out during this period.-The source of inspiration continued to be the Antiquity, but in theBaroque it was interpreted in a different way that that of theRenaissance.-Main characteristics in Baroque artists:.Realism not idealised..Use of movement and constrast..Reflection of feelings..Use of chiaroscuro (lights and shades effects).-Literature was in all its splendour. Shakespeare or Molière highlightedin Europe, while in Spain it was considered our Golden Age, withauthors such as Cervantes, Calderón de la Barca or Lope de Vega.-Music was at its peak as well, with the first operas composed.
Baroque science-Two new methods of knowledge were used during this period:.Empiricism -> the theory that all knowledge is based onexperience derived from the senses. Stimulated by the rise ofexperimental science, it developed in the 17th and 18thcenturies. Its main representative was Bacon..Rationalism -> the practice or principle of basing opinionsand actions on reason and knowledge rather than on religiousbelief or emotional response. Its main representative wasDescartes.-The use of these new methods led to new discoveries whosemain scientists were Galileo, Kepler and Newton.-Academies of sciences were created in some countries bygovernments with the hope of improving their economies throughthe new discoveries.
Galileo GalileiHe was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, andphilosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Hisachievements include improvements to the telescope and consequentastronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. He has beencalled the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father ofmodern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of ModernScience".Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition
Johannes KeplerHe was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A keyfigure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for hiseponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers,based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, andEpitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one ofthe foundations for Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation.Keplers Platonicsolid model of theSolar system fromMysteriumCosmographicum(1600)
Isaac NewtonHe was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded asone of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure inthe scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis PrincipiaMathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), firstpublished in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics.Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares creditwith Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus.A replica ofNewtons secondReflecting telescopethat he presented tothe Royal Society in1672
4- The Golden Age of Spanish painting-The Spanish Golden Age is a period of flourishing in arts andliterature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline ofthe Spanish Habsburg dynasty.-El Siglo de Oro does not imply precise dates, and is usuallyconsidered to have lasted longer than an actual century. It beginsno earlier than 1492, with the end of the Reconquista, the seavoyages of Columbus to the New World, and the publication ofAntonio de Nebrijas Gramática de la lengua castellana (Grammarof the Castilian Language).-Politically, it ends no later than 1659, with the Treaty of thePyrenees, ratified between France and Habsburg Spain. The lastgreat writer of the period, Pedro Calderon de la Barca, died in1681, and his death usually is considered the end of El Siglo deOro in the arts and literature.
Diego Velázquez-He was a Spanish painter whowas the leading artist in thecourt of King Philip IV. He wasan individualistic artist of thecontemporary Baroque period,important as a portrait artist. Inaddition to numerousinterpretations of scenes ofhistorical and culturalsignificance, he painted scoresof portraits of the Spanish royalfamily, other notable Europeanfigures, and commoners,culminating in the production ofhis masterpiece Las Meninas.