Korea cuba and vietnam


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US history -- Korea, Cuba and vietnam

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  • US had sugar mills and refineries in Cuba, lot of investments there Batista worked with US gment Cuba and Che Guevera overthrow the Batista and install a Communist gment We put an embargo on Cuba (that’s why you can’t by Cuban cigars) Castro turns to the Soviet Union for help. For a while, they are getting like a million bucks a day from Sov Un.
  • Americans panicked….rushed to grocery stores, supermarket shelves emptied of food, water and other supplies
  • President gives express orders not to fire on the boats without his permission
  • 1 st letter analyzed – seems to be written by Krushchev under stress. Not edited before sent out b/c it has a lot of emotion in it, not politically correct 2 nd letter made them suspect Krushchev had been overthrown b/c it was much tougher, said US had to withdraw its missiles from Turkey too. We couldn’t do that….would make us look weak.
  • Korea cuba and vietnam

    1. 1. Korea, Cuba and Vietnam <ul><li>Hot Spots in the Cold War </li></ul>
    2. 2. 300px-Chosin USA_flag Image:Flag of the United Nations.svg Image:Flag of South Korea.svg Image:Flag of North Korea.svg Image:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg The Korean War 1950-1953
    3. 3. Background… <ul><li>Korea had been a unified country since the 7th century. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 19 th century, Imperial Japan began an occupation of the Korean Peninsula which lasted until the end of WW II. </li></ul><ul><li>At the close of World War II, forces of both the Soviet Union and the United States occupied the Korean peninsula. </li></ul>i_ie_en_korea_map
    4. 4. Korea - 1945 <ul><li>The Soviets imposed a communist government on North Korea, resulting in the formation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 1948, </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. imposed a nationalist/capitalist democracy on South Korea, resulting in the formation of the Republic of Korea in 1948. </li></ul>kpartition NorthKoreanFlag korea_flag
    5. 5. Post-War Plans… <ul><li>Initially, it was the intention of both sides to establish a stable and unified Korea in order to withdraw their military forces from the area. </li></ul><ul><li>However, neither the Soviet Union or the U.S. wanted the peninsula to fall into the other's hand. </li></ul><ul><li>The division of Korea that ensued set the stage for a civil war. </li></ul>Truman stalin
    6. 6. Prelude to War <ul><li>North Korean General Secretary Kim Il-Sung was intent on reuniting the peninsula under communism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An offensive against the South was planned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On January 30, 1950, Stalin, via telegram, informed Kim Il Sung that he was willing to help Kim in his plan to unify Korea . </li></ul>Kim Il Sung 1936
    7. 7. Stage 1 : North Korea attacks <ul><li>1 st Phase of Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 25, 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korea launches a surprise attack against South Korea triggering the Korean War. </li></ul><ul><li>By the night of June 28, Seoul (capital of South Korea) had fallen and the South Korean forces were in disarray. </li></ul>Korea map 1
    8. 8. United Nations Involvement <ul><li>The United Nations Security Council called for an immediate end to hostilities . </li></ul><ul><li>When its further demand that North Korea withdraw forces from the southern half of the Korean peninsula fell on deaf ears, the UN Security Council recommended that members of the United Nations join forces to repel the attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-one nations agreed to contribute arms, money, medical supplies, and/or troops to rid South Korea of the Communist aggressor . </li></ul>The Korean War: The UN Offensive
    9. 9. United Nations Force <ul><li>Gen. Douglas MacArthur was put in charge of the U.N. Command, which included combat and medical units from 22 nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States provided 50% of the ground forces (South Korea provided most of the remainder), 86% of the naval power, and 93% of the air power. </li></ul>h62439
    10. 10. Stage 2: Americans pushed to the Pusan Perimeter <ul><li>Unable to slow the enemy advance, the Americans and South Koreans fought desperate delaying operations, buying time with blood as more American units were rushed to Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of July 1950, the North Koreans had pushed the U.N. forces to the southeast corner of the peninsula, where they dug in around the port of Pusan. </li></ul>Korea map 2
    11. 11. Stage 3: Inchon <ul><li>MacArthur completely changed the course of the war overnight by ordering an amphibious invasion at the port of Inchon, near Seoul. </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans quickly gained control of Inchon, recaptured Seoul within days, and cut the North Korean supply lines. </li></ul><ul><li>American and South Korean forces broke out of the Pusan Perimeter and chased the retreating enemy north. </li></ul>Korea map 3
    12. 12. Stage 4: Approaching the Yalu <ul><li>Despite warnings from the Chinese that &quot;American intrusion into North Korea would encounter Chinese resistance,&quot; MacArthur's forces continued to push north. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 25, 1950, however, things turned ominous. The Chinese army, which had been massing north of the Yalu River after secretly slipping into North Korea, struck with considerable force. </li></ul>Korea map 4
    13. 13. Stage 5: An entirely new war <ul><li>Roughly 180,000 Chinese troops shattered the right flank of the US Eighth Army in the west, while 120,000 others threatened to destroy the X Corps near the Chosin Reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>On November 28, a shaken MacArthur informed the Joint Chiefs, &quot;We face an entirely new war.&quot; </li></ul>Korea map 5
    14. 14. Stage 6: Stalemate Korea map 6 <ul><li>Beginning January 15, 1951, U.N. troops began a slow advance northward, in what his troops began to call the &quot;meatgrinder.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Inflicting heavy casualties on the Chinese and North Koreans, the U.N. eventually recaptured Seoul. </li></ul><ul><li>In the meantime, General MacArthur had been steadily pushing Washington to remove the restrictions on his forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only did Truman decline for fear of widening the war, but he fired MacArthur, who had been publicly challenging him for months, for insubordination on April 11. </li></ul>
    15. 15. McArthur in Front of Congress Apr 19, 1951 mccarthur in front of Congress.jpg
    16. 16. Ceasefire Agreement <ul><li>The Korean War end, when an armistice (cease-fire) was signed on July 27, 1953. </li></ul><ul><li>The armistice was only intended as a temporary measure and provided for : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A suspension of open hostilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A fixed demarcation line with a four kilometer (2.4 mile) buffer zone - the so-called demilitarization zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEE next slide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mechanism for the transfer of prisoners of war. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. mirador
    18. 19. 20100506_north_korea_dmz_war02.jpg
    19. 20. Results/Outcomes/Casualties <ul><li>The Korean War was the first armed confrontation of the Cold War, and it set a model for many later conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>It created the idea of a limited war, where the two superpowers would/could fight without using nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>It also expanded the Cold War, which to that point had mostly been concerned with Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The total number of deaths, including all civilians and military soldiers from UN Nations and China, was about 2,000,000. </li></ul><ul><li>US had 54,000 deaths. </li></ul>
    20. 21. http://www.webresourcesdepot.com/wp-content/uploads/image/free-vector-world-map.gif Soviet Union U.S.A. http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg http://trit.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/nuclear-missiles-691.jpg Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis
    21. 22. Why Cuba? <ul><li>Cuba, small island, 90 miles from coast of Florida </li></ul><ul><li>US ally, US businesses & US military base (Guantanamo) </li></ul><ul><li>1959, Fidel Castro overthrows Batista (US-backed dictator), establishing Communist government. </li></ul>young_castro_2.jpg image by fuknsatch
    22. 23. <ul><li>Castro takes over US businesses </li></ul><ul><li>January 1961, US breaks off diplomatic relations </li></ul><ul><li>April, 1961, Bay of Pigs – 1,400 anti-Cuban exiles (supported by the CIA) attempted to overthrow Castro. The attempted invasion was a disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>Autumn 1962 -- Cuba received 1000s of USSR missiles, jets, boats & personnel </li></ul>http://news.bbc.co.uk/olmedia/1235000/images/_1235128_cuba_bay_of_pigs_map150.gif
    23. 24. Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba? <ul><li>Cuba was a new Communist state </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba provided a launch base for USSR inter-continental missiles (ICMs) </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president, JFK </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over US missile in Europe </li></ul>http://amhist.ist.unomaha.edu/module_files/castro-khrushchev-2.jpg Uncle Fidel with Soviet leader Uncle Nikita Khrushchev
    24. 25. October Crisis photo taken from US spyplane above Cuba <ul><li>14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane takes photos of suspected USSR missile sites on Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Sites nearing completion, experts believe they could be ready in 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>US spy planes identify 20 Soviet ships bound for Cuba carrying missiles </li></ul>
    25. 26. http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/lae/images/LE283L3.jpg http://www.classbrain.com/artteenst/uploads/cuban-missiles.jpg cuba, ship
    26. 27. map showing location of Cuba & range of Cuban missiles
    27. 28. What was JFK to do? <ul><li>20 October, Kennedy decides to quarantine (blockade) Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>22 October, Kennedy publicly calls on Khrushchev to remove weapons </li></ul>map of US blockade
    28. 29. Soviet Response map of US blockade <ul><li>23 October Khrushchev refuses to acknowledge blockade or presence of Soviet missiles on Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>24 October, 1 st Soviet ships (accompanied by submarines) approach exclusion zone </li></ul>
    29. 30. Soviet Response part 2 <ul><li>24 October, 10:32 am, Soviet ships stop and turn round </li></ul><ul><li>25 October, aerial photos show continued construction of missile sites </li></ul><ul><li>26 October, Kennedy receives a letter offering to negotiate over missiles in Cuba with removal of blockade and US invasion threat </li></ul><ul><li>27 October, Kennedy receives second letter calling for withdrawal of US missiles in Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>28 October, Khrushchev agrees to dismantle Soviet missiles in Cuba </li></ul>
    30. 31. What was the outcome? <ul><li>Cuba remained Communist & heavily armed (without nuclear missiles) </li></ul><ul><li>Both leaders didn’t lose face and came away with concessions </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent hotline between White House & Kremlin set up </li></ul><ul><li>Supported theory of containment & co-existence because alternatives unimaginable </li></ul>http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw3584.gif
    31. 32. 03252 The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975
    32. 33. PHASE 1 - A WAR OF COLONIAL INDEPENDENCE AGAINST THE FRENCH <ul><li>Vietnam had been a French </li></ul><ul><li>colony under the name of </li></ul><ul><li>French Indochina (along with </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia and </li></ul><ul><li>Laos) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam began to fight for its independence from France during WW II ( when France was preoccupied with European conflict) </li></ul><ul><li>the Vietnamese revolutionary leader was Ho Chi Minh, a Communist </li></ul><ul><li>wanted to be the leader of </li></ul><ul><li>an independent, communist Vietnam; Ho received support </li></ul><ul><li>from both the USSR and China </li></ul>indoch ho-chi-minh-1-sized
    33. 34. <ul><li>this colonial war raged from 1946-54, ending in French defeat at Dienbienphu </li></ul><ul><li>France decided it wanted out and called a peace conference in Geneva, Switzerland (attended by France, Vietnam, the US, and the USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>the decision of the conference was to partition Vietnam into a communist North led by Ho and a “democratic” South Vietnam led by Ngo Dinh Diem </li></ul><ul><li>the settlement was an outgrowth of basic Cold War tensions between the Americans and Soviets and clearly reflected the US policy of containment with respect to Soviet communist expansionism </li></ul><ul><li>the US had come to see South Vietnam as a “domino” that they couldn’t afford to lose </li></ul>DienBienPhu images
    34. 35. PHASE 2 – AMERICAN ESCALATION AND MILITARY INVOLVEMENT <ul><li>The U.S. never formally </li></ul><ul><li>issued a declaration of war, but </li></ul><ul><li> after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, </li></ul><ul><li>where two American </li></ul><ul><li>destroyers were apparently </li></ul><ul><li>fired upon by the North </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese, Congress </li></ul><ul><li>passed the Gulf of Tonkin </li></ul><ul><li>Resolutions (August 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>- here Congress gave LBJ </li></ul><ul><li>their support in sending </li></ul><ul><li>American personnel and material </li></ul>johnson%20and%20gulf%20of%20tonkin
    35. 36. <ul><li>in spite of ongoing escalation </li></ul><ul><li>throughout the 1960s, the US </li></ul><ul><li>experienced a lack of success </li></ul><ul><li>against the Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>guerrilla forces in S. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam (the Vietcong) as the </li></ul><ul><li>US Army was unprepared for </li></ul><ul><li> their tactics and mentality. </li></ul><ul><li>The US was also never entirely </li></ul><ul><li>successful in shutting </li></ul><ul><li> down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, a </li></ul><ul><li> supply line that ran between </li></ul><ul><li> North and South Vietnam via </li></ul><ul><li> difficult jungle terrain, </li></ul><ul><li>often underground and </li></ul><ul><li>through neighboring nations </li></ul><ul><li> like Cambodia </li></ul>hochiminh HCM_Trail
    36. 37. <ul><li>the war definitely turned against the US in 1968, when the NVA began the Tet Offensive, a surprise offensive on a major Vietnamese holiday that saw attacks all over the country, including in Saigon itself </li></ul><ul><li>ongoing US casualties and losses saw an increase in antiwar sentiment on the American Home Front, </li></ul><ul><li>in large part because Vietnam was a TV War where American audiences saw the brutality of war firsthand </li></ul>tetoffensive knifedtet
    37. 38. Columbia University 1967 Columbia Students-1967 Anti-War Demonstrations
    38. 39. Counterculture gathered momentum (Hippies, Flower Children, etc.), protests became widespread and began to polarize the nation Intensified after the Kent State Massacre in 1970 <ul><ul><li>National Guardsmen opened fire on student protestors in Ohio, killing 4, wounding 11 </li></ul></ul>5414 Anti-War Demonstrations
    39. 40. <ul><li>increasingly the American people came to perceive the “Credibility Gap”, i.e. they no longer </li></ul><ul><li>believed that LBJ was telling them the truth about events in the war </li></ul><ul><li>in 1968, LBJ chose not to run for president, and Republican Richard M. Nixon was elected on a platform of “Peace with Honour ” </li></ul>300px-Richard_Nixon_campaign_rally_1968
    40. 41. <ul><li>Nixon wanted the South Vietnamese to play a greater role in the war, a policy he labeled Vietnamization </li></ul><ul><li>in spite of that, he continues carpet bombing Hanoi and orders a secret invasion of Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>He relied on the diplomacy of Henry Kissinger to achieve peace and/or an American withdrawal </li></ul>B52Original kissinger%2019750429
    41. 42. PHASE 3 – VIETNAMESE CIVIL WAR, 1973-75 <ul><li>the NVA easily defeated the South by 1975; the South had appealed to Nixon for aid, but none came </li></ul><ul><li>1975 – the US abandoned its embassy in Saigon, which was renamed </li></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh City in the newly unified and communist Vietnam </li></ul> South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country
    42. 43. The Fall of Saigon Vietnam America Abandons Its Embassy
    43. 44. <ul><li>3,000,000 Vietnamese killed </li></ul><ul><li>58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Under-funding of Great Society programs </li></ul><ul><li>$150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. morale, Self-confidence, trust of government, decimated </li></ul><ul><li>26 th Amendment: 18-year-olds vote </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer army </li></ul><ul><li>War Powers Act, 1973 – Reaffirms Congress’s constitutional right to declare war. Sets 60 day limit on presidential commitment of U.S. troops for foreign conflicts without a specific declaration of war by Congress. </li></ul>The Impact
    44. 45. Formerly Saigon A United Vietnam