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Town Planning- Venice

VENICE- Town Planning & History

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Town Planning- Venice

  2. 2. Venice - a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges. It is located in the marshy Venetian Lagoon which stretches along the shoreline, between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Venice is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. The city in its entirety is listed as a World Heritage Site, along with its lagoon. It is best known for the many waterways which criss-cross through it. It has developed a romantic reputation, and has a history dating from the sixth century. The Republic of Venice was a major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period. Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music.
  3. 3. ORIGIN Although there are no historical records that deal directly with the founding of Venice, tradition and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees from Roman cities near Venice such as Padua, Aquileia, Treviso, Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro) and from the undefended countryside, who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae ("lagoon dwellers"). There is evidence for a settlement in 600 CE, and this grew, having its own bishopric by the end of the 7th century. The settlement soon had an outside ruler, an official appointed by the Byzantine empire, which clung onto a part of Italy from a base in Ravenna. In 751, when the Lombards conquered Ravenna, the Byzantine dux became a Venetian Doge, appointed by the merchant families who had emerged in the town
  4. 4. LAGOONS The Venetian Lagoon is the enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. Its name in the Italian and Venetian language, Laguna Veneta – cognate of Latin lacus, "lake" – has provided the international name for an enclosed, shallow embayment of salt water, a lagoon. Venice Lagoon was inhabited from the most ancient times, but it was only during and after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West that many people, coming from the Venetian mainland, settled in a number large enough to found the city of Venice. Today, the main cities inside the lagoon are Venice (at the centre of it) and Chioggia (at the southern inlet); Lido di Venezia and Pellestrina are inhabited as well, but they are part of Venice. However, the most part of the inhabitants of Venice, as well as its economic core, its airport and its harbor, stand on the western border of the lagoon, around the former towns of Mestre and Marghera. At the northern end of the lagoon, there is the town of Jesolo, a famous sea resort; and the town of Cavallino-Treporti.
  5. 5. GEOGRAPHY The historical city is divided into six areas or "sestiere" (while the whole comune (municipality) is divided into 6 boroughs of which one is composed of all 6 sestiere). These are Cannaregio, San Polo, Dorsoduro (including the Giudecca and Isola Sacca Fisola), Santa Croce, San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore) and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena). Each sestiere was administered by a procurator and his staff. Nowadays each sestiere is a statistic and historical area without any degree of autonomy. These districts consist of parishes – initially seventy in 1033, but reduced under Napoleon and now numbering just thirty-eight. These parishes predate the sestieri, which were created in about 1170. Other islands of the Venetian Lagoon do not form part of any of the sestieri, having historically enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy. Each sestiere has its own house numbering system. Each house has a unique number in the district, from one to several thousand, generally numbered from one corner of the area to another, but not usually in a readily understandable manner.
  6. 6. Climate According to the Köppen climate classification, Venice has a Humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with cool winters and very warm summers. The 24-hour average in January is 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and for July this figure is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). Precipitation is spread relatively evenly throughout the year, and averages 801 millimeters (31.5 in)
  7. 7. VENICE IN 5TH-9TH CENTURY VENETIAN SOCIETY-  The early settlements consisted of small fishing village  Craftsmen, fishermen and salt traders  Had an urban plan with an infrastructure.  Little land for farming dependent on mainland. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES  Capitalized their skill in salt production and monopolized salt trade  Traded salt and fish for grain  Established trade agreements with communities along Po river to gain access to mainland and forest products.  Obtained wood for shipping and trade with middle east (for gold, spices) SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT  A vassal state of byzantine empire  Could elect own leader (Doge)  Doge- most experienced official, from ruling family, appointed for life  3-tiered government structure.
  8. 8. RISE OF VENICE IN 9TH-15TH CENTURY LEADERSHIP Capable leaders contributed to the rise of Venice  Doge Peietro II Orseolo established control in Adriatic sea  Doge Enrico Dondolo directed the fourth Crusade captured Constantinople and weakened the Byzantine Empire  Doge Pietro Ziani succeeded Doge Enrico Dandolo. After the capture of Constantinople, military outposts were set up along important trade routes to safeguard Venice’s territorial control. This marked the beginning of Venice’s growth as a maritime empire over the Mediterranean Sea. Doge Peietro II Orseolo Doge Enrico Dondolo Reforms with in the government Creation of the great council  Involve more nobles to serve decide on Venice's future  Allow for specialization of duties in law finance coinage, foreign relations, Commerce and fleets The great council (of ten)  Monitor the activities of organization to safe –guard against corruption  Crush plots against the government  Limited the power of Doge  Preventing concentration of power  Ensure best candidates for the election process.
  9. 9. TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPENSION  Skilled diplomats- obtained favorable trading terms (lower taxes, brought in highly prized spices from east)  Enterprising spirit- explored new trade routes, supplies and markets, beyond Middle Polo  Foreign traders established permanent trading posts in the city state- Arabs. Armenians, Greek and Africans Efficiency in managing voyages  Maritime technology led to greater efficiency in sea trade  Senate setup management system where traders travelled in convoys (more profitable to trade in large quantities and greater trade volume) Overcoming trade competition  Competition from Genoa over trade in the Mediterranean area led to series of war. Genoa was defeated in late 14th C, and this led to more trade
  10. 10. Trade monopoly  Venice’s strategic location at the northern tip of the Adriatic Sea, central and southern Europe  Used a combination of land and sea routes to Arabia  Able to provide greater variety of goods than Genoa or the Hanseatic League (trading state on North Europe
  11. 11. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Manufacturing industries  More market for traditional industries- Glass- making, Candles and scented soap  New industries such as printing emerged  More skilled craftsmen attracted to settle in Venice. Trade related industries  Arsenal was developed into a centralized shipbuilding industries area producing great galleys.
  12. 12. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES Accounting  Double-entry book keeping method (standardized columns and entries)  Giro-banking which minimizes the need for cash transactions and currency exchanges between trades, allows for loans, and several transactions to be made in a day.  The venetians were highly innovative as seen in the new ways of conducting businesses. Trade efficiency increased and Venice's economy expanded.
  13. 13. Territorial possessions Controlled trade in  Mediterranean sea (through defeating Byzantine Empire  Adriatic Sea region (by suppressing pirates) Economic Prosperity  In the industries, talented craftsmen were well-paid  Trade unions and guilds were formed to ensure job security and quality of goods produced Social transformation  Attracted foreign talent  Promoted migration (owing to labor shortage)  Cosmopolitan city  Became renown as CENTRE OF THE ARTS in Europe  Government funds were provided to support development of Universities for scientific and literary fields. IMPACT OF THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 15TH CENTURY
  14. 14. CITY PLANNING City is surrounded by water forces. People engage their surroundings differently than in a city where people are isolated from the general population, car do not exist in a Venetian City. Therefore, people have alternate means of moving through the city . Most locals funnel through Venice through means of walking, immersing themselves in the city and the culture. This method has proven to make Venice a more social community. People have a greater chance of running into one another on the street by physically walking to your destination not to mention this lifestyle promotes a healthier way of living.
  15. 15. CANNAREGIO- entry point for most visitors to Venice SAN POLO- has market stalls, small shops, and local bars. Traditionally, this was a commercial center for bankers and brokers. DORSODURO- settlement founded by fishermen SANTA CROCE-named after the church of Santa Croce. Traversed by the grand canal. SAN MARCO- home of the political and the judicial centers CASTELLO- industrial hub
  16. 16. CITY LAYOUT
  17. 17. CITY LAYOUT
  18. 18. CITY LAYOUT
  19. 19. MONUMENTS OF VENICE Piazza San Marco, or St Mark's Square as it is known in English, is the centre of everyday life in Venice. It is visited by millions of tourists annually and long ago became a world-famous postcard motif. The reason lying behind its popularity is the abundance of landmarks that are of great historical and cultural importance, surrounding it from all sides. The square is also lined with chic boutiques and charming street cafes. And last, but not least, the unrivalled view over the square and the lagoon that opens in front of your eyes from the top of the bell tower is a great appeal to tourists. Piazza San Marco is also renowned for the thousands of pigeons that are almost always present and are one of the favorite objects for photographing. The two spaces together form the social, religious and political centre of Venice and are commonly considered together. During the French occupation at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th Century, Napoleon took over the Procuratie Nuove and turned it into his royal palace, adding a new wing, known today as the Napoleonic Wing. The great leader is said to have pronounced the illustrious phrase that Piazza San Marco was the finest drawing room in Europe. In spite of its unique beauty, cultural significance and tourist appeal, the most famous spot in Venice has a big problem: it is practically the lowest point of the city. This often results in floods caused by the high tide in the winter months PIAZZA SAN MARCO
  20. 20. Piazza San Marco,
  21. 21. The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) is one of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. It is the oldest bridge across the canal, and was the dividing line for the districts of San Marco and San Polo. The present stone bridge, a single span designed by Antonio da Ponte, was finally completed in 1591. It is has two inclined ramps lead up to a central portico. On either side of the portico, the covered ramps carry rows of shops. The engineering of the bridge was considered so audacious that architect Vincenzo Scamozzi predicted future ruin. The bridge has defied its critics to become one of the architectural icons of Venice. THE RIALTO BRIDGE
  22. 22. Teatro La Fenice ( "The Phoenix") is an opera house in Venice, Italy. It is one of the most famous theatres in Europe, the site of many famous operatic premieres. Its name reflects its role in permitting an opera company to "rise from the ashes" despite losing the use of two theatres (to fire and legal problems respectively). Since opening and being named La Fenice, it has burned and been rebuilt twice more. La Fenice was rebuilt in 19th-century style on the basis of a design by architect Aldo Rossi and using still photographs from the opening scenes of Luchino Visconti's 1954 film Senso, which was filmed in the house, in order to obtain details of its design. It reopened on 14 December 2003 with an inaugural concert of Beethoven, Wagner, and Stravinsky. The first opera production was La traviata in November 2004. TEATRO LA FENICE
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VENICE- Town Planning & History


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