What was the Renaissance ?Renaissance was the period of European history marking thedecline of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world:usually considered as beginning in Italy in the 14th century.With this term we refer to the spirit, culture, art, science, andthought of this period.Characteristics of the Renaissance are usually considered toinclude intensified classical scholarship, scientific andgeographical discovery, a sense of individual human
HumanismHumanism was a cultural movement of the Renaissance, based onclassical studies. It was also a philosophical position thatstresses the autonomy of human reason in contradistinction tothe authority of the Church.Definitions1. the denial of any power or moral value superior to that ofhumanity; the rejection of religion in favour of a belief in theadvancement of humanity by its own efforts2. a philosophical position that stresses the autonomy of humanreason in contradistinction to the authority of the Church3. often capital a cultural movement of the Renaissance, based onclassical studies
The Printing PressJohannes Gutenberg - His invention of mechanical movabletype printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regardedas the most important event of the modern period.Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of aprocess for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-basedink; and the use of a wooden printing press.His truly epochal invention was thecombination of these elements intoa practical system which allowed themass production of printed books andwas economically viable for printers andreaders alike.
ScienceNicolaus Copernicus - was a Renaissance mathematician andastronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universewhich placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center.
ScienceAndreas Vesalius - was an anatomist,physician, and author ofone of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humanicorporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder ofmodern human anatomy.
ScienceMiguel Servet - was a Spanish theologian, physician,cartographer, and Renaissance humanist. He was the firstEuropean to correctly describe the function of pulmonarycirculation. He was a polymath versed in many sciences.Most copies of his book were burned shortly after its publication in1553 because of persecution of Servet by religious authorities.Three copies survived, but these remained hidden for decades.
Renaissance Art-Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts ofthat period of European history known as the Renaissance,emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel withdevelopments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music andscience. Renaissance art, perceived as a "rebirth" of ancienttraditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity.-It can be divided into two main periods:.Quattrocento - 15th Century.Cinquecento - 16th Century
ActivitiesExercises 1 and 2 on page 83Exercises 1 and 2 on page 84.
Spanish RenaissanceThe Gothic style continued to predominate inSpain until the early 16th Century.Renaissance in Spain had two possibilities theItalian tendency, not very extended, and thespanish own styles, which were two:Herrerian, and Plateresque.
Italian style in GranadaCharles V Palace in the Alhambra
The Reformation• It was a 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses inthe Roman Church ending in the establishment of theReformed and Protestant Churches.• The roots of the Reformation go back to the 14th-centuryattacks on the wealth and hierarchy of the Church made bygroups such as the Hussites. But the Reformation is usuallythought of as beginning in 1517 when Martin Luther issued95 theses criticizing Church doctrine and practice. InDenmark, Norway, Sweden, Saxony, Hesse, andBrandenburg, supporters broke away and establishedProtestant Churches, while in Switzerland a separatemovement was led by Zwingli and later Calvin.