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PRESENTED BY –
Venice - a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by
canals and linked by bridges. It is located in the marshy Venetian Lagoon which stretches along
the shoreline, between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Venice is renowned for the
beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. The city in its entirety is listed as a World
Heritage Site, along with its lagoon. It is best known for the many waterways which criss-cross
through it. It has developed a romantic reputation, and has a history dating from the sixth century.
The Republic of Venice was a major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance,
and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center
of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the
17th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known for
its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period. Venice has played an
important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music.
Although there are no historical records that deal directly with the founding of Venice, tradition and
the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice
consisted of refugees from Roman cities near Venice such as Padua, Aquileia, Treviso, Altino and
Concordia (modern Portogruaro) and from the undefended countryside, who were fleeing
successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions. Some late Roman sources reveal the
existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as
incolae lacunae ("lagoon dwellers").
There is evidence for a settlement in 600 CE, and this grew, having its own bishopric by the end
of the 7th century. The settlement soon had an outside ruler, an official appointed by the
Byzantine empire, which clung onto a part of Italy from a base in Ravenna. In 751, when the
Lombards conquered Ravenna, the Byzantine dux became a Venetian Doge, appointed by the
merchant families who had emerged in the town
The Venetian Lagoon is the enclosed bay of
the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice
is situated. Its name in the Italian and
Venetian language, Laguna Veneta –
cognate of Latin lacus, "lake" – has provided
the international name for an enclosed,
shallow embayment of salt water, a lagoon.
Venice Lagoon was inhabited from the most
ancient times, but it was only during and
after the fall of the Roman Empire in the
West that many people, coming from the
Venetian mainland, settled in a number
large enough to found the city of Venice.
Today, the main cities inside the lagoon are
Venice (at the centre of it) and Chioggia (at
the southern inlet); Lido di Venezia and
Pellestrina are inhabited as well, but they
are part of Venice. However, the most part
of the inhabitants of Venice, as well as its
economic core, its airport and its harbor,
stand on the western border of the lagoon,
around the former towns of Mestre and
Marghera. At the northern end of the lagoon,
there is the town of Jesolo, a famous sea
resort; and the town of Cavallino-Treporti.
The historical city is divided into six areas or "sestiere" (while the whole comune (municipality) is
divided into 6 boroughs of which one is composed of all 6 sestiere). These are Cannaregio, San
Polo, Dorsoduro (including the Giudecca and Isola Sacca Fisola), Santa Croce, San Marco
(including San Giorgio Maggiore) and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena).
Each sestiere was administered by a procurator and his staff. Nowadays each sestiere is a
statistic and historical area without any degree of autonomy.
These districts consist of parishes – initially seventy in 1033, but reduced under Napoleon and
now numbering just thirty-eight. These parishes predate the sestieri, which were created in
Other islands of the Venetian Lagoon do not form part of any of the sestieri, having historically
enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy.
Each sestiere has its own house numbering system. Each house has a unique number in the
district, from one to several thousand, generally numbered from one corner of the area to
another, but not usually in a readily understandable manner.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Venice has a Humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with
cool winters and very warm summers. The 24-hour average in January is 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and for
July this figure is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). Precipitation is spread relatively evenly throughout the year,
and averages 801 millimeters (31.5 in)
VENICE IN 5TH-9TH CENTURY
The early settlements consisted of small
Craftsmen, fishermen and salt traders
Had an urban plan with an infrastructure.
Little land for farming dependent on
Capitalized their skill in salt production and
monopolized salt trade
Traded salt and fish for grain
Established trade agreements with
communities along Po river to gain access to
mainland and forest products.
Obtained wood for shipping and trade with
middle east (for gold, spices)
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
A vassal state of byzantine empire
Could elect own leader (Doge)
Doge- most experienced official, from ruling
family, appointed for life
3-tiered government structure.
RISE OF VENICE IN 9TH-15TH CENTURY
Capable leaders contributed to the rise of Venice
Doge Peietro II Orseolo established control in Adriatic sea
Doge Enrico Dondolo directed the fourth Crusade captured Constantinople and weakened the
Doge Pietro Ziani succeeded Doge Enrico Dandolo. After the capture of Constantinople,
military outposts were set up along important trade routes to safeguard Venice’s territorial
control. This marked the beginning of Venice’s growth as a maritime empire over the
Doge Peietro II Orseolo Doge Enrico Dondolo
Reforms with in the government
Creation of the great council
Involve more nobles to serve decide on
Allow for specialization of duties in law
finance coinage, foreign relations,
Commerce and fleets
The great council (of ten)
Monitor the activities of organization to
safe –guard against corruption
Crush plots against the government
Limited the power of Doge
Preventing concentration of power
Ensure best candidates for the election
TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPENSION
Skilled diplomats- obtained favorable trading
terms (lower taxes, brought in highly prized
spices from east)
Enterprising spirit- explored new trade routes,
supplies and markets, beyond Middle Polo
Foreign traders established permanent trading
posts in the city state- Arabs. Armenians, Greek
Efficiency in managing voyages
Maritime technology led to greater efficiency in
Senate setup management system where
traders travelled in convoys (more profitable to
trade in large quantities and greater trade
Overcoming trade competition
Competition from Genoa over trade in the
Mediterranean area led to series of war. Genoa
was defeated in late 14th C, and this led to more
Venice’s strategic location at the northern tip of the Adriatic Sea, central and southern
Used a combination of land and sea routes to Arabia
Able to provide greater variety of goods than Genoa or the Hanseatic League (trading state
on North Europe
More market for traditional industries- Glass- making, Candles and scented soap
New industries such as printing emerged
More skilled craftsmen attracted to settle in Venice.
Trade related industries
Arsenal was developed into a centralized shipbuilding industries area producing great galleys.
Double-entry book keeping method (standardized columns and entries)
Giro-banking which minimizes the need for cash transactions and currency
exchanges between trades, allows for loans, and several transactions to be made in a
The venetians were highly innovative as seen in the new ways of conducting
businesses. Trade efficiency increased and Venice's economy expanded.
Controlled trade in
Mediterranean sea (through defeating
Adriatic Sea region (by suppressing pirates)
In the industries, talented craftsmen were
Trade unions and guilds were formed to
ensure job security and quality of goods
Attracted foreign talent
Promoted migration (owing to labor
Became renown as CENTRE OF THE ARTS
Government funds were provided to support
development of Universities for scientific and
IMPACT OF THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 15TH CENTURY
City is surrounded by water forces. People engage their surroundings differently than in a city
where people are isolated from the general population, car do not exist in a Venetian City.
Therefore, people have alternate means of moving through the city . Most locals funnel through
Venice through means of walking, immersing themselves in the city and the culture. This
method has proven to make Venice a more social community. People have a greater chance of
running into one another on the street by physically walking to your destination not to mention
this lifestyle promotes a healthier way of living.
CANNAREGIO- entry point for most visitors to Venice
SAN POLO- has market stalls, small shops, and local bars. Traditionally, this was a
commercial center for bankers and brokers.
DORSODURO- settlement founded by fishermen
SANTA CROCE-named after the church of Santa Croce. Traversed by the grand canal.
SAN MARCO- home of the political and the judicial centers
CASTELLO- industrial hub
MONUMENTS OF VENICE
Piazza San Marco, or St Mark's Square as it is known in English, is the centre of everyday
life in Venice. It is visited by millions of tourists annually and long ago became a world-famous
postcard motif. The reason lying behind its popularity is the abundance of landmarks that are of
great historical and cultural importance, surrounding it from all sides. The square is also lined
with chic boutiques and charming street cafes. And last, but not least, the unrivalled view over
the square and the lagoon that opens in front of your eyes from the top of the bell tower is a
great appeal to tourists. Piazza San Marco is also renowned for the thousands of pigeons that
are almost always present and are one of the favorite objects for photographing. The two
spaces together form the social, religious and political centre of Venice and are commonly
During the French occupation at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th Century,
Napoleon took over the Procuratie Nuove and turned it into his royal palace, adding a new wing,
known today as the Napoleonic Wing. The great leader is said to have pronounced the
illustrious phrase that Piazza San Marco was the finest drawing room in Europe. In spite of its
unique beauty, cultural significance and tourist appeal, the most famous spot in Venice has a big
problem: it is practically the lowest point of the city. This often results in floods caused by the
high tide in the winter months
PIAZZA SAN MARCO
The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) is one of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in
Venice, Italy. It is the oldest bridge across the canal, and was the dividing line for the districts of
San Marco and San Polo.
The present stone bridge, a single span designed by Antonio da Ponte, was finally completed in
1591. It is has two inclined ramps lead up to a central portico. On either side of the portico, the
covered ramps carry rows of shops. The engineering of the bridge was considered so audacious
that architect Vincenzo Scamozzi predicted future ruin. The bridge has defied its critics to
become one of the architectural icons of Venice.
THE RIALTO BRIDGE
Teatro La Fenice ( "The Phoenix") is an opera house in Venice, Italy. It is one of the most
famous theatres in Europe, the site of many famous operatic premieres. Its name reflects its
role in permitting an opera company to "rise from the ashes" despite losing the use of two
theatres (to fire and legal problems respectively). Since opening and being named La Fenice, it
has burned and been rebuilt twice more.
La Fenice was rebuilt in 19th-century style on the basis of a design by architect Aldo Rossi and
using still photographs from the opening scenes of Luchino Visconti's 1954 film Senso, which
was filmed in the house, in order to obtain details of its design. It reopened on 14 December
2003 with an inaugural concert of Beethoven, Wagner, and Stravinsky. The first opera
production was La traviata in November 2004.
TEATRO LA FENICE