Northern Renaissance


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Northern Renaissance

  1. 1. The Northern Renaissance
  2. 2. <ul><li>By 1500 Italy’s Renaissance was spreading across Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Italian artists were imported to other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings/the rich wanted palaces/portraits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church leaders wanted new non-Gothic churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities wanted monuments and fountains </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Northern Renaissance <ul><li>More of an improvement on medieval art than a return to classical art </li></ul><ul><li>Northern artists combined the Italian perspective and anatomy with their love of detail </li></ul>
  4. 4. Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding, 1434
  5. 9. <ul><li>Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding, 1434 </li></ul><ul><li>A Master of Oil Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Detailed </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with Medieval Symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>(1 lit candle = love Fruit = fertility Broom = bride’s domesticity Dog = fidelity, etc.) </li></ul>
  6. 10. Hieronymous Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1510 Speaking of detail…
  7. 11. Triptych – a work of art done in three sections, often hinged together to fold
  8. 16. Italy’s Decline <ul><li>While Italian culture was spreading across Europe, Italy was in a major decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicis and other bankers were losing money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The popes had a series of affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The maritime cities were fighting the Turks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France and Spain invaded and took over. </li></ul>
  9. 17. The Reformations <ul><li>The Reformation = Martin Luther </li></ul><ul><li>The English Reformation = Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>The Counter-Reformation = The Vatican’s Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church resorted to propaganda, intimidation, and outright force = The Inquisition </li></ul></ul>
  10. 18. The Spanish Inquisition (began in 1478) <ul><li>Under the Grand Inquisitor, Sevilla hosted an auto da fa (act of faith) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspected heretics were paraded barefoot in front of the cathedral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to publicly confess their sins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then were burned at the stake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over the next 200 years, thousands of “heretics” were killed in Spain </li></ul>
  11. 19. You see, nobody expects a Spanish Inquisition….
  12. 20. But it wasn’t all bad… <ul><li>In 1492 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus sailed the ocean blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain was united as a nation-state under Christianity (and under a single king and queen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the expeditions to the New World, Ferdinand and Isabel got gold, sugar, corn, cotton, etc. and sent out Christianity in return. </li></ul>
  13. 21. Spain’s Golden Age (1500-1650) <ul><li>F. & I.’s grandson, Charles V, took over. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the most powerful man in the world </li></ul><ul><li>So much art was collected in this time that many argue that Madrid’s Museo del Prado has the best painting collection in the world. </li></ul>
  14. 22. El Greco The Burial of the Count of Orgaz 1586
  15. 23. The Decline of Spain <ul><li>In 1588, Spain’s fleet of 122 ships, the Armada, set sail to conquer England </li></ul><ul><li>A burst of bad weather + the cunning of England’s Sir Francis Drake sank 72 of the Spanish ships </li></ul><ul><li>BOOM! Britannia rules the sea! </li></ul>
  16. 24. Queen Elizabeth I <ul><li>Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn’s bastard child was now the monarch of the newest big European power. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled over a cultural renaissance of sea exploration, scientific discovery, and literature = The Elizabethan Age </li></ul>
  17. 25. Meanwhile… <ul><li>The “Low Countries” (Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) </li></ul><ul><li>produced 3 major port cities – Brussels, Amsterdam, and Bruges </li></ul><ul><li>During the Dutch Golden Age (1600s), Amsterdam was the world’s wealthiest city. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch East India Company sailed to India, Indonesia, and America and traded glass beads and slaves for spices, jewels, and the island of Manhattan. </li></ul>
  18. 26. Northern Art <ul><li>While Spain and Italy’s art was funded by the Church and wealthy aristocrats, </li></ul><ul><li>Northern art was funded by the middle-class Protestant businessmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, cheap, no-nonsense pictures (not Greek Gods and Virgin Marys) </li></ul><ul><li>They especially valued realism </li></ul>
  19. 27. 5 Subjects of Northern Renaissance Art <ul><li>History Paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes from Everyday Life </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Still Lifes </li></ul>
  20. 28. Pieter Bruegel (the Elder) Peasant Wedding 1565
  21. 29. Two Dutch Masters: <ul><li>Jan Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Rembrandt van Rijn </li></ul>
  22. 30. Vermeer <ul><li>Painted Dutch women in quiet scenes doing simple activities at home </li></ul><ul><li>Rich colors </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny details </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic textures </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>Jan Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>Woman with a Balance </li></ul><ul><li>1664 </li></ul><ul><li>Composition Video </li></ul>
  24. 32. <ul><li>Jan Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>The Milkmaid </li></ul><ul><li>1657 </li></ul>
  25. 33. <ul><li>Jan Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>Girl with a Pearl Earring </li></ul><ul><li>1664 </li></ul><ul><li>Color of the Clouds </li></ul>
  26. 34. Rembrandt <ul><li>The greatest Dutch painter </li></ul><ul><li>Was quite popular in his time and was often commissioned to paint portraits, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>After his wife died, he got a reputation as a free thinker who didn’t always paint what you wanted = he stopped getting commissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, he painted what he wanted – Bible scenes. </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>If you see a brown painting in the Dutch section of a museum, it’s probably Rembrandt’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Loved deep brown with strong light glowing from within the darkness to highlight the key details. </li></ul>
  28. 36. Rembrandt van Rijn The Night Watch 1642
  29. 37. Bartholomeus van der Helst Schuttersmaaltijd 1648
  30. 38. Rembrandt The Storm on the Sea of Galilee 1633
  31. 39. Rembrandt van Rijn The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp 1632