604–605 Bill Ross/CORBIS The Renaissance andReformation The Duomo, or Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, in Florence, Italy 1350 1450 1550 1650 c. 1350 1434 1517 1648 Renaissance Medici family Martin Luther Thirty Years’ begins in Italy begins rule of writes Ninety- War ends Florence Five Theses
Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit jat.glencoe.com for a preview New ideas brought the Middle Ages to an end. Read this of Chapter 17.chapter to find out how advances in the arts and learningand dramatic changes to Christianity led to the beginning ofmodern times in Europe. View the Chapter 17 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The Renaissance Begins During the Renaissance, new values and new art developed in wealthy Italian city-states. New Ideas and Art Wealthy leaders in Italian city-states supported talented artists and writers, and Renaissance art and ideas spread from Italy to northern Europe. The Reformation Begins Martin Luther and other reformers, such as John Calvin, broke from the Catholic Church and began a new Christian movement that came to be called Protestantism. Catholics and Protestants While the Catholic Church attempted to carry out reforms, Catholics and Protestants fought bloody religious wars across Europe. Compare-Contrast Make this foldable to help you compare and contrast what you learn about the Renaissance and Reformation. Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from Reading and Writing side to side. As you read the sections on the Renaissance and Fold it so the left Step 2 Turn the paper edge lies about Reformation, record and fold it into thirds. 1 important concepts and 2 inch from the right edge. events under the appropriate tabs. Then Step 3 Unfold and cut the top record ideas similar to layer only along both folds. Step 4 Label as shown. both under the middle tab. This will make Renais- Refor- three tabs. Both mation sance 605
Analyze andClarify Go Beyond the Words Analyzing a passage means going beyond the definition of the words. It is a way of reading for deep understanding, not just memorizing or studying to pass a test. Read the following paragraph from Section 2. Renaissance painters also used new techniques. The most important was perspective, a method that makes a drawing or painting look three-dimensional. Artists had tried to use perspective before, but Renaissance artists per- fected it. Using perspective, objects in a scene appear to be at different distances from the viewer. The result is a more realistic image. —from page 623 How can you analyze this passage? Here are some suggestions: 1. Look at the drawing on page 626. Is the drawing realistic as described by the paragraph? 2. Look at another painting or drawing in this book. Compare the perspective to the drawing on page ak ing, bre 626. Which is more realistic? Why? Wh en r ead ler 3. With a partner, sketch a view of your classroom. to smal th e text in under- Exchange sketches and see if you can tell where help you par ts to whole. your partner was standing when he or she made s tand the the sketch. Based on your experience, what are some difficulties an artist might encounter in trying to draw a large area realistically? 606
Musee du Louvre, Paris/Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock Analyze as You Read Read to Write Choose any painting or Read this paragraph from Section 2. drawing in this book and analyze, in writing, what is taking place. Use the questions who, To make their paintings more what, when, or how to realistic, Renaissance artists also help you get started. used a technique called chiaroscuro. Chiaroscuro softened edges by using light and shadows instead of stiff outlines to separate objects. In Italian, chiaro means “clear or light,” and oscuro means “dark.” Chiaro- scuro created more drama and emo- tion in a painting. —from page 623 Analyze the above paragraph by doing the following: 1. Look at the painting of Mona Lisa from page 622. Do you see the use of chiaroscuro? If so, in what way does it create drama or emotion? 2. Choose another painting in this or a dif- ferent text. Look at it carefully to see if the technique of chiaroscuro was used. Describe to a partner the light and dark The Mona Lisa areas that you see. 3. Try your hand at drawing an object or scene using the tech- nique of chiaroscuro. As you read this chapter, choose at least one section to study and ana- lyze for deeper meaning. Exchange your analysis with a classmate who has analyzed a different passage. 607
The Renaissance Begins What’s the Connection? Locating Places Previously, you learned about life Florence (FLAWR • uhns) in medieval Europe. In this section, Venice (VEH • nuhs) you will see how Europeans began to look to the ideals of the ancient Meeting People Greeks and Romans as they left the Marco Polo (MAHR • koh POH • loh) Middle Ages behind. Medici (MEH • duh • chee) Niccolò Machiavelli (NEE • koh • LOH Focusing on the MA • kee • uh • VEH • lee) • The wealthy urban society of the Italian city-states brought a rebirth of Building Your Vocabulary learning and art to Europe. (page 609) Renaissance (REH • nuh • SAHNS) • Italy’s location helped its city-states secular (SEH • kyuh • luhr) grow wealthy from trade and banking, diplomacy (duh • PLOH • muh • see) but many of the cities fell under the control of strong rulers. (page 611) Reading Strategy • Unlike medieval nobles, the nobles of Summarizing Information Complete the Italian city-states lived in cities a chart like the one below showing the and were active in trade, banking, reasons Italian city-states grew wealthy. and public life. (page 614) Wealth Grows in City-States 1350 1450 1550Genoa Venice Florence c. 1350 1434 1513 Renaissance Medici family begins Machiavelli writes Rome begins in Italy rule of Florence The Prince 608 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Greeks and Romans had studied. After theThe Italian Renaissance horrible years of the Black Death, Europeans The wealthy urban society of the began looking to the past when timesItalian city-states brought a rebirth of learning and seemed better. They wanted to learn how toart to Europe. make their own society better.Reading Focus Hollywood makes many of the During the Renaissance, Europeans alsoworld’s movies. Why is it the center of the movie indus- began to stress the importance of the indi-try? Read to learn why the city-states of Italy became vidual. They began to believe that peoplethe center of art during the Renaissance. could make a difference and change the world for the better. Renaissance (REH • nuh • SAHNS) means People were still very religious during“rebirth.” The years from about 1350 to the Renaissance, but they also began to cel-1550 in European history are called the ebrate human achievements. PeopleRenaissance because there was a rebirth of became more secular (SEH • kyuh • luhr). Thisinterest in art and learning. means they were more interested in this In some ways the Renaissance was a world than in religion and getting torebirth of interest in the same subjects the heaven. Italy c. 1500 P S L A KEY Ferrara Milan Po R. Venice Florence Genoa Genoa Mantua 45°N Lucca Mantua Florence Milan Pisa A Ad Modena Siena 0 200 mi. P ri E Two Sicilies at ic N 0 200 km Papal States Corsica Se Chamberlin Trimetric projection N Siena Rome a IN Venice E S Naples N Sardinia 40°N Tyrrhenian W Sea E S Medi te rr an ea Many Italian city-states prospered n Sicily during the Renaissance. S 1. In which territory was Rome ea located? 5°E 10°E 15°E 2. Why do you think the city-state25°E of Venice spread out along the coastline? Find NGS online map resources @ www.nationalgeographic.com/maps 609
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? Renaissance. Wealthy nobles and mer- akg-imagesFirst of all, Italy had been the center of the chants wanted artists to produce works thatRoman Empire. Ruins and art surrounded increased the fame of their cities.the Italians and reminded them of their In most of Europe, the vast majority ofpast. It was only natural that they became people lived in the country, including theinterested in Greek and Roman art and knights and nobles who owned estates. Intried to make their own art as good. Italy’s city-states, the population was Another reason the Renaissance began becoming more urban. That means morein Italy was because by the 1300s, Italy’s people were living in the city, rather than incities had become very wealthy. They the country. So many people living togethercould afford to pay painters, sculptors, in a city meant more customers for artistsarchitects, and other artists to produce and more money for art.new works. The large number of people living in A third reason was because the region cities also led to more discussion and shar-was still divided into many small city-states. ing of ideas about art. Just as the city-statesFlorence (FLAWR • uhns), Venice (VEH • nuhs), of ancient Greece had produced many greatGenoa, Milan, and Rome were some of the works of art and literature, so too did urbanmost important cities of the Renaissance. society in Italy. The Italian city-states competed with Explain Why did theeach other. This helped bring about the Renaissance start in Italy?Florence Cathedral The FlorenceFlorence, Italy, was one of the centers of the Renaissance. The Cathedral todayFlorence Cathedral became a symbol of the city, as well as oneof the finest examples of Renaissance architecture. What wereother important Italian Renaissance cities? The cathedral’s dome measures 140 feet (42.7 m) across. New techniques allowed the tall, massive dome toThe large, round be built withoutwindows in the the supports used base of the in earlier Gothicdome, called the cathedrals. drum, allow in plenty of light.
and the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires layThe Rise of Italy’s City-States to the east. North Africa was only a short trip Italy’s location helped its city-states to the south.grow wealthy from trade and banking, but many of From the Byzantines, Turks, and Arabs,the cities fell under the control of strong rulers. the Italians bought Chinese silk and IndianReading Focus Do you have a bank account? What spices and sold them to people in Westernare banks for? Read to learn how banking helped to Europe for very high prices. At the samemake the Italian city-states wealthy and powerful. time, from the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English, they bought goods such as wool, During the Middle Ages, no ruler was wine, and glass that they could sell in theable to unite Italy into a single kingdom. Middle East. The Italian cities also hadThere were several reasons for this. First of many skilled artisans, who could take rawall, the Roman Catholic Church did every- materials the merchants bought and makething it could to stop the rise of a powerful goods that could be sold for high prices.kingdom in Italy. Church leaders were Geography was not the only reason forafraid that if a strong ruler united Italy, that the success of the Italians. Several eventssame ruler would be able to control the led to trade becoming even more importantpope and the Church. in the city-states. First, the Crusades brought At the same time, the city-states that Italian merchants into contact with Arabdeveloped in Italy were about equal in merchants. Second, the rise of the Mongolstrength. They fought many wars and often Empire united almost all of Asia into onecaptured territory from each other, but no vast trade network.state was able to defeat all the others. The Mongols encouraged trade and pro- Probably the most important reason the tected the Silk Road from China to thecity-states stayed independent was because Middle East. This made it cheaper and easierthey became very wealthy. With their great for caravans to carry goods from China andwealth, they could build large fleetsand hire people to fight in theirarmies. A person who fights in anarmy for money is called a mercenary.The city-states also loaned money tothe kings of Europe. The kings left thecity-states alone so they could borrowmore money in the future.Italy’s City-States Grow WealthyThe Italian city-states becamewealthy through trade. The geogra-phy of the long Italian peninsulameant that most of the city-states hada coastline and ports where merchantships could dock. They were also per- This painting shows a wealthy Italian family during thefectly located on the Mediterranean Renaissance. How did competition between the city-Sea. Spain and France lay to the west, states lead to great works of art? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 611 Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, Italy/M. Magliari/Bridgeman Art Library, London/SuperStock
India to Muslim and Byzantine cities. As The Wealth of Florence No city wasmore and more silk and spices were shipped more famous in the Renaissance thanfrom Asia, the price of these goods fell. More Florence. It was the first to grow wealthy,Europeans could afford the luxuries, and and it produced many famous artists. Itdemand for the items greatly increased. In sat on the banks of the Arno River sur-turn, business for Italian merchants contin- rounded by beautiful hills. It was walledued to grow. and had many tall towers for defense. Its people were known for their love of elegantWho Was Marco Polo? Europeans were clothing.fascinated with Asia and its goods after At first, Florence’s wealth came fromreading a book written by Marco Polo trading cloth, especially wool. The city’s(MAHR • koh POH • loh), a merchant from the merchants sailed to England to get sheep’scity of Venice. In the 1270s, Marco Polo wool. Artisans in Florence then wove it intowent on an amazing journey with his father fine fabrics. Florentines also found anotherand uncle to China. They set off to meet way to make money—banking.Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Mongol With goods pouring into Italy fromEmpire. around the world, merchants needed to When the Polo family finally made it to know the value of coins from differentthe khan’s court, the great emperor was countries. Florentine bankers became theimpressed with Marco Polo. He sent Marco experts. They used the florin, the gold coinPolo on business all over China. Marco of Florence, to measure the value of otherPolo asked many questions and learned money. Bankers also began lending moneymore about Asia than any other European. and charging interest. Florence’s richestWhen he returned to Europe, he publisheda book about his travels. His storieshelped increase interest in China andmade many people want to buyChina’s goods. Lorenzo de’ Medici This painting shows bankers in Florence doing business at a counter topped with brightly embroidered cloth. Why did banking become so important in Florence?612 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationScala/Art Resource, NY
The Ducal Palace today This painting from Renaissance Italy shows the busy pier and the Ducal Palace in Venice. What industry provided some of Venice’s wealth?family, the Medici (MEH • duh • chee), were many of the streets in the older partsbankers. They had branch banks as far of Venice are canals and waterways.away as London. Gondolas—a type of long, narrow boat— still carry people along these canals.The Rise of Venice The wealthiest city- Some of Venice’s wealth came fromstate of all was Venice, where Marco Polo building ships. Artisans worked on ships atwas born. Venice is at the northern end of a shipyard known as the Arsenal. Teamsthe Adriatic Sea. The Venetians were great of workers cut the wood, shaped it intosailors and shipbuilders. They built their hulls, caulked (or sealed) the wood, andcity on many small, swampy islands just off made sails and oars. Sometimes Venetiansthe coast. Early Venetians learned how to needed ships quickly. When the Turks trieddrive long wooden poles into mud to sup- to take a Venetian colony in theport their buildings. Mediterranean, the Arsenal built 100 ships Instead of paving roads, the Venetians in only two months to prepare for battle.cut canals through their swampy islands Describe How did Florenceand used boats to move about. Even today, and the Medici family become so wealthy? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 613 (l)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (r)Kindra Clineff/Index Stock
they looked down on trade and believedThe Urban Noble themselves to be above the town merchants. Unlike medieval nobles, the nobles of In the Italian city-states, old noble fami-the Italian city-states lived in cities and were active lies moved to the cities. They mixed within trade, banking, and public life. wealthy merchants and decided that moneyReading Focus How does our society measure from trade was just as good as money fromwealth? Before the Renaissance, wealth was based on land.the amount of land a person owned. Read to learn how Meanwhile, wealthy merchants copiedthat changed during the Renaissance. the manners and lifestyle of noble families. Soon, the sons and daughters of nobles and The wealthy men of the Italian city- rich merchants were marrying each other.states were a new type of leader—the urban Eventually, the old nobles and wealthynoble. Before this time, European nobles got merchant families blended together totheir wealth from land, not trade. In fact, become the upper class of the city-states. How Were Italian City-States Run? At first, many of the city-states were republics. A republic is a government controlled by its citizens. Not everyone was a citizen, how- The Prince ever, only the artisans and merchants who In Machiavelli’s masterpiece, he explains his had membership in the city’s guilds. theories about human nature. From your study of the ancient Romans, “You should consider then, that there are two you might recall that when their cities faced ways of fighting, one with laws and the other war or rebellion, they gave power to a dic- with force. The first is tator. The Italian city-states did some- properly a human thing similar. In many cases, the cities method, the second belongs to beasts. were ruled by one powerful man who But as the first ran the government. method does not In Venice, the head of state was the always suffice [meet duke, or doge (DOHJ). At first, the your needs], you doge had great power over his council sometimes have to of nobles. Later, he lost power to a turn to the second. small group of nobles. Thus a prince must know how to make In Florence, the powerful Medici good use of both the family gained control of the govern- beast and the man.” ment in 1434. The Medici ran Florence —Niccolò Machiavelli, for many decades. Lorenzo de’ Medici The Prince Niccolò ruled the city from 1469 to 1492. Machiavelli Known as “the Magnificent,” Lorenzo used his wealth to support artists, architects, and writers. Many of Italy’s Renaissance artists Why must a good leader know more than owed their success to his support. one way to fight? Politics in Italy was complicated. Within each city, the rulers had to keep the poor from614 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationArchiv/Photo Researchers
rebelling and prevent other wealthy peoplefrom seizing power. They had to make dealswith merchants, bankers, landlords, churchleaders, and mercenaries. At the same time,they had to deal with the leaders of the othercity-states. To deal with the other states aroundthem, the Italians developed diplomacy(duh • PLOH • muh • see). Diplomacy is the art This palace served as a government building in Rome for hundreds of years. What form ofof negotiating, or making deals, with other government did many of the city-states have atcountries. Each city-state sent ambassadors first?to live in the other city-states and act as rep-resentatives for their city. Many of the ideas greedy and self-centered. Rulers should notof modern diplomacy first began in Italy’s try to be good, he argued. Rather, theycity-states. should do whatever is necessary to keep How could a ruler maintain power in power and protect their city, including killingthe Italian city-states? Niccolò Machiavelli and lying. Today when we say someone is(NEE • koh • LOH MA • kee • uh • VEH • lee), a being Machiavellian, we mean they are beingdiplomat in Florence, tried to answer this tricky and not thinking about being good.question when he wrote The Prince in 1513. Compare How wereMachiavelli claimed that people were medieval and Renaissance nobles different? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. Why is the era from 1350 to 1550 in Europe called the 4. Economics Link How did Renaissance cities gain theirReview the Renaissance? wealth? Give several examples.• A rebirth of learning called the Renaissance began in wealthy 2. Why did the Renaissance begin 5. Summarize Describe the gov- Italian city-states in the 1300s. in Italy? ernments of Italian city-states during the Renaissance. Critical Thinking 3. Organizing Information Draw 6. Analyze Who were the• Italian city-states, including a diagram like the one below. Medicis and why were they Florence and Venice, grew Add details about the character- important? wealthy through trade, manufacturing, and banking. istics of the Italian Renaissance. 7. Persuasive Writing Write a letter to the editor of a Renaissance newspaper telling• In the Italian city-states, a noble’s whether you agree or disagree Italian Renaissance wealth was based on trade, rather with Machiavelli’s beliefs about than the amount of land owned. rulers and power during the Renaissance. CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 615 Araldo de Luca/CORBIS
SuperStockThe Value of City-States select a good “I tell you that you must ove ly was rnment, and ab aissance, Ita form for your new gove himself Duri ng the Ren 0 city-states. ink of making more than 2 all n o one must th ty.”divided into the city-state form h to live in liber o Savonarola, ple think that ad- head if you wis —Giro lamSome peo d idea. The le ur Final Destruc tion” of g overnm ent was a goo -states “This Will Be Yo the city hy nobles of ers and wealt iences. This p ro- antages and d isad- encouraged the arts and sc gelo, Exa mine the adv of gov- by Michelan ty-state form masterpieces uld tages of the ci ou duced others. Wo van e whether y Raphael, L eonardo, and have ernmen t. Then decid enefi- and sciences is primarily b this re birth of arts ndent ci ty- thin k this system aly’s indepe ly harmful. h appened if It cial or primari t existed? states had no ch as Girola mo r people, su Advantages: t Othe inst the city-s tate eir independen were aga • Because of th on Savonarola, After the fall of , each territory government. rence, governments able to form of ily in Flo insula was Medici fam new the Italian pen the oke out in fav or of a culture. have its own Savonarola sp tes were led b y ip: • Some city-sta s, but most were typ e of leadersh ie wealthy famil leader. Almost led by a single ltural and sci- al l supported cu - ment. The com entific advance so g city-states al petition amon t e developmen encouraged th nce. of art and scie rs helped pre- • City-state rule and teach- es serve the valu s ings of the ancient Greek They gave and Romans. sts, architects, their own arti writers oppor- scholars, and A detail from the ceiling of the Sistine dy classical tunities to stu Chapel painted by Michelangelo rpret them works and inte ays. in their own w 616 616
Disadvantages: were led by one • Many city-states people were on man. The commArchivo Iconografico, S.A./CORBIS d until they revolte often mistreated eir leaders. This and threw out th ence’s Medici happened to Flor family in 1527. ker -states were wea • The divided city would have been, y than a united Ital so they were of ten invaded by foreign groups. did not always • Smaller territories r iers to defend thei have enough sold r- ey hired mercena cities and land. Th outside armies from ies—generals and them fight. Some- their city—to help - took over the city times mercenaries red them. states that had hi , alians were poor • Because many It - ble class differ there were noticea - tates. These differ ences in the city-s ts Renaissance nobles bloody conflic ences often led to al classes. between the soci often battled with • Wealthy families s. tate rol of the city-state • Many citizen s liked their city-s each other for cont aged lers became even lp it. This encour and wanted to he • Some city-state ru eing banking and se patriotism. wealthier by over xury, rous to the citi- trade. These le aders lived in lu • Som e rulers were gene ens were very po or. r example, while many citiz zens of th eir city-states. Fo Montefeltro Duke Federigo da ino, pular ruler in Urb (1422–1482), a po a ls, churches, and bu ilt schools, hospita n money. He was library with his ow the commoners kn own for talking to poor. and helping the Checking for Understanding lped bring an end 1. Do you think that the art of the • The city-states he ing merchants, Renaissance would have been cre- mak to feudalism by d ated if Italy had not been divided ners, wealthy an as well as landow into individual city-states? Why or p between lords endi ng the relationshi why not? s. 2. Do you think Italian artists had and vassal more artistic freedom under this form of government? Why or why not? 3. Would you have enjoyed living during the Renaissance? Would you have wanted to be a ruler, noble, artist, or commoner? Why? 617
New Ideas and Art What’s the Connection? Meeting People In Section 1, you learned about Dante Alighieri (DAHN • tay the growth of Italian city-states. In A • luh • GYEHR • ee) this section, you will learn how the Johannes Gutenberg (yoh • HAHN • wealth of the city-states led to an uhs GOO • tuhn • BUHRG) age of artistic achievements. Leonardo da Vinci (LEE • uh • NAHR • doh duh VIHN • chee) Focusing on the Michelangelo Buonarroti (MY • kuh • • Humanists studied the Greeks and LAN • juh • LOH BWAW • nahr • RAW • Romans, and the development of the tee) printing press helped spread their William Shakespeare (SHAYK • SPIHR) ideas. (page 619) • Renaissance artists used new Building Your Vocabulary techniques to produce paintings that humanism (HYOO • muh • NIH • showed people in an emotional and zuhm) realistic way. (page 623) vernacular (vuhr • NA • kyuh • luhr) • Renaissance ideas and art spread Reading Strategy from Italy to northern Europe. Organizing Information Create a (page 625) diagram to show features of Renaissance art. Locating Places Art Flanders (FLAN • duhrz) 1400 1500 1600 c. 1455 1494 1512 1601 Johannes Gutenberg Leonardo Michelangelo finishes Shakespeare uses printing press begins painting painting Sistine writes to print the Bible The Last Supper Chapel’s ceiling Hamlet618 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation(cr)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (r)Art Resource, NY, (others)Mary Evans Picture Library
Roman works very well. In addition, when Renaissance Humanism(l)Maiman Rick/CORBIS Sygma, (r)Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library the Turks conquered Constantinople in Humanists studied the Greeks and 1453, many Byzantine scholars left and Romans, and the development of the printing press moved to Venice or Florence. helped spread their ideas. One famous scholar of the ancient Reading Focus Have you ever tried to draw a copy of works was Petrarch (PEH • TRAHRK). Francesco a painting you like? Is it harder to copy what other peo- Petrarch was a poet and scholar who lived ple have done or to come up with new ideas for your own in the 1300s. He studied Roman writers pictures? Read to learn how Renaissance writers bor- like Cicero and wrote biographies of rowed ideas from the past but tried to be original too. famous Romans. Petrarch encouraged Europeans to In the 1300s, a new way of understand- search for Latin manuscripts in monaster- ing the world developed in medieval ies all over Europe. In time, his efforts paid Europe. This new approach was called off and new libraries were built to keep the humanism (HYOO • muh • NIH • zuhm). It was manuscripts. The largest was the Vatican based on the values of the ancient Greeks Library in Rome. and Romans. Humanists believed that the Italians studied more than ancient individual and human society were impor- books. They studied the old buildings and tant. Humanists did not turn away from reli- statues all around them. All over Rome, one gious faith, but they wanted a balance could see workers cleaning the dirt and between faith and reason. Their new ideas rubble from broken columns and statues. encouraged men to be active in their cities Italian artists eagerly studied the propor- and achieve great things. tions of the ancient works. If they knew how long a statue’s arms were compared to Ancient Works Become Popular In the its height, they would be able to under- 1300s, Italians began to study early Roman stand why it looked so perfect. and Greek works. For most of the Middle Ages, Western Europeans knew little about ancient Greek and Roman writings. When they went on the Crusades, however, they opened trade with the Middle East and began to get information from the Arabs. Arab scholars knew classic Greek and Francesco Petrarch has been called the father Ancient Greek manuscript of Italian Renaissance on Archimedes humanism. How did Petrarch contribute to the preservation of Roman knowledge? 619
to write poems to the woman he loved, he wrote in the vernacular (vuhr • NA • kyuh • luhr). The vernacular is the everyday language people speak in a region—Italian, French, or German, for example. When authors began writing in the vernacular, many more people could read their work. Movable Type c. 1450 In the early 1300s, Dante Alighieri (DAHN • tay A • luh • GYEHR • ee), a poet of Johannes Gutenberg, a German Florence, wrote one of the world’s greatest goldsmith, built a printing press poems in the vernacular. It is called The modeled after a winepress. Once the Divine Comedy. As a young man, Dante was press was completed, Gutenberg spent active in politics, but when noble families two years printing his first book. For began fighting over power, he had to leave each page, he set metal letters in a Florence. That was when he wrote his long frame, rolled ink over the frame, and poem—more than 14,000 lines. The Divine pressed the frame against paper. Comedy tells the gripping tale of the main Around 1455, he completed printing character’s journey from hell to heaven. what is now known as the Gutenberg The horrible punishments for different sins Bible, or the 42 Line Bible. This was were vividly described. the first book printed using movable Another important writer who used the metal type, sparking a revolution in vernacular was Chaucer. Chaucer wrote in publishing and reading. English. In his famous book, The Canterbury Gutenberg Bible Tales, he describes 29 pilgrims on their journey to the city of Canterbury. The Canterbury Tales describes the levels of English society, from the nobles at the top to the poor at the bottom. The English Chaucer used in his writing is the ancestor of the English we speak today. The Printing Press Spreads Ideas The printing press was a key to the spread of humanist ideas through- out Europe. In the early 1450s, Johannes Gutenberg (yoh • HAHN • uhs GOO • tuhn • BUHRG) developed a printing press that used movable metal type. This type ofChanges in Literature During the printing press made it possible to printRenaissance, educated people wrote in many books much more quickly. With“pure” Latin, the Latin used in ancient more books available, more people learnedRome. Petrarch thought classical Latin was to read. Scholars could read one another’sthe best way to write, but when he wanted works and debate their ideas in letters.620 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationThe Pierpont Morgan Library/Art Resource, NY
Ideas grew and spread more quickly than animals, human anatomy and medicine, andever before in Europe. the stars and planets. Their study of mathe- The Chinese had already invented mov- matics helped them in many subjects.able type, but it did not work well with One of the best Renaissance scientiststheir large alphabet of characters. For was also a great artist, Leonardo da VinciEuropeans, the printing press was a big ( LEE • uh • NAHR • doh duh VIHN • chee) .improvement. It was easy to use with linen Leonardo dissected corpses to learnpaper, another Chinese invention. anatomy and studied fossils to understand Gutenberg’s Bible, printed in the 1450s, the world’s history. He was also an inventorwas the first European book produced on and an engineer.the new press. Soon books flooded Europe. Most of what we know about LeonardoAbout 40,000 books were published by comes from his notebooks. Leonardo filled1500. Half of these were religious works their pages with sketches of his scientificlike the Bible or prayer books. and artistic ideas. Centuries before the airplane was invented, Leonardo drewHow Did Humanism Affect Society? sketches of a glider, a helicopter, and aHumanist scholars studied the Greeks and parachute. Other sketches show a versionRomans to increase their knowledge of of a military tank and a scuba diving suit.many different topics. They were curious Explain What was the ben-about everything, including plants and efit of writing in the vernacular? Leonardo’s Inventions Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks contained sketches of inventions that would not be Compare Leonardo’s sketches of a produced for hundreds of years. helicopter and subway to their modern counterparts. How accurate was Leonardo? A multibarreled artillery piece A helicopter-like flying machine Cross section of a palace with subways for carriages CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 621 (l)The Art Archive/Manoir du Clos Luce/Dagli Orti, (c)Baldwin H. Ward & Kathryn C. Ward/CORBIS, (r)Alinari Archives/CORBIS
LEONARDO DA VINCI –15191452 a peasant woman Leonardo was born in Vinci, Italy, to do’s birth, she left the named Caterina. Shortly after Leonar time Leonardo was boy in the care of his father. By the had artistic talent. 15 years old, his father knew his son e an apprentice to He arranged for Leonardo to becom chio. the famous painter Andrea del Verroc ster in the painters’ By 1472, Leonardo had become a ma ce until 1481, and guild of Florence. He worked in Floren re he kept a large then he went to the city of Milan. The tices. During this time, workshop and employed many appren of paper tucked in his Leonardo began keeping small pads the drawings by theme belt for sketching. Later he organized oks. and assembled the pages into notebo d to Florence, Seventeen years later, Leonardo returne or. During this time, Leonardo da Vinci where he was welcomed with great hon pieces. He also made Leonardo painted some of his master s, observations of the scientific studies, including dissection “Nothing can be loved or flight of birds, and research on the movement of water hated unless it is first currents. known.” In 1516 Leonardo —Leonardo da Vinci accepted an invitation to live in France. The king admired Leonardo and gave him ing the freedom to pursue his interests. Dur lived in a small house near last three years of his life, Leonardo most of his time sketching the king’s summer palace. He spent s. and working on his scientific studie ity and Leonardo’s curiosity fueled his creativ created in interest in science. What invention impress The Mona Lisa by the last 100 years do you think would Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo the most? Why?(t)Timothy McCarthy/Art Resource, NY, (b)Musee du Louvre, Paris/Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock
Artists in Renaissance Italy Renaissance artists used new tech-niques to produce paintings that showed people inan emotional and realistic way.Reading Focus Have you ever had trouble makingyour drawings look real and three-dimensional? Readto learn how Renaissance artists learned to make theirart look natural and real. During the Renaissance, wealthy Italianfamilies and church leaders paid artists to The sculpture, La Pieta, by Michelangelo shows Mary holding the body of Jesus after his death.create paintings, sculptures, and buildings What did Renaissance artists try to portray infor display throughout their cities. The their works?pope himself funded many works of art todecorate the Vatican. Renaissance artists Chiaroscuro softened edges by using lightfollowed the models of the ancient Romans and shadows instead of stiff outlines to sep-and Greeks but expressed humanist ideas. arate objects. In Italian, chiaro means “clear or light,” and oscuro means “dark.”What Was New About Renaissance Art? Chiaroscuro created more drama and emo-If you compare medieval and Renaissance tion in a painting.paintings, you will see major differences intheir styles. Renaissance art tries to show The Peak of the Renaissance The artisticpeople as they would appear in real life. It Renaissance lasted from about 1350 to 1550,also tries to show people’s emotions. When but it hit its peak between 1490 and 1520. Ata medieval artist depicted the birth of Jesus, that time, three great artists were producinghe wanted to remind Christians about their their masterpieces—Leonardo da Vinci,belief that Jesus was born to save the world. Raphael Sanzio, and MichelangeloA Renaissance artist painting the same Buonarroti (MY • kuh • LAN • juh • LOH BWAW •scene might try to show how tender Mary nahr • RAW • tee).looked with her tiny baby. Although Leonardo also became a great Renaissance painters also used new tech- scientist and inventor, he trained as anniques. The most important was perspective artist. Born in 1452, he began his training in(puhr • SPEHK • tihv), a method that makes a Florence at a young age. Training in work-drawing or painting look three-dimen- shops was an old tradition, but during thesional. Artists had tried to use perspective Renaissance, individual artists began to dobefore, but Renaissance artists perfected it. something no medieval artist had done—Using perspective, objects in a scene appear they signed their own work.to be at different distances from the viewer. One of Leonardo’s most famous worksThe result is a more realistic image. is The Last Supper, which he began painting To make their paintings more realistic, in 1494 on a wall behind a church altar. HeRenaissance artists also used a technique painted on wet plaster with watercolorcalled chiaroscuro (kee • AHR • uh • SKYUR • oh). paint. A painting done this way is called a CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 623 Vatican Museums & Galleries, Rome/Canali PhotoBank
fresco (FREHS • koh), which in Italian means Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY “fresh.” Frescoes were painted in churches all over Italy. One of Leonardo’s great artistic skills is visible in The Last Supper. In this painting ofThe Life of a Renaissance Artist If a Jesus and his disciples, Leonardo was able toyoung boy in Renaissance Italy wanted show human emotions through small differ-to be an artist, he would become an ences in how each apostle held his head orapprentice at a workshop run by an the apostle’s position in relation to Jesus.established artist. The main job of Leonardo showed this skill again in the Monaapprentices was preparing materials for Lisa. People still argue about what thethe master artist and his assistants. woman in the portrait is thinking—what isApprentices used minerals, spices, egg the mystery behind her smile?yolk, and other everyday materials to Although Raphael worked at the samemix paints. They readied wax and clay time as Leonardo, he was much younger.for sculpture modeling. Eventually, Even as a young man, Raphael worked with ease and grace and became known asapprentices became assistants. Talented one of Italy’s best painters. Italians espe-assistants could become masters of cially loved the gentle Madonnas hetheir own workshops. painted. He also painted many frescoes in Master artists could afford to have the Vatican Palace. Perhaps his best-knownworkshops because of the patronage painting is the School of Athens, whichsystem in Italy. Patrons—people who depicts a number of Greek philosophers.pay to support someone else’s work— The third great Renaissance artist waswould commission, or hire, an artist to Michelangelo. Like many other artists of thecomplete a project. That artist was time, Michelangelo painted, sculpted, andusually helped by his assistants and designed buildings. He painted one ofapprentices. the best-known Renaissance works—thePatrons were ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.usually political Although he painted many outstand-and church ing works, Michelangelo was a sculptorleaders, at heart. He believed his talents were inspired by God. He carved his statues toorganizations, show perfect versions of human beingsand wealthy as a symbol of God’s beauty and perfec-bankers and tion. Michelangelo’s best-known sculp-merchants. Renaissance ture is the 13-foot-tall statue David. The painter and sculptor made David seem calm, yet ready apprentice for action. Also impressive is Michelangelo’s statue of the biblical Moses. The huge figure Connecting to the Past appears both wise and powerful. 1. What was the main job of apprentices? 2. Does the patronage system or the Compare and Contrast apprentice system exist today? If so, What were some of the differences between in what fields? medieval and Renaissance artists?
a region that is in northern BelgiumThe Renaissance Spreads today—oils let artists paint intricate details Renaissance ideas and art spread from and surface textures, like the gold braid onItaly to northern Europe. a gown.Reading Focus If you were a Canadian artist, would Jan van Eyck was a master of oil paint-your painting look different than if you lived in ing. In one of his best-known paintings, aArizona? Read to learn how the Renaissance changed as newly married couple stands side by side init moved into northern Europe. a formal bedroom. Van Eyck showed every fold in their rich gowns and every detail of In the late 1400s, the Renaissance spread the chandelier above their heads.to northern Europe and later to England. Albrecht Dürer (AHL • brehkt DUR • uhr) isThe printing press helped humanist ideas perhaps one of the greatest artists of theto spread, as did people who traveled. Northern Renaissance. Dürer was able to master both perspective and fine detail. HeWhat Is the Northern Renaissance? The is best known for his engravings. An engrav-Northern Renaissance refers to the culture ing is made from an image carved on metal,in places we know today as Belgium, wood, or stone. Ink is applied to the surface,Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. and then the image is printed on paper.Like Italian artists, northern artists wanted Dürer’s Four Horsemen of the Apocalypsetheir works to have greater realism, but they is an outstanding example of a woodcut, aused different methods. One important print made from carved wood. In it, fourmethod they developed was oil painting. fierce horsemen ride to announce the end ofFirst developed in Flanders (FLAN • duhrz)— the world.Globe TheaterWilliam Shakespeare’s plays were performed at the GlobeTheater in London. It could hold about 3,000 people. Plays were Flags announced the type of play.performed every day of the week except Sunday. White flags meant comedies, blackPerformances occurred during the day, since the flags meant tragedies, and red flagstheater had no lights. When did the Renaissance stood for history plays.spread to northern Europeand England? Wealthy and important people sat beneath the Poor commoners,covered section. called groundlings, stood on the ground for the show. They often brought fruit and vegetables to throw at actors they did not like. CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 625
Who Was William Shakespeare? InEngland, the Renaissance took place inwriting and theater more than in art. TheRenaissance began in England in the later1500s, during the rule of Elizabeth I. Theater was popular in England in the1500s. Admission was only one or two cents,so even the poor could attend. English play-wrights, or writers who create plays, wroteabout people’s strengths, weaknesses, andemotions. The greatest English writer of that erawas William Shakespeare (SHAYK • SPIHR).He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical Dürer’s Four Horsemen of the Apocalypseplays. Some of his great tragedies includeHamlet, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet. In Henry V and Richard III. Shakespeare’s playseach tragedy, the characters’ flaws cause are still performed today and remain verytheir downfall. Among his most famous popular.comedies are A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Compare How did theTwelfth Night, and Much Ado About Nothing. northern Renaissance differ from the ItalianHis best-known historical plays include Renaissance? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. Explain the beliefs of human- ists during the Renaissance. 4. Evaluate What was the importance of the printingReview the 2. Explain the artistic technique press on Renaissance society?• During the Renaissance, scholars examined the ancient works of of perspective. 5. Science Link Describe the the Greeks and Romans, began to scientific efforts and contribu- Critical Thinking write in the vernacular, and tions of Leonardo da Vinci. 3. Summarizing Information explored many scientific fields. Draw a chart like the one 6. Explain How were the ideals• Italian Renaissance artists below. Use it to describe the of the Renaissance expressed in employed new techniques and artistic work and techniques of England? Provide examples in created masterpieces of painting each artist listed. your answer. and sculpture. 7. Expository Writing Choose Leonardo da Vinci a painting or sculpture shown• As the Renaissance spread to northern Europe and England, Michelangelo in this section. In a short essay, artists and writers, such as Dürer describe the work and explain Jan van Eyck how it demonstrates and Shakespeare, created great works. Shakespeare Renaissance techniques or characteristics.626 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationSnark/Art Resource, NY
By William Shakespeare, Adapted by E. Nesbit Before You Read The Scene: This story takes place in Athens, Greece, in a legendary time when magical creatures lived among humans. The Characters: Hermia and Lysander are in love. Demetrius loves Hermia, and Helena loves Demetrius. Oberon and Titania are the King and Queen of the Fairies. The Plot: Hermia and Lysander run away to be married. Demetrius follows them because he loves Hermia. Helena follows Demetrius because she loves him. The fairies they encounter try to use magic to help the four humans. Vocabulary Preview betrayed: gave to an enemy suitor: one who wants mortal: human to marry another quarrel: argument bade: asked glade: grassy open space in a forest scheme: planHave you ever tried to help someonebut made the situation worse? Inthis story, fairies attempt to helpfour young people travelingthrough the woods, buttheir efforts do not goas planned.