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Contents Page
1 Preface 7
2 Objectives of the process covering special characteristics;
definitions and limitations 8
3 Categories of special characteristics 11
4 The process of applying special characteristics in the
product creation process 13
4.1 Description of the development process sequence 15
4.1.1 Requirements regarding the concept 16
4.1.2 Concept filter 16
4.1.3 Requirements regarding the design 17
4.1.4 Design filter 17
4.2 Description of the process sequence in production 18
4.2.1 Requirements regarding production planning 19
4.2.2 Production planning filter 19
4.2.3 Requirements regarding the production process filter 20
4.2.4 Production process filter 20
4.3 References to validation methods 21
4.4 Expanded details of the process description covering
significant and critical characteristics 22
4.5 Identification 23
4.6 Consequences 23
4.6.1 Recommended activities in product development 24
4.6.2 Recommended activities in process development 24
4.7 Documentation and archiving 25
5 Interaction with the FMEA 27
4 5
28 Process description covering special characteristics
30 1 Preface
33
36 This VDA publication serves as a starting point for determining, specifying,
39 tracking, documenting and archiving special characteristics.
47
Throughout the supply chain, special characteristics
59 - are to be agreed between customer and supplier and
83 are to be identified within an organisation.
87
This publication is a recommendation for the practical use of significant and
critical characteristics, while complying with the framework conditions set out
in standards and in legislation.
As a process model the VDA publication "Maturity Level Assurance for new
Parts" has been taken by way of example. If preferred, a company's own in-
10 house product creation process can be used.
This 2nd edition updates the changes of the process description due to the
revisions of 4th edition of VDA Volume 1 "Documented Information and
Retention", the 1St edition of IATF 16949:2016-10 "Quality management
system requirements for automotive production and relevant service parts
organizations", and the 1st edition of "AIAG & VDA FMEA Handbook".
Additional changes of links to standards and VDA Volumes are updated.
12
13
15
18
A Appendix
A.1 Example: Fuel tank vent
A.2 Example: Light sensor
A.3 Example: Headlights
A.4 Example: Input shaft to steering system
A.5 Example: Steering wheel interlock
A.6 Example: Electric parking brake
A/ Example: Electronic control unit earthing cable
A.8 Example: Sliding roof drive motor
List of figures:
Figure 1: How robust design and robust processes influence special
characteristics
Figure 2: Lots of characteristics
Figure 3: Maturity level model from VDA Volume
"Maturity level assurance for new parts"
Figure 4: Development process sequence
Figure 5: Process sequence in production
The terms "major characteristics" and "critical characteristics" are replaced by
"special characteristics".
6 7
2 Objectives of the process covering
Special Characteristics; definitions and limitations
The objective of this process description is to describe a multidisciplinary
approach, to:
• to identify special characteristics,
• to classify special characteristics,
• to document special characteristics, and
• to establish safeguards (quality control loops) in the entire value
stream, in order to assure an efficient and effective production control.
The purpose of the method is:
• to promote pre-emptive functional and manufacturing robustness,
• to improve product quality in terms of safety, compliance with regulatory
as well as legal requirements and functional fulfilment,
• to create a common understanding of characteristics management in
the involved areas(e.g. product view vs. process view),
• to minimize manufacturing defects,
• to optimize inspection costs and
• to make sure that appropriate safeguards are defined for confirmed
special characteristics
Systems, components or parts with an immediate influence on:
• safety
• compliance with type approval relevant, legal and regulatory
requirements
• function
may require extra care and attention.
The following is understood by special care:
• design and assurance of the function or characteristics by means of
suitable design solutions (robust design).
• design and execution of manufacturing processes using suitable
process solutions (robust process)
• Identification of special characteristics
• safeguarding the special characteristics by means of suitable process
control measures, such as
1. compliance with process parameters (e.g.. process capabilities (Ppk),
failure rates (ppm))
2. failure detection inspections.
Among other matters, this care and attention refers to requirements which
extend over and above the general technical care required, where one or more
of the following aspects may be involved.
Development process
➢ Design of characteristics
➢ Ensuring the function required
➢ Calculations and simulation
➢ Tests and trials
➢ Monitoring during operation
➢ Validation of fail-safe features, robust operation)
➢ Emergency running concepts
➢ Acceptance checks and releases
➢ Documentation and archiving
Production process
➢ Process design
➢ Process, measurement and test/inspection equipment capability
➢ Process control covering manufacturing, test/inspection, maintenance,
handling, storage, packing, conservation, shipping, transport fixings and
transport
➢ Documentation and archiving
➢ Traceability
➢ Certification for customers
The extra work which may be involved with the heightened level of care and
attention is justified by the possible consequences of a failure of the function.
Characteristics of a product which do not have adequate robustness, which
are difficult to comply with in production and which, in the event of deviation,
lead directly to serious consequences can be identified as special
characteristics. Special characteristics are suitable to communicate and
safeguarded in the supply chain.
8 9
functional robust not functional robust
Design robust to fulfill the function?
Figure 1: How robust design and robust processes influence special characteristics
Special characteristics here are the result of a multidisciplinary decision-
making process. Taking into account the product and process development
results, a decision is made on the identification of special characteristics.
"As much as necessary; as little as possible" is the watchword in guaran-
teeing adequate security. These mean that, the more robust and validate the
design, the fewer special characteristics will be necessary.
Special characteristics are characteristics which require special care and are
not controlled by other processes.
The expression "other controlled processes" covers processes which (like the
special process) classify characteristics and, if appropriate, define any
requirements over and above the general technical level of care required.
Examples include:
ISO 26262 - Road vehicles — Functional safety,
ISO 14001 - Environmental management systems
ISO 45001 - Occupational health and safety management systems
2000/53/EG Vehicle end-of-life directive
VDA 4994 - Global Transport Label
3 Categories of Special Characteristics
Special characteristics are a subset of the total characteristics. Nature of
special characteristics, the non-fulfilment or non-compliance with which has
consequences/effects that can be categorised as follows:
cc/s cc = critical characteristics. Safety/security requirements/product
safety/safety-relevant consequences with immediate danger to life
and limb. The causal relationship between the characteristics and its
consequences must be predictable and must not be outside the
realm of probability.
Criteria may be:
➢ Protection for passengers in accidents
➢ Prevention of:
• momentary loss of sight of the road
• brake failure
• steering failure
• drive function failure
• sudden loss of power
• uncontrolled drive
• leakage of fuel / risk of fire
• insecure loads / trailers / parts
• injury when travelling or when using the vehicle in any way
cc/h cc = critical characteristics. Homologation relevant, legal and public
authority requirements at the time the product is introduced to the
market.
➢ Registration-related (e.g.., locking system, headlights)
➢ Homologation (e.g.., exhaust gases, vehicle emissions,
regulations issued by vehicle registration authorities)
➢ Legislation-related (recycling, warranty)
sc/f sc = significant characteristics. Functions and requirements
➢ Important functional requirements
(4 F (Form, Fit, Function and perFormance), tolerances, etc.).
10 11
Specifying Iha
supply 1.11,1111 Mid
phelepthe opled
1:eluese of
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speceficelions
olpplclfell or
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Intl plocluchen
1,11illes evadable
Proress
precleel
approval
.••••••...
PlOf 03111[1112
Pop I,nsfer ul
l'iodechon S1.111
ierioalillcallon
21 ktiVArra• 1 Pr duct .5.1 Process 51 PPA 51 PPA 71 Chow
rkirariapmtiori dev4k/94nOnt 44,o/okoroni (Prodikciitin (Production RILII*16.16
22 F4oXv74411.1411 3.2 Process
devekVvrriort
4.2 Process
validation
POCOst and
PrOdgel
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3.4
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3B
FOadirtil
validation
Full
Production
verification
Process
validation
54.00y OWN
13
4.4
415
PPA
(Production
process and
product
approval)
Product
devetitipmtibt
SOP*"
IM
52
5.2
5A
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Product
development
Process
validation
62
AppaP.6
Sur:Ark/Om
Supply of
parts
73
74
Process
validation
Full
Production
verification
dewklyerwra
Risk
morrawrronl
7.7 FkiXiv41
vetidalion
Supply of
pads
Su ply of
014IA
20 PPA
(Production
process and
product
approval)
31 Risk
ortienlornehl process
29 Process
validation
2.10 Change
rPnengerpnnt
4 The process of applying special characteristics in the
product creation process
all Characteristics
CheraclerislIcs
deslun concept not totItist
Characteristics
design nol roLuss
Characteristics (Geis, ccin, WI)
ManorecturIng process not rails(
= special charecteriste
As a process model the VDA publication "Maturity level assurance for new
parts" has been taken as an example. If preferred, a company's own in-house
product creation process can be used. The requirements relating to
significant and critical characteristics must be taken into account when car-
rying out maturity level assurance.
The considerations highlighted in the following illustration show areas with a
direct relationship to significant and critical characteristics.
Concept phase Production
* or via customer specifications
Figure 2: Lots of characteristics
oug....f4Airrono
D Note 1:
D Note 2:
D Note 3:
1 Vrolrul
management
12 Frocidemerd•
process
13 Product
development
14 Innovation/
LcoricepV
o.1:44
15 Supply dram/
Supply of
pads
16 Product
validation
17 Risk
man0#1
,
11,111n1.
reecpprorpeple
rnallegereepl
ter 111P corilreLl
le be issued
Term related to characteristics see DIN EN ISO 9000:2015/3.10
Special characteristics see IATF 16949:2016-10/8.3.3.3.
The categories cc/s, cc/h and sc/f are neutral, informative
terms and are not prescriptive. They are put forward as
proposals to achieve desired uniformity.
111110,1.,
leloase fof lull
production
developmeel
0.1 Project
management
0,2 Innovation/
concept/
reliability
03 Procurement
process
04 Risk
management
Figure 3: Maturity level model from VDA Volume "Maturity level assurance for new parts"
The following sequential illustration is provided for clarity. The process model
is based on simultaneous engineering, in which process steps overlap in
terms of time.
The customer can request special characteristics.
The supplier negotiates
• the special characteristics requested by the customer,
• coordinates with the development and production department regarding
feasibility, testing concept and effort,
12 13
MLO
Innevollort WORN rye
lull plod.01E>m development
S c-
Mid
POMP
Mono-
rtesce
•System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safety requirements
FungiInn, and !
Concept filter
Concept Yellcfated?
t
m
l:Clul
v
rtZ
s
rl
i.
lsn
t
:
charectsfishics
Concnpi chang '
Requirements mon For
the contract to be Issuocli
Concept
change
Relevant functions, requirements and
characteristics for
Safety, registration and function
Detailed description; performance
specification; experience from
 previous projects; design layout; .-•
simulation; trials;
Spec
[Dad
special
thalat-
todstics
Prototype CP
Design filter
Design validated?
Design change
possible?
Design
change
Specifying the supply chain
and placing the order
ML3
Relearol Oflethrtkel
No special
characteristics as
validation by
robust design
is documented
Technical documentation Incl.
specified special characteristics
Concept, requirements & functions at vehicle level,
experience from previous projects,
safety requirements, homologation-relevant,
legal and public authority regulations,
customer requirements
• takes the additional expenditure into account in negotiations with the
customer, and
• makes a contractual agreement with the customer until the project starts.
If special characteristics specified by the supplier require measures to be
taken by the customer, the supplier agrees these measures with the cus-
tomer.
The multidisciplinary team must not filter out the agreed special character-
istics required by the customer.
14
4.1 Description of the development process sequence
Time Workflow Characteristics
neeciectlione
Figure 4: Development process sequence
15
Special characteristics which have already been specified must be included
directly in the technical documentation of the development, with no filtering.
In the design filter the first step is to determine whether the design is
validated and secure.
Methods for validation are set out
in Section 4.3 "References to
validation methods".
Relevant characteristics validated
by robust design (see Section 4.4)
or secured design are no Special
Detaileddescription,perk...Mance
iiPeCifIcallenioNkqUiles from
prouleIZ:Z.
tel
h
irlayout;
assessment; verlikellOn
Design
change
No special
charecterietles se
validation try
mann design
II docurosniad
Characteristics and are not
any further.
Otherwise, a design modification must be considered.
The validation must be demonstrated and documented.
Itahnirsidotornernittorilmi.
seedbedspecial cliaractigestla
Prototype CP
.
;
Requirements mornt for
the contract la be issued
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safely requirements
C
oncept
hange
f runaoau.• I
s":2M11,1=2°'"
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safety requirements
Relevant functions, requirements and
charactedslies for
registration and function
4.1.1 Requirements regarding the concept
As a first step an examination is made (
rao
of the relevant functions and require- .
ments regarding the vehicle concept
and experience from previous projects.
System layout, requirements specifi-
cations and safety demands form the
basis for the risk analysis.
In addition, there are different types of failure and their consequences. These
results flow into the concept filter so that relevant functions, requirements and
characteristics can be determined.
4.1.2 Concept filter
The special characteristics agreed with the customer and specified by him
from functions, safety requirements or legal and public authority specifica-
tions are to be taken over directly without filtering. Special characteristics
from previous projects are passed through the filter and do not necessarily
have to be adopted.
In the concept filter the first step is to clarify if the concept is validated.
Methods of concept validation
are set out in Section 4.3:
"References to validation
methods".
In terms of the concept,
requirements can be validated
by, for example:
• error tolerances
• redundancies
• secure fall-back levels
Functions and requirements which have been validated in the concept are no
special characteristics and need not be tracked further.
The validation must be demonstrated and documented.
In the case of functions, requirements and characteristics not validated by the
existing concept, a change in the concept is considered.
16
If a change in the concept is not possible, or if the concept change does not
result in successful validation, these functions, requirements and
characteristics are considered further in the design.
4.1.3 Requirements regarding the design
The non-validated functions
and requirements which have
been identified are taken into
account when drawing up the
performance specification and
deciding on the course of the
development.
The information gained from the detailed description, from the performance
specification, together with experience from previous projects and layouts, as
well as the results of simulations, trials, assessments and verifications are
also included in the design filter for further consideration.
If a prototype control plan (prototype CP) is required, the relevant character-
istics are included in this.
4.1.4 Design filter
The special characteristics which have been specified and have been
identified with the aid of the filters must be recorded in the technical
17
Concept, requirements & functions at vehicle
level, experience from previous projects,
safely requirements. hornologation-relevant,
legal and public authority regulations,
customer requirements
Relevant!unctions 1.1W(Irttonit thntl
Characteristics for
1....._lafety, registration and function_,
"710211,",:tdt' 'V
Detailed description; performance
specification. exponsoce from
prevlotrs
.
p=s
;
;
;
trlayout;
assessment; verification
I Prototype CP 1
Menulestuiln ratodbikty study
and lestablely enalyMs; risk
enalyett; productionphoning;
teat camp
Not sufficient secured
special characteristics
(Concept Phase, Robust
litHea.allechoylcel
some
Design) are to be analyzed
and documented within
the framework of the
manufacturing feasibility study and testability analysis, risk analysis,
production planning and the test/inspection concept. The results must be
documented in the pre-launch control plan (pre-launch CP).
documentation for the project and must be forwarded to the production
planning department and, if appropriate, also to the customer.
4.2 Description of the process sequence in production
Time Workflow Characteristics
Technical documentation incl
.
specified special characteristks
Manufacturing feasibility study
and Otstsefley analysis; task
altslyelE ptaductlonplanning;
fast concept
aae 011.lent
end...inns
Pnlatditilieh OP
V
Special characteristics to be
validated by process layout
Manufacturing feasibility study
and testability analysis; risk
analysis; production planning'
test concept
Production-
concept
change
Special
characteristics nor
tricked further es
validation is
documentedby
sibustpromise
Control Plan
Lessons
teamed
Validation of
production concept,
lest/Inspection planning
sloavoube soling
Comodmiled
nouts.
pro..
cep.
Product:an tool oar. and
1..11. ant etwiebte
Production process filter
Prodeatenproms vseldsiedi
-- Production proems
chomp possible?
Sewell
ebencieriellos not
incitedfurther as
validationle
documentedby
t robust amebae
Special characteristics
requiring
process control
Production process and
product approval (PPP)
Project closure
Responsibility transferred
le Production
Stert requallflcallon
Figure 5: Process sequence in production
18
4.2.1 Requirements regarding production planning
4.2.2 Production planning filter
Predefined special characteristics (Customer or own definition) must be
adopted directly in the next stage without filtering.
In the production planning
filter it must be clarified
whether the production
concept is validated and
therefore secured.
Production plennIng fillor
F
t
;
r:'
ecitZtorthe
bi" re]
dmsfritented
v,eldetionla
thaleasaint
Methods for validation are set
out in Section 4.3: "References
to validation methods".
Specinichat:amorist:Ls tobe
valideted by process layout
V
Production
contopl
change
hiaredaClerblitiealdbaay May
and testability outlets;risk
enelyels; productionplumage
aalcomp
Characteristics which have been
validated in the production concept are no special characteristics and are not
tracked any further.
Validation of the production concept must be demonstrated and documented.
If special characteristics cannot be validated by the production concept, the
first step is to consider a change to the product concept. If a change is not
possible of if the change does not result in successful validation, the
characteristics must be carried forward to the production process filter.
19
L
Technical documentation incl.
specified special characteristics
V
Spacial charactetislict to be
validated by process layout
s
Validation of
production concept,
test/Inspection planning
ML4
runt
da-oan
Validation of
production concept,
test/Inspection planning
Lessens
armed
Production rocess fi ter
pemtevrellet•OZ
pertibas?
A
Special characteristics
requiring
process control
SPeCtal
charealattailac 1101
backed further.
validationIs
documented
by robust process
Control Pion
Production-
process
change
'
ct
aral
br.pm, oal q.1•Al
4.2.3 Requirements regarding the production process filter
The validation of the production concept and
test/inspection planning can generate indicators
for further special characteristics in the process.
The special characteristics to be secured
are further considered.
4.2.4 Production process filter
Special characteristics may require special process control, if
• they are extremely sensitive to manufacturing conditions and/or the
slightest changes in material characteristics
• the manufacturing tolerances can be maintained only with considerable
effort.
Special characteristics already specified must be carried forward directly.
In the production process filter it is clarified whether the special characteristics
are validated and secured by the production process.
Methods for validation are
set out in Section 4.3:
"References to validation
methods".
The characteristics which
have been validated and
secured by a robust
production process are no
special characteristics and
are not tracked any further.
The robust production
process must be proven
and documented.
If special characteristics cannot be validated and secured by the production
process, the first step is to consider a change to the production process. If a
change is not possible of if the change does not result in successful
validation, the characteristics and the methods used to check and monitor
them are incorporated in the control plan (serial CP).
If special characteristics cannot be checked directly on the product, the
necessary associated process parameters must be monitored, and the
product must be checked on a random sample basis.
The results of the checks and monitoring must be recorded.
4.3 References to validation methods
Risk detection and actions to minimize risks, including verification and
validation of the implementation of these actions, are among the methods
used to validate and secure product and process.
Methods of risk analysis and risk assessment are described in VDA
publications, among others, such as:
>. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
➢ Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
The most important elements in all risk analyses are:
)=• Functions
)=. Characteristics
➢ Possible failure modes; deviations; non-conformances
➢ Possible effects of failure modes
➢ Risk assessment
➢ Specifying appropriate actions
Alternatively, the following activities can also be carried out:
)=. Design of Experiment (DoE)
➢ Hazard analysis and risk assessment (HARA)
)%. Event Tree Analysis (ETA )
➢ Value Analysis (VA) / Value Engineering (VE)
➢ List comparison
)=. Team of experts
Completion of
Production planning
nic000rtiorcheorett
israoruHossur thortacnon.
20 21
4.4 Expanded details of the process description covering Proof of robust process is the obligation of the process planning department
responsible and can be provided, e.g.. by capability certification.
Control Plan (CP)
significant and critical characteristics
Premises
➢ The special characteristics must be determined on an inter-disciplinary
basis.
➢ Experience gained from previous projects is an input factor in determin-ing
significant and critical characteristics.
➢ Special characteristics must be determined without any consideration of
the work involved, within the framework of what is specified as legally
reasonable.
➢ Experience from product observation must be taken into account.
➢ If changes are made to product and/or process the exercise of deter-
mining special characteristics must be carried out again. This applies
particularly where production is transferred to another location.
➢ A proportion of safety-relevant critical characteristics and homologation-
related characteristics may be specified by the customer. However, as a
general principle, the supplier must also, on his own responsibility, identify
special characteristics.
Robust design
The term "robust design" describes a design which reacts without undue
sensitivity to fluctuations and interference factors (for example, if individual
features exceed tolerance limits), i.e.. it continues demonstrably to fulfil the
functions which are expected and required.
Proof of robust design is the obligation of the development function
responsible and can be provided, e.g.. by Design of Experiments (DoE).
Robust process
"Robust process" is understood as a process which reacts without undue
sensitivity to fluctuations and interference factors (e.g.., voltage fluctuations;
insulation defects on varnished wire, tool wear), i.e.. the manufactured product
traceable continues to perform as required, see the VDA publication: " Robust
production process".
The control plan describes the planned activities to validate and secure the
product and process characteristics. The control plan is defined in IATF
16949:2016-10/8.5.1.1 and in the appendix A.
4.5 Identification
To IATF 16949:2016-10/8.3.3.3 the special characteristics are to be marked
with symbols and documented in product production documents which
indicate the inquiry and introduction or measures control for these special
characteristics. This symbol provides a clear and simple identification.
Against this background the symbols should not contain too much specific
information.
It is recommended that the so-called "frame for check gauge" be used to
identify characteristics. This airship-shape symbol contains an identifying
letter for the category of the characteristics (s, h or f) and, for each category,
a sequential number to differentiate it in the release document.
Any further information associated with the characteristics (who what, how
and how many, with what documentation) can ideally be included in a table.
4.6 Consequences
The process used to determine special characteristics must be demon-
strated. Associate documents must be stored, Section 4.7: "Documentation
and retention".
The following activities regarding special characteristics must be agreed on
an inter-disciplinary basis:
➢ The special characteristics relating to technical documentation are
forwarded to the relevant production department
➢ Special characteristics which have been identified in the technical
documentation must be taken into account in all essential documents for
controlling the production process
➢ It must be specified how compliance with the special characteristics is to
be demonstrated
22 23
➢ Monitoring of the special characteristics must be specified
➢ The organisation shall establish traceability plans based on the level of
risk and ensure that identification and traceability requirements are
implemented for products with special characteristics.
In the supply chain the customer must advise his suppliers of special
characteristics and agree on the way they are to be monitored.
The fact that the customer specifies special characteristics does not release
the supplier from his own responsibility to identify special characteristics and
to deliver conforming products.
4.6.1 Recommended activities in product development
➢ Product development — design layout (including, for example, emergency
running, redundancies, operating and display concept)
➢ Concept revision
➢ Manufacturing feasibility study — stimulus for carrying out a detailed
manufacturing feasibility study for this characteristics
➢ Design of Experiment (DoE)
➢ Special attention to special characteristics in test/inspection planning and
documentation as required in the prototype control plan (prototype CP)
4.6.2 Recommended activities in process development
➢ Process development — the need to carry out trial manufacturing on a large
scale must be checked and specified if required, together with
recommended quantities
➢ Manufacturing feasibility study/testability analysis — stimulus for carrying
out a detailed manufacturing feasibility study for this characteristics
➢ Provisional process capability study
➢ Particular consideration of special characteristics in the test/inspection
planning and documentation, in pre-launch and serial control plan
➢ Proof of full production capability/suitability for product launch; special
requirements covering long-term process capability
4.7 Documentation and retention
Documented information according ISO 9000:2015-11/3.8.5 encloses:
➢ Information (Documents) to operate the organization
Examples of Information (documents) with reference to the special
characteristics:
• Design documents and/or production documents (if demanded)
• Risk analyses (as Process-FMEA)
• Special procedure for products with special characteristics
• Regulations to the contact with safety-relevant bolt connections
• Control plans
▪ Provisions to the process qualification, e.g.. process capability, process
parameter, test process suitability
• Working instruction
➢ Evidence (Records) of results achieved Examples of evidence (records)
documents with reference to the special characteristics:
• Test results of products with special characteristics, incl. test results
• Verification of the gauge calibration
• Evidence of process capability, including quality charts
• Evidence of verification process
The retention period distinguishes between information (documents) and
evidence (records), which includes operating and archiving period.
Information (Requirements documents)
The operating period begins with the release and ends when the document is
invalid, e.g.. because of a change (new version) or the expiry of a set period
(deviation permit), or the end of production of the product / process.
The archiving period begins when the document is invalid, in accordance with
the quality management system requirements for controlling documents and
data (e.g.., appropriate identification). The archiving period ends with the
specified point in time of deletion/destruction of the documentation.
24 25
Evidence (Quality records)
The operating period depends on the type of use and begins when the quality
record is created, e.g.. the documentation of a test result, a completed
process control chart, a process capability record, or an initial sample
inspection report. The records must not be modified once they
have been completed.
A further use of records is common, e.g.. for analysis purposes.
The archiving period begins after finalization of the record and ends with the
specified point in time of deletion/destruction. The VDA Volume 1
"Documented Information and Retention" includes an overview of terms and
definitions and also a classification system with examples, which show the
respective retention period.
The operating period begins with the day of the release and ends with the
specified point in time of the deletion/destruction of the documentation and
must comply with the valid legal and normative requirements.
Recommendation for retention period (operating and archiving period)
➢ 30 years for special characteristics cc/s and cc/h.
➢ 10 years for special characteristics sc/f.
In addition, consideration must be given to customer-specific requirements or
other stipulations.
5 Interaction with the FMEA
The special characteristics are identified with the described filters. The filters
can be applied by the FMEA team.
Special characteristics are documented in the Process-FMEA.
An assessment of the Severity (S) as S=10, S=9 or S=8 does not automat-
ically result in a cc/s or cc/h or sc/f.
For representation of the special characteristics in the FMEA see the
AIAG & VDA FMEA Handbook, appendix D1 "Special Characteristics".
26 27
A Appendix
Abbreviations used in this document
cc/h
cc/s
CP
DIN
EN
ETA
FMEA
FTA
IATF
ISO
ML
MLA
OEM
sc/f
SOP
VA
VE
Critical characteristics based on homologation relevant, legal
and public authority requirements at the time the product is
brought onto the market
Critical characteristics based on safety
Control Plan
Deutsche Industrie Norm (German industrial standard)
European standard
Event Tree Analysis
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
Fault Tree Analysis
International Automotive Task Force
International Standardization Organization
Maturity level
Maturity level assurance
Original equipment manufacturer
Significant characteristics based on function or requirement
Start of Production
Value analysis
Value engineering
Examples
The following examples illustrate practical use in different degrees. The
methodical procedure is shown in each case.
The examples have been provided by various VDA member companies and
make no claim to comprehensiveness in terms of their contents. No
guarantee of any kind applies in any case.
A.1 Example: Fuel tank vent
A.2 Example: Light sensor
A.3 Example: Headlights
A.4 Example: Input shaft to steering system
A.5 Example: Steering wheel interlock
A.6 Example: Electric parking brake
A.7 Example: Electronic control unit earthing cable
A.8 Example: Sliding roof drive motor
Other abbreviations
DMR Diameter in Appendix A5
ECU Electronic control unit in Appendix A6
EPB Electronic parking brake in Appendix A6
28 29
(
Signal
preparation
module
Engine
ECU
A.1
Example
:
Fuel
tank
vent
System:
Fuel
tank
vent
Function:
Vent
valve
is
controlled
by
the
engine
ECU
Characteristic:
Open
the
valve
to
vent
the
fuel
tank
Cocept.
reanierrerois&
funotkns
eyehole
level
oprirce
f•2,
OreaTat
=TICS.
safety
WOR.I.J.6x-
4
4sPx-reivrt.
%pi
and
=VC
auttc./wej-Vaio-s
ccsayrir
is
System
layout
mamma.
speosesco
Rex
ranse
Silej
mcserenem
PAU
....rammstsecrt.
Ss
raw•fl
lI
Features
affected:
Certification,
length
of
guarantee,
Consequences:
If
the
valve
is
controlled
by
the
rear
signal
preparation
module
via
the
CAN
bus,
all
the
components
involv
will
be
subject
to
certification
and
the
longer
guarantee
period.
Change
of
concept:
Control
with
a
direct
link
between
engine
ECU
and
valve
ewers
town
noinwoi
re
crersciereses
Sulky,
,egefr
tone
Memo
Direct
line
..11...1*
/141
SYstem
laYout
Requirements
spear/cation
Risk
artatysis
Safety
requirements
lr
.iieftemde
ipiar
Mu
)
Engine
ECU
Fuel
tank
vent
A.1
Example
:
Fuel
tank
vent
The
function
"fuel
tank
vent"
is
to
be
installed
in
a
vehicle
The
function
is
initiated
by
the
engine
ECU
Concept:
Initial
launch-pad
for
solutions
A.
Install
a
valve
at
the
tank
B.
Electrical
connection
from
the
existing
signal
preparation
module
(SPM
H)
at
the
rear
of
the
vehicle
with
a
short
line
to
the
valve
C.
Control
signal
from
the
ECU
via
the
data
bus
to
the
SPM
H
D.
Control
the
valve
via
the
SPM
H
National
regulations:
Exhaust-relevant!
homologation
=>
cc/h
1110A
l
u
ei
l
a
nd
:eldwex3
A.2
Example
:
Light
sensor
>
N
Josues
iqbn
:eiclwex
A.1
Example
:
Fuel
tank
vent
Summary
The
"fuel
tank
vent"
function
is
checked
for
special
characteristics
and,
because
it
is
seen
to
be
subject
to
certification
regulations,
it
is
classified
as
"cc/h".
A
change
of
concept
is
required
and
is
documented.
As
a
result
of
the
change
of
concept
the
characteristic
(
cc/h)
is
secured
and
is
not
considered
further
in
subsequent
development
processes.
The
actions
are
documented
to
certify
:
•
that
this
function
has
been
investigated
•
what
actions
were
taken
to
secure
the
function
•
information
for
subsequent
models
•
why
this
special
characteristic
is
not
examined
further
in
subsequent
development
processes.
Note:
For
the
production
process
the
"connecting
wire"
is
identified
as
"cc/h".
It
must
be
ensured
that
this
wire
is
installed.
In
a
vehicle,
the
function
:
"switch
on
lights
automatically
in
dark
conditions"
is
to
be
provided.
Concept
:
Initial
launch-pad
for
solutions
A.
Fit
the
light
sensor
to
the
windscreen
B.
When
dark
conditions
are
detected,
send
a
signal
on
the
data
bus
C.
Control
the
headlights
and
rear
lights
by
the
signal
preparation
modules
(SPMs)
Risk
analysis:
If
there
is
a
defect
in
the
light
sensor
the
lights
may
go
out
so
that
the
view
forwards
Is
lost
This
is
a
safety
risk
and
the
function
is
identified
as
"safety-relevant"
In
the
development
phase
documentation
Change
of
concept:
Switch
on
lights
with
Ignition
ON
Switch
off
lights
when
bright
conditions
are
detected
Design
change:
Self-diagnosis
is
implemented
in
the
light
sensor.
if
an
error
or
an
implausible
status
is
detected,
no
signal
o
a
"dark
conditions"
signal
is
issued.
Always
switch
on
lights
with
ignition
"Off:
"Brightness"
signal
lights
off
Licht
sensor
with
self-diagnosis
141.1
kwenwewis
MU
)
%Mr,
1C---‘,1•11
clunaffiala
tr
•Noe;-,
1
--__21_”{pcirstion
r.e
ttmcbon
.v
-
T+vlpp
YOM
C='
,
•101.
signal
preparation
module
Rotary
lighting
switch
ITDate
bus
l'a.e.s
le,erua
Concept
filter
kaLo
=maim
nos.
or.
cream!.
orwaxart
tar,10,
r.
eirs,0
livel
avow*
tram
Avaxa
mica
safely
Piternmen.teenticsolo-nit
AO
podx
aaftakovutsces
aklarnattletrunIlyS
-------
Prototype
CP
•
------
wwwwooraapos
▪
110
Kw.
I
I
MinClarsbts
ML3
TVGhlliCar
6=4,5.mA-snits:I
Ipm,fird
wa:
la
I
charaarn
Uses
A.2
Example
:
Light
sensor
Function:
Lights
on
if
dark
conditions
are
detected
:
ccls
A.2
Example
:
Light
sensor
Summary:
The
function
is
checked
for
special
characteristics.
In
the
risk
analysis
the
function
is
classified
as
a
"safety
risk"
and
identified
as
"safety-relevant".
A
change
of
concept
is
necessary
and
documented.
A
residual
risk
still
exists,
so
the
function
remains
identified
for
the
design
phase.
In
the
design
layout
the
implementation
of
a
self-diagnosis
function
is
introduced
as
a
change.
In
the
design
filter
it
is
noted
that,
with
the
concept
design
layouts,
a
safe
status
is
always
achieved
in
the
event
of
a
defect.
The
design
is
secured.
Further
examination
in
subsequent
processes
is
not
necessary.
The
actions
are
documented
to
certify:
•
that
this
function
has
been
investigated
•
what
actions
were
taken
to
secure
the
function
•
information
for
subsequent
models
•
why
this
special
characteristic
is
not
examined
further
in
subsequent
production
processes.
Note:
No
action
and
no
special
characteristics
in
the
production
process
iw
sl
ii
PIPe
eH
:eldw
ex3
Function:
"Lights
ON"
with
rotary
lighting
switch
=
ccls
Risk
analysis:
If
a
connector
becomes
loosethe
lights
may
fail,
so
that
the
view
forward
is
lost.
This
is
a
safety
risk
and
the
function
is
identified
as
"safety-relevant"
in
the
development
phase
documentation.
No
change
of
conceptis
possible.
The
relevant
function
is
forwarded
to
the
design
phase.
Design
change:
Use
connectorwith
a
safety
latch.
Automatic
latching
cannot
be
achieved.
Concept
nyairerrenls&
funcbes
&Miele
level,
experience
fern
previoln
pnajecis
safely
sesioned.
hcandogafen-sheent
*PS
rAP.0.4.146.
.1)0tVOZOV.
refs
v
aaararrRwenra
Concept
damp
alL2
0.
snob
and•
pam.l.
avow
Bassi
7-^=o-s
az7issuie-esog
tcSatin
From:Lrdwe
.xis,
Cr)
A.3
Example
:
Headlights
The
headlight
function
is
to
be
provided
in
a
vehicle.
Concept
:
Initial
launch
pad
for
solutions
A.
Switch
on
the
lights
manually
with
the
rotary
lighting
switch
B.
The
light
switch
sets
the
"lights
on"
signal
on
the
data
bus
C.
The
headlights
and
rear
lights
are
controlled
by
the
signal
preparation
modules
(SPMs)
A.3
Example:
Headlights
Anwesse
walsAs
6up
aalS
tr
eys
l
ndu!
eqj
uo
Anavk
WOOL
Example:Inputshafttoasteeringsystem
a
c
03
CO
CD
N
C
9)
co
co
W
CD
cl)
CD
0
0
0.
3
_,.
a
co
H-
—
v
n
P
0
a-
3
u:),"
3
0
A.3
Example
:
Headlights
Summary:
The
"headlights"
function
is
checked
for
special
characteristics.
In
the
risk
analysis
the
plug
connector
is
classified
as
a
"safety
risk"
and
identified
as
"safety-relevant
".
A
change
of
concept
is
not
possible,
so
the
function
remains
identified
for
further
consideration
in
the
design
phase.
In
the
design
layout
the
use
of
a
latch
prevents
the
connector
from
becoming
loose
and
the
risk
is
secured.
However,
the
connector
is
prevented
from
becoming
loose
only
if
the
latch
has
engaged
securely.
An
assembly
error
is
still
possible.
The
"engagement
of
the
connector
latch"
is
identified
as
a
cc/s
and
is
forwarded
to
the
assembly
process.
Note:
An
action
is
required
in
the
production
process
to
ensure
that
the
latch
is
engaged
securely.
Relevant functions, requirements and
characteristics for
specifying the supply chain ~Bg151lallOn an
"
...
...
CIO
otANIfit
Pr
t—
thelealed deleapa:Ndsfrwronc.
pecification; experience from
previous projects; design layout;
covedng simulation; trials;
assessment; verification
Relevant for homologation are:
• the diameter of the
designed break point:
Dspec = 13.1 ± 0.1 mm
• the roughness of the
bearing peg: Rz = 6.3
Relevant for function is:
Design
mileage
Design filter
-
1.1 ProirppocP •
.............
I heecesrat
ednireatedelet eel
raetdd.
ais...ftera ha
Romeinds.
Tialaffeal detetnahledda Met
specified characteristics
rtvw.s.
eeadess
wrnsra.d
eam
A.4.1 Description of the development process sequence
A.4.1.1 Requirements regarding the concept
The concepts and functions at vehicle
level, experience from previous projects ‘5140.
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
In the case of the input shaft to a steering gear, the customer has specified as
a critical safety characteristic (cc/s) the hardness of the bearing seat, which
must be 650HV +110HV1.
The system layout, requirements specification, risk analysis and safety
requirements reveal no further relevant requirements and functions relating to
safety, homologation and function.
A.4.1.2 Concept filter
The critical safety characteristic
(cc/s) specified by the customer,
that thehardness of the bearing „.„„,„„,„
seat must be 650HV+110HV1,
is taken forward as a relevant
safety characteristic without
passing through the concept filter.
The concept is examined.
Risks are detected for the
diameter of the designed
sPegc11,2S41,",:n.:;'d`e'r'''"
break point, the roughness
of the bearing peg and the roughness of the gearing. These cannot be
changed by a change in concept and are considered further as being
relevant. These fixed characteristics are allocated to the relevant
requirements and functions for safety, homologation and function. They then
go forward for further examination in terms of the design.
Other requirements and functions which have been secured by the concept
have been confirmed by trials and tests and are not considered further as
relevant regarding special and critical characteristics.
40
The trials and tests are described in instruction ref. V18/05. The results are
documented.
A change to the concept is considered, to take account of the requirements,
functions and characteristics not secured by the existing concept.
If the modified concept does not achieve the necessary level of assurance,
these requirements, functions and characteristics are examined further at the
design level.
A.4.1.3 Requirements regarding the design
The characteristics which have been identified are set out in detail.
• the gearing roughness level Rz = 12
These identified requirements, functions and characteristics are taken into
consideration when drawing up the performance specification and preparing
the layout in the development phase.
A.4.1.4 Design filter
The design layout of the
designed break point is
examined in Trial V18/09.
The trial confirms that the
diameter of the designed break
point Dspec = 13.1 ± 0.1 mm is a
robust design.
The results of the trial are filed
in the "NF9 steering gear" file.
The design diameter is secure and does not represent a special
characteristics.
41
ate heti
and relevant functions, together with IproductIondtelopment
requirements relating to safety, security,
homologation and function are examined
for possible special characteristics. Requirements rngrnt, for
the contract to be issued
Concept, requirements 8 functions al vehicle level,
experience from previous projects,
safety requirements, homologation-relevant,
legal and public authority regulations,
customer requirements
to b.Weed f
Relevant functions, requirements and
characteristics for
Safety, registration and function
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safety requirements
fuocuon.
nIt rp.
Z.
j [T•1•[1•11111,1
L
Technical documentadodIncl.
specified special characteristics
Manufacturing feasibility study
and testability analysis; risk
analysis; production planning;
test concept

MO
No further requirements, functions and characteristics representing special
characteristics are noted in the development.
In the technical documentation covering the development the following
special characteristics are specified and forwarded to the production planning
department.
Safety-relevant special characteristic:
• cc/s: Hardness of the bearing seat 650HV+110HV1.
Homologation-relevant special characteristic:
• cc/h: Surface roughness of the bearing peg Rz = 6,3
Function-relevant special characteristic:
• sc/f: Gearing roughness level Rz = 12
Once specified, these special characteristics are included in the prototype
control plan.
A.4.2 Description of the production process sequence
A.4.2.1 Requirements regarding production planning
The special characteristics
forwarded from the techni-
cal documentation in the
development phase and
specified for consideration
at the production planning
stage are processed further
and included in the control plan for the pre-production phase.
These special characteristics are:
Safety-relevant:
• cc/s: Hardness of the bearing seat 650HV+110HV1.
Homologation-relevant:
• cc/h: Surface roughness of the bearing peg Rz = 6,3
Function-relevant:
• SC/f: Gearing roughness level Rz = 12
These and all other special characteristics are verified within the framework of
the manufacturing feasibility analysis and testability, risk analysis, production
planning, test/inspection concept and the design review. Checks must also be
made to determine whether test/inspection specifications contain product
characteristics and any requirements regarding process parameters.
42 43
Spacial characteristics to be
validated by process layout
GaNsollsrtoolnulcattNalls
astalestalollOy martyr n, rub
.1.41,111A
Production pli1111911U filter
Er/MAI:it
P10-1Pilhelt PP
„-17=17.
—!=.
"
htrtrr—tro
Priximitek
PI
Came.
Specisi ohivacIvrisucv no he
validated by process layout
Validation of
production concept,
test/inspection planning
LocoulaIN0el
ortarl.allonphorcou
Validation of
production concept,
tesginspection planning
Production-
process
change
Farmer erackvikto reel. Nk4
ervt/vrevetrukakver.aveark,
s
41116-
Production process filter
yevpliuFttunpmcw,,
Special characteristics
requiring
process control
Special
Chem-M.01.1M,, not
(racked further as
validation is
documented
t by robust process
A.4.2.2 Production planning filter A.4.2.3 Requirements regarding the production process filter
The special cc/s safety charac-
teristic specified by the customer
for the hardness of the bearing
seat (650HV+110HV1) does not
pass through the production
planning filter. Instead, it is for-
warded as a special safety
characteristic.
The actions taken to validate the
production planning and test/
inspection planning do not reveal
any further special characteristics.
The relevant requirements, functions
and characteristics which have been
identified are set out in more detail.
A.4.2.4 Production process filter
The other information gained flows into the production planning filter in order
to identify the special characteristics.
The purpose of the production planning filter is to clarify whether the produc-
tion concept is secure. The homologation-related special characteristic cc/h
(the surface roughness of the bearing peg Rz = 6,3) is secured by the design
of the tool. This characteristic is therefore no longer included as a special
characteristic in the production process.
Proof of security is demonstrated and is documented in the production
planning papers.
The function-relevant special characteristic sc/f (gearing roughness level Rz =
12) cannot be secured by the production concept.
A change to the production concept does not result in a secure product. This
special characteristic is therefore included in the production process filter and
in the control plan for pre-production.
44
The special cc/s safety
characteristic specified
by the customer for the
hardness of the bearing
seat (650HV+110HV1)
does not pass through
the production process
filter. Instead, it is for-
warded as a special
safety characteristic.
The function-relevant
special characteristic
sc/f (gearing roughness
level Rz = 12) can be
secured in the process, based on lessons learned from a previous project.
This robust process is documented in the production description, with proof of
capable production. No consideration is given to a change in the production
process. The special characteristic is secured by the production process.
Because it is now secure, the special characteristic is not incorporated in the
control plan for full production.
45
Concept, requirements & functions at vehicle level,
experience from previous projects,
safety requirements, homologation-relevant, legal
and public authority regulations,
customer requirements
Innovation release for lull
production development
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safety requirements
A.4.3 Result A.5 Example: Special characteristics for a steering wheel interlock
The safety-relevant special characteristic cc/s specified by the customer
(hardness of the bearing seat 650HV+110HV1) by-passes all the filters
and is carried forward to the control plan for full production. It must be taken
into account in the manufacturing process and covered by documentation.
The homologation-relevant special characteristic cc/h (roughness of the
bearing peg Rz = 6,3) was secured by the production concept and is not
included as a special characteristic in the manufacturing process. The fact
that it has been secured by the production concept is documented.
The function-relevant special characteristic sc/f (gearing roughness level Rz =
12) is secured in the production process by a robust process. Experience
from previous projects is available here.
In total, on safety-relevant special characteristic is carried over into the
control plan for full production. The special characteristics relating to homo-
logation and function have been secured and are not included in the control
plan.
Requirements mgmt for the
contract to be issued
A.5.1 Process steps for the OEM: MLO and ML1
A.5.1.1 Determining the functions at vehicle level
Vehicle
Transport the passengers from A to B under the control of the driver
Protect the passengers from injury
Protect all persons involved from serious injury in an accident situation
Protect passengers from environmental influences
Protect the vehicle against theft
Comply with noise requirements
Minimize vehicle operating costs
A.5.1.2 Identifying and describing functions relevant to
special characteristics, based on external and
internal requirements at vehicle level
Vehicle
Transport the passengers from A to B under the control of the driver
*s__ Protect the passengers from injury
No►s_ Protect all persons involved from serious injury in an accident situation
Protect passengers from environmental influences
mlh_ Protect the vehicle against theft
Comply with noise requirements
*f_ Minimize vehicle operating costs
46 47
Vehicle
Transport the passengers from A to B under the control of the driver
s_Protect the passengers from injury
s_Protect all persons involved from serious injury in an
accident situation
Protect passengers from environmental influences
h_Protect vehicle against theft
Comply with noise requirements
f_Minimize vehicle operating costs
Warnii SYgern
ir.o.note
Enable the vehicle to be steered
h_Prevera steering movement with key removed
[_Minimize repair costs (insurance classification)
Comply with noise requirements for the steering function
h_Public authority requirement: steering system must he
uniquely identified for traceability
Brake system
Slaw the vehicle as desired by the driver
_Slaw the vehicle as desired by the system
with noise requirements for the brake system
A.5.1.3 Breakdown of identifications for part-functions and
part-systems
A.5.1.4 Identifying and classifying functions relevant to special
Vehicle Steering system Steering wheel interlock characteristics, based on a risk analysis
h_Protect vehicle against
theft
h_Prevent steering wheel movement h_Engage steering column in locked
with key removed key position Vehicle
Transport the passengers from A to B
Controllability of vehicle performance Impossible to steer the vehicle
significantly restricted
under the control of the driver — Enable the vehicle to be steered
Steering system
— in the "open" position
Steering wheel interlock
Steering column blocked with key in the
"open" position
Release the steering column with the key
Identification of requirements relating to homologation at part-system level:
The steering system must be uniquely identified for traceability The chain of defects is assessed as safety-relevant and this causes the function
"Transport the passengers from A to B under the control of the driver" to be classified at
vehicle level with S_ as a function for which a special characteristic is relevant.
The classification is then broken down into part-functions and part-systems.
A.5.1.5 Deriving special characteristics by the OEM
em
Brake 061ein
s Stow the vehicle as desired by the driver
s Stow the vehicle as desired by the system
(;empty with noise requirements for the brake system
tearing system
h_steering system must be uniquely identified for traceability
Steering wheel interlock
h_Engage steering column in locked
Steering column in key position release openly and safely
Comply with noise requirements for the steering wheel interlock
Steering column protect against damage from misuse
Steering gear
Special characteristics relating to the steering wheel interlock:
Hardness of the interlock component: sc/f_material hardness 268HB
Steering system
Enable the vehicle to be steered
h_Prevent steering movement with key removed
f_Minimize repair costs (insurance classification)
Comply with noise requirements for the steering function
h_Public authority requirement: steering system must be uniquely identified for traceability
r
H
skip
i
teedng
we1
o
h;
n
Itee
Steering wheel inrt
H_Steeri
Steering i
Noise req
Steering c
Steering gear
A characteristic can be specified on the basis of a homologation requirement
at part-system level:
*The steering system must be uniquely identified for traceability => cc/h
If the steering wheel interlock is subjected to misuse forces, a "hard" interlock
(a latching peg, for example) can damage the steering column, perhaps
resulting in high repair costs. For this reason, the *hardness of the interlock
component is determined as sc/f.
filly
A.5.1.6 Transferring the information from the OEM to the steering
system supplier (for example, in the development requirements
specification)
Steering wheel interlock functions for which special characteristics are
relevant:
h_lock the steering column with the key in the "closed" position
s_guarantee release of the steering column with the key in the
"open" position
f_protect the steering column from damage in the event of misuse
Special characteristics relating to the steering column:
The steering column must be uniquely identified for traceability cc/h
48 49
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
11111t
ik
Safety reetaramantf.
'Mk
111$11
/
<entnat VA Me
Con—
mew
"11:71A4Z.P
ROI•VAIV function. ternMelhafilt and
characteristics for
Sandy.registration and function
A.5.2 Process steps at Tier 1 level (ML1)
System structure of the steering wheel interlock:
Steering column tube
End-stop damper in
Latch
Latching unit
Latch spring
steering column tube
Steering column
tube cover Housing (left)
Steering wheel
Housing (right)
interlock
Drive unit Motor with pinion
Gear
Controller PCB
Setting unit
Steering wheel interlock
characteristics
A.5.2.1 Taking s, h and f characteristics to the part-functions
(concept level)
The steering wheel interlock concept:
50
Function network in the steering wheel interlock system:
Steering column tube
's provide rotating bearing point for latching unit
Steering column tube
s_ fix and position the drive unit
Latch
s_ release steering column in unlatched position
Housing (right)
s_ provide bearing for setting unit with housing (left)
Housing (right)
Steering wheel interlock rs_ provide bearing for bolt with adjustment in x-plane
s_ release steering column in key "open" Gear
position s_ transfer torque from motor to trigger with def. translation
Trigger
s_ convert torque from gear into axial movement of bolt
Bolt
s_ move latch in accordance with trigger movement
Housing (right)
s provide bearing for gear
Steering wheel interlock characteristics
s_ gap between released latch and steering column = 3 mm
51
Motor with
pinion
Controler
PCB
Controler
PCB
I Securing system Securing system
Steering column tube
Latch unit
Locking unit
Housing
Steering column tube
Latch unit
Locking unit
Housing
Gear
Release
V
Design filter
Deilen validated?
hasten chimps
- --
• Hoapticiat
chroxierIsi II
,11 validation by
I robust design
h documeaisd
Detailed description; performance
speclficalion; eve lance from previous
ofecle; design lay ut; simulation; trials
assessment; verification
Plisd
tothlto
---------)
Prototyp CP
-----
Design
change
Technical documentation incl.
specified special characteristics
Steering wheel interlock
h_ lock steering column with key in
"closed" position
Steering wheel interlock
f protect steering column from damage
in case of misuse
Steering column tube
s_h_ provide rotating bearing point for latching
esring column tube
s_h_fix and position the drive unit
Housing (right)
s_h_ provide bearing for setting unit with housing (left)
Housing (right)
s_h_ provide bearing for bolt with adjustment in x-plane
e
G ar
s_n_ transfer torque from motor to trigger with def. translation
1
Trigger
s_h_ convert torque from gear into axial movement of bolt
Set spring
h_provide tension between gear and trigger
Bolt
s_h_ move latch in accordance with trigger movement
Housing (right)
s_h_provide bearing for gear
Steering wheel interlock characteristics
h_Overlap between latched bolt and steering column >= 5 mm
Latch
f ensure definite shear without damage to steering column
in case of misuse
A.5.3 Process steps at Tier 1 level (ML2 and ML3)
A.5.2.2 Risk analysis at concept level
Steering wheel interlock
h_ lock the steering column with the
key in the "closed" position
Steering column not locked with key
in the "closed" position
Steering wheel interlock
s_ ensure steering column is released
with key in the "open" position
Steering column is blocked with the
key in the "open" position
Controller PCB
s_h_ provide current based on control
signals from vehicle ECU
Motor incorrectly supplied with current
Following recognition of the risk in the controller PCB (motor incorrectly
supplied with current) the concept was expanded by a function at system level,
which secures against the risk.
New: s_secure the latched positions.
This action removes the PCB functions from the concept filter and need not be
considered further with regard to special characteristics!
A.5.3.1 Taking s, h and f functions to the design characteristics level and
adopting the specified characteristic for the interlock characteristic
for the interlock component (latch):
Special characteristic f E_material hardness 268HB
52 53
Steering
column
tube
s_h_provide
rotating
bearing
point
for
peg
unit
Steering
column
tube
s_h_position
and
fix
drive
unit
Right-hand
housing
j.!
s_h_provide
bearing
for
positioning
unit
in
•
association
Rgbbliand
housing
a_h_arc
-ndo
beanng
for
locating
bob
to
move
in
x.
Gear
wheel
s_h_transfer
torque
from
motor
to
driver
with
defined
transfer
characteristics
Trigger
s_h_convert
torque
from
gear
wheel
into
axial
movement
of
locating
bolt
Locating
spring
h_provide
pre-tension
force
between
gear
wheel
and
trigger
Locating
bolt
s_h_move
peg
in
accordance
with
trigger
movements
Steering
wheel
interlock
h
engage
steering
column
interlock
in
"key
closed"
position
Right-hand
housing
s_h_provide
bearing
for
gear
wheel
•
Stwe.g
wheel
interlock
characteristics
s_gap
IsCivi•Cl.
released
peg
and
steering
column
>=
3
mm
Left-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
BO
mm
20
2
Right-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
00
2
Peg
characteristics
s_width
=
24
mm
t0.1
Locating
bolt
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
50
mm
t0.1
Trigger
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
12
mm
tO
1
Gear
.reei
raereadealcs
s_h_lenght
=
7
mm
00
1
Lek-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
t0.2
12bahlittlo4
housing
characteristics
4._.n_kyrtahe
•
80
mm
00
2
Steering
column
tube
characteristics
s_h_housing
positioning
length
=
BO
min
t02
MOWN
aacirra
tax
aaax4eraCas
s_a_
ttl.tat
,
upper
housing
position
and
b
'
p
serred
eg
••
18
ern
00
5
oonng
Steering
column
tube
characteristic
s_h_Space
between
upper
housing
position
and
bearing
for
peg
=
13
mm
±005
Stanch
g
OOlumn
tube
characteristic
s_h_langbt
for
housing
positioning
=
80
mm
±0
2
Left-hand
housing
characteristics
<
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
±0
2
Right-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
±0.2
Left-hand
housing
characteristics
/s_h_control
dimension
for
positioning
peg
=
DMR
2.6
mm
+0.1
Gam-Wheat
elnuatteielara
<
s_n_coaxitady
Of
hearing
point
diameter
with
housing
=
0.08
_Trigger
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
12
mm
*0.1
Locating
spring
characteristics
h_spring
force
(deleted
following
confirmation
that
design
is
robust
against
process
fluctuations!)
=
8,4
N
±0.6
Locating
bolt
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
50
mm
Wit-hand
Musing
chanicleastIcs
s
h_cams1
dirnansinn
!Or
eeeptianingt
peg
DOM
t6
mrn.6.1
Lail-nand
housing
characteristics
s_h_tenght
=
80
mm
±0.2
CT
.
-lend
mm
n?characteristics
.
7t
Gear
W11001
chartatenellas
s_h_lenght
=
7
mm
±0.1
Right-hand
housing
S_Z_provide
bearing
for
gear
wheel
Steering
wheel
interlock
characteristic
h_overlap
between
latched
bolt
and
steering
column
>=
5
mm
Left-hand
housing
characteristics
=
80
mm
±0.2
Right-hand
housing
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
±0.2
cn
mz
.
a
re
ai
a
Steering
column
tube
characteristics
s_h_space
between
upper
housing
position
and
bearing
for
peg
=
13
mm
00
05
Steering
column
tube
characteristics
s_h_lenght
for
housing
positioning
=
BO
mm
00
2
Peg
characteristics
s_widen
=
24
mm
Left-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
tO
2
Right-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
tO
2
Left
-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_control
dimension
for
positioning
peg
=
DMR
2.6
mm
=0
1
•
Right-hand
housing
characteristics
•
-..........,,..,
s_h_control
dimension
for
positioning
peg
=
DMR
2.6
mm
-0.1
Left-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
80
mm
-20
2
Right-hand
housing
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
BO
film
tO
2
Gear
wheel
characteristics
shcoaxiality
or
bearing
point
diameter
with
housing
=
0.08
Gar.whael
Winderean
s_h_lenght
=
7
mm
tO
1
Steering
column
tube
a_n_ftnir,+3.2
roaring.
bearing
point
for
peg
unit
Steering
column
tube
klutealca
and
fix
drive
unit
Pe
ensure
steering
column
releases
in
"unlatched"
position
Right-hand
housing
s_h_provide
bearing
for
positioning
unit
in
association
with
left-hand
housing
of=b
`,
3
2,
E
3
c,
z
rrr
O
3
F.
g
ro
Steering
wheel
interlock
s_ensure
steering
column
releases
in
"unLdIched"
position
F1101.1-hird
housing
i_n_p•orklie
bearing
for
locating
bolt
to
lotree
V,
eetrb
Gear
wheel
kh_lrargqr
tawm
frwn
=Mr
tC,
MOW
Mr.
ad,
"
Mnil.
chimmorlgra.
Itr
idrievcri.
Writhe,
from
gear
wheel
into
axial
movement
of
*rate*
bolt
Trigger
characteristics
s_h_lenght
=
12
mm
t0.1
Locating
bolt
characteristics
s_h_lengh1=
50
mm
30
1
Locating
bolt
characteristics
s_h_move
peg
in
accordance
with
trigger
movements
A.5.4 Process steps at OEM and Tier 1 level (ML3)
Production-
concepl
I change
Manotactviing faealtablty study
and testability smartie,. risk
PiPPYstai ProdOctloriplanning;
cettcepi
Production s
C
liannIng fitter
0/11C•p
---
1
7
r
Preolailisch OP
''''
cherecleilelice net
tracked further as
velidetion Is
documented by
XitifittPAPPint
Spaniel chsreciralslice to his
validated by process layout
V
Steering wheel interlock characteristics
s_gap between released latch and steering
column >=3 mm
Latch characteristic
s width= 24 mm ± 0.1
Bolt characteristics
s_h_length = 50 mm +0 1
Trigger characteristics
s_h_length= 12 mm ±0.1
Gear characteristics
s_h_length= 7 mm ±0.1
Characteristics of housing (left)
s_h_length= 80 mm ±0.2
Characteristics of housing (right)
s_h_length= 80 mm ±0.2
Characteristics of steering column tube
s_h_length of housing positioning= 80 mm ±0.2
Characteristics of steering column tube
s_h_gap between upper housing position and bearing
for latch = 13 mm ±0.05
s: Gap between released latch and steering column
[steering wheel interlock] >=3 mm
All other dimensions are identified as individual dimensions in the
component drawing:
s: control dimension for positioning peg = DMR 2.6 mm +0.1
[left-hand housing]
s: control dimension for positioning hole = DMR 2.6 mm -0.1
[right-hand housing]
s: coaxiality of bearing point diameter with housing = 0.08 [gear]
f E: Material hardness [barrier latch] = 268 HB
steering column in the vehicl- <
Fltstewing wheelMale*to the stowingcolumn
h_lock the steering column in 'key closed" position
jelienle steering column in 'key open" position
Sioanng colon.net releeend "kiny own'poulhon
deal noworwearemonni for %looms whorl inladeekt
Una**sleeking column IranUnmoor st once et
001411..lelteleiht pindbruyil
Lemma economicassembly
trili
alr
int;agesieving *halneatest( tern
ea
politicks
operators
s_h_postion slosatsp retool emetic),on amens *slum
/
a h as aleanrio seheet Wort:ink ha togyercink
SiOlgillgWWIinuidock
1yeasas pegbeer be.'wen'Pate.
Pep tositionnotopen
•
wowsscresdanal
lessenscolumn
A.5.3.2 Carrying out the design filter:
The characteristic cc/h is shown in the development stage to be
robust against process fluctuations (DoE trials).
Certification is described in the technical documentation covering
the development and the characteristic not be considered as
special characteristic.
A.5.3.3 Including the sc/cc in the technical documentation:
The characteristics of the chain of dimensions covering the
gap between the unlatched bolt and the steering column
are not considered as separate items. Instead, the complete
dimensional chain is considered as a single cc/s characteristic.
This is documented in the assembly drawing (s).
A.5.4.1 Deriving special characteristics on the basis of the
OEM's Process FMEA
The latch position "open" is not robust. Due to the high effect "steering
blocked while driving", a cc/s is identified and marked for this purpose.
Install:Merino system
s_enebre Widelobe Owed
ven?=Tibli
g'i
l'
de
r'
veiree
nrt'
l=key removed
alleirtai0 repair costs (Instal= dot. e:at
WMmeetMoulemeireskramailoalsowem
f_comply with delivery limes (JIT)
iYrdae steering gear In the vehicle <
The "latch position when received" is recorded in the assembly drawing as an
action from the Process FMEA (cc/s) and forwarded to the supplier.
cc/s: Latch position when received [steering wheel interlock] = open
A.5.4.2 Carrying out the production planning filter by the Tier 1 supplier
The characteristic cc/s: coaxiality of the bearing point diameter with the
housing = 0.08 [gear] is no special characteristic because the two diameters
are produced when gripped in a machine and therefore, as a concept, no
error can occur in terms of coaxiality. The machine capability is demonstrated
and documented.
56 57
Validation of
producilon concept,
teat/Inspection planning
Special characteristics
requiring
Mans control
Lesson*
to
''''''''
chareoleeletIce trot;
Itracked further**
validationIs
: documented by
tobtaitrocus
rroon ood
• ,11. ar• 4.1S.
Producioannroo.o.o ono,
prodon npoopirol iPOSI
ProrliKtkon o
reaneleee
Pliorhopqn
prooro.
CI
Manufacture of the controller PCB
(_Robust function over product life
Inadequate robustness over
product life
Assembly step xxxx
(
—8efiew cddering process
f Cdidudinglido between
components and PCB
Solder contacts not fully formed.
. Components on PCB are damaged
, Operator al fellow soldering machine
c
od.
f_eolder moll lenveralure = 230'C i10'
;olderClem - 220.0
Solder lanymmlivu ,..- 7.10'C
pasta
Assembly step yyyy
lectric
par
in
•
•ra
-
59
A6. Example: Electric parking brake
A.5.5 Process steps at Tier 1 and Tier "n" levels
Pnoi
roel emir*
lierpoontWir trrodonod
to Production.
PIA oporOrosoon
A.5.5.1 Deriving special characteristics on the basis of the
Process FMEA by the Tier 2 (n) supplier
Process-related variation of the process characteristic solder melt
temperature lead to a special characteristics sc/f.
A.5.5.2 Carrying out the production process filter at Tier 1 level
The production process filter at Tier 1 level does not identify further special
characteristics. The identified special characteristics are included in the Tier 1
supplier's control plan.
58
A.6
Electric
parking
brake
-
special
characteristic
An
initial
manufacturing
feasibility
study
and
risk
analysis
in
the
concept
phase
covering
this
product
resulted
in
a
total
of
1585
special
characteristics
relating
to
safety
and
function.
Such
a
number
causes
the
characteristics
to
lose
their
significance
and
makes
the
process
impossible
to
handle.
A
reduction
in
the
number
of
special
characteristic
is
essential.
To
do
so,
filters
were
used
in
the
concept
phase
design
phase
production
planning
phase
in
full
production
In
drawing
up
the
analysis
it
was
assumed
that
all
characteristics,
whether
presently
regarded
as
secure
or
not,
must
be
tracked
by
the
development
function,
through
to
full
production
A.6
Possible
means
of
reducing
the
numbers
Concept
filter
•
In
specifying
special
characteristic,
general
design
considerations
were
backed
up
by
experience
from
products
already
in
production
and
subject
to
the
same
demands
(field
observations
and
quality
statistics)
Design
filter
•
In
addition,
information
was
gained
from
laboratory
investigations
against
specifications
and
tests
under
extreme
conditions,
as
well
as
the
associated,
detailed
results.
Information
from
tolerance
studies
and
failure
analyses
was
also
used.
Where
appropriate,
results
and
findings
from
in-vehicle
validations
(e.g.,
winter
and
summer
tests)
can
also
be
called
on.
Production
planning
filter
•
Use
was
made
of
findings
from
process
studies
on
current
production
lines
(types
and
frequency
of
failures,
MFU,
PFU,
MSA)
and
•
by
taking
account
of
proven
manufacturing
technologies
and
•
the
planning
and
shaping
of
robust
production
processes.
Production
process
filter
•
Additional
important
information
was
gained
from
careful
analysis
of
machines
and
processes
used
in
similar
large-scale
production
and
assembly
,
as
well
as
•
the
analysis
of
known
product
data
such
as
ppm
and
events
at
customers'
premises
and
in
the
field
Concept,
requirements
&
functions
et
vehicle
level,
experience
horn
previous
creeds
safety
requirements,
Porne.OgitetlieverWitec
legal
end
public
.wanly
rrysir.
,31
Ir000reteon
reins*
for
NI
eisouctleo
cievtiocrtivor
System
layout
Requirements
specificaticn
Risk
analysis
Satiety
to
uernienin.
Requirement
mg
t
the
centred
to
be
Issued
A.6
Possible
means
of
reducing
the
numbers
Ways
of
reducing
the
number
of
special
characteristics
were
examined
by
studying
the
following
parts
and
sub-assemblies
of
the
electric
parking
brake.
•
Axial
bearings
•
Motor
assembly
•
Torque
support
•
Shaft
/
nut
/
lubrication
system
•
Slipping
clutch
•
Force
sensor
▪
ECU
A.6
Axial
bearings
•
FMEA
for
the
EPB
axial
bearing
The
FMEA
results
in
severity
figures
of
8,
9
qr
10
for
the
risk
areas
of
•
friction,
wear
•
type
and
quantity
of
grease
•
type
of
bearing
(ball,
roller,
....)
•
bearing
ventilation
•
residual
magnetism
•
In
today's
thinking
a
figure
of
9
or
10
does
not
automatically
result
In
a
special
characteristic
sc/f
ore
critical
characteristic
cc/h
or
cc/s
•
Concept
filter
•
Use
a
similar,
proven
design:
axial
bearings
in
ca.
12
million
units
in
use
with
no
known
problems
•
In
designing
the
bearing
layout
a
larger-dimension
bearing
was
selected,
giving
a
bearing
static
performance
figure
of
40
kN,
ca.
20
times
the
safety
margin
rt.
ywit
taadcatio.nisubraurts
and
Sam:fru:to
bir
Wry,
•40,
.trrtlern
and
Melon
Detailed
description:
Pfialtorgafil
,
ca
speafication;
bpanenco
for
previous
project:
design
layout
covenng
simulation,
tnals,
assessment;
venfication
n__
....dm
oblyatir.c.
abbarlicatton,
exparbara
From
orcyloin
Pnobattl;
design
layout;
aUnulatIon;
blab.
ansetrnt.
',newton
Prototype
CP
No
loriciv
Scum
Nyman
validation
by
robuat
@alio
it
N.
rociumyttact,
L
Teciowel
cicarnimilekm
Ina
waned
spade
chrarlaiistics
Roller
bearing
('A'
sample)


I/
44
;7'
(4
144LiW
A.6
Axial
bearing
■
Design
filter
•
Results
from
laboratory
investigations
•
Preliminary
trials
with
3-part
bearing
OK.
(ca
20
units
<
100
000
cycles)
•
No
wear,
grooves
or
rifling
•
Trials
with
production
bearings
also
OK.
(ca
40
units,
some
achieving
2
x
life)
•
Manufacturer's
findings
OK.
From
the
design
and
quality
stand-points
the
axial
bearing
is
seen
as
a
robust
design.
No
sc
or
cc
are
taken
from
the
FMEA
and
included
in
drawings
or
the
list
of
sc
/
cc.
However:
Information
from
the
supplier
regarding
the
evaluation
of
individual
risks
in
our
FMEA,
to
be
included
in
his
risk
analysis.
If
additional
risks
are
detected,
further
discussion
is
required
with
the
supplier.
•
Production
planning
filter
Not
relevant
•
Production
process
filter
Not
relevant
A.6
Axial
bearing
Axial
ball
bearing
(competitor)
Roller
bearing
(from
production)
MU
notworelrorfJosr.reausoorracloCt
Infamir.
p
.1141ratan•i•lisrctlan
Detailed
description:
PM..ce
specitcation;
experience
Porn
Orneroaccriocor.
Orlar
alma
covering
simulation:
fobs;
assessment;
verification
Sedatiod
docurnislikkal
ingt-
spocritcr)
oprircral
OnarDOPITIfitlel
Derailed
doccrIptIon;porfarmanor
cpeclfloalon;
osporicnce
from
playlet..
prolate;
design
'gout;
cinutekee;
trials;
seuesnarnt;
vorlflectIon
Design
sfio
Design
filter1
No
special
4-1.ftnempo
oc
te4E0
CP
by
rabuot
donor..
1
kr
Cocurouled
11
itla•rtwro.4..
ocreerouvo
A.6
Motor
assembly
•
FMEA
for
electric
parking
brake
motor
assembly
The
FMEA
results
in
severity
figures
of
8,
9
or
10
for
the
risk
areas
of
M
•
shaft
parallelism
ss
Innovation
oo
ror
p
dud!
0
I
p
nt
full
Concept,
requirements
8.
functions
et
vehicle
level
expenence
horn
previous
projects
safety
requirements,
homologabon-relevant
legal
and
public
eultority
regulations,
customer
requirements
RVIAMMI
in.
roman
re
n.
L.31,4
•
rectangularity
a
life
of
100
000
cycles
(
brush;
commutator....)
•
performance
graph
•
sealing
function
•
jammed
motor
(
magnets,
gearing,
cup,
•
rotation
detection
•
EMC
•
over-heating
In
today's
thinking
a
figure
of
9
or
10
does
not
automatically
result
in
a
special
characteristic
sc/f
or
a
critical
characteristic
cc/h
or
ss/s
I
air-gap,
)
System
layout
Requirements
specification
Risk
analysis
Work
rcorrewratc
System
layout
Requirements
specification
Risk
analysis
Safely
requirements
1.1=7.7.=
c
Concept
filler
.
%ern
•
Concept
filter
•
Design
layout
as
for
window-lift
drive
(large-scale
production)
Imee•PETAleketa-
v"
—
-
the
difference
is
in
gearing
and
winding
Newly
developed
ECU
checks
motor
operation
(thermal
protection;
reduced
supply
voltage
if
a
dynamic
block
occurs).
New
sealing
concept
nparmwm
11.41,1,110.03
r172
.-
jr.t.••.1
h
=
i
pbo1.1.•
sedr
Relevant
functons,
requirements
and
chareclenstos
for
ripberMen
.pulTur%11.
V
'
A.6
Motor
assembly
•
Design
filter
Laboratory
investigations
(60
units)
up
to
twice
the
specified
life.
Carbon
brushes
show
wear
at
the
edges
•
Special
characteristics
in
the
drawings
•
5
cc/s
and
83
sc/f
11111,,.04,4nrulbltC
study
rss
tossoluty
snows;
em
stea
li;
produalann
ptimino;
test
concept
Prcuiiction
planning
Fl
rc
CralCrta
Spezial
cheracteristles
to
be
rel
ldsted
by
process
layout
Production.
••••••pt
On1,4
•—•
,1.1,0041
as
validation
is
documented
bY
nabLeal=22EL1
Special
ensranariales
to
be
validated
by
process
layout
Validation
of
production
concept,
teetrinspection
planning
C.I..121,
heeeeev
mrpeg
Volicisifon
of
Production
concept
lastanspection
planning
t•eryneomen
1,1•144.1.1
Production.
l
6
•
ana
sf,nmerelnIsal
ooeureen
reraten•
art
ma.
ndFro.,
own,
pr.ke
Production
process
rIFte4
nottial
chn-octsrisnos
requiring
process
Control
gye
oal
•
•Arraclar,11,
lisirvvd
rad.ii
or
ratldsben
i.
rio.moriall
trlatagvt»:::
ontrol
Plan]
Lour
,
*
I
salad
A.6
Motor
assembly
Lann
Torttoldgli
dOCLIMOTIIMOM
MCI.
effled
ward
choractertatice
110•••
r
irlimrs
Manufacturing
feasibility
study
and
testability
snaysis
;
risk
analysis;
production
pionning;
test
concept
•
Production
planning
filter
The
use
of
proven
manufacturing
methods
for
mechanical
parts
with
capability
indices
(Cpk)
between
1.85
&
2.11
mean
that
no
further
sc
/
cc
are
generated.
15
sc/f
from
the
drawings
need
not
be
tracked
further,
because
it
is
possible
to
demonstrate
the
robustness
of
the
manufacturing
processes.
Checks
on
the
supplier's
production
planning
for
electronics
result
in
5
more
cc/s
and
3
more
sc/f
A.6
Motor
assembly
•
Production
process
filter
120
million
units
delivered
to
date.
No
known
problems
with
shaft,
sheet
package,
housing,
commutator,
insulation,
magnets,
magnet
ring,
brush
system,
throttle
and
capacitor.
This
permits
the
elimination
of
3
sc/f.
Data
from
experience
reveal
4
more
sc/f
and
one
cc/s
for
the
cup,
wiring
and
winding.
The
ECU
must
be
considered
and
further
special
characteristics
will
probably
be
added
Prima
mew..
srbierw.
ampraraosrat
atru.Stri,
lox
rbaumbvisp,
Brush
/
commutator
after
2
x
life
cycle
n
rotes.
for
lug
product
development
•
FMEA
for
electric
parking
brake
torque
support
•
The
FMEA
results
in
severity
figures
of
8,
9
or
0
for
•
press
fastening
•
material
strength
•
notching
effect
•
Bowden
cable
interface
(dimensional)
•
tolerances
on
form
&
positron
•
geometry
In
today's
thinking
a
figure
of
9
or
10
does
not
automatically
result
in
a
significant
characterbtic
sc/f
or
a
critical
characteristic
cc/h
or
cc/s
■
Concept
filter
Multiple
safety
level
for
tensile
&
torsion
resistance
in
the
layout
•
problematic
design
with
stamped
form
part
rejected
•
change
to
stable
design
with
cold-formed
part
nee,l
Concept
filter
_e.
2
:mece
_
-
calyccorawge
--
Relevant
functions,
tequeoments
and
cheractenst.
for
Safety,
ofiglemcon
end
hdificaerf
apply
chain
mph..
Requirements
m
qpnt
for
the
coot-met
to
I.
Issued
System
layout
Respiremants
spseificatim
Risk
analysis
&ear,.
lean
+
erne,.
Concept
requirements
@
functions
at
vetdde
level
expenentoe
from
prevbus
Pnrf
safety
requirements,
hamologation-relevent,
legal
end
;-slip
aellaanlfr
iitcsfiebaot
A.6
Brush
/
commutator
A.6
Torque
support
BBF-23456-A
Derailed
description:
perlonnerue
specification;
experience
nom
ct4m,,
..r
IapocL
covering
simulebon;
trials:
assessment;
verification
WY
In
&mesa
M2.1.714ei•
snavr4ee•Lbul
er
server,.
ea,
or
glans*,
era
r.
ereeeern•
ere.
Design
filter
..e.mllem
release
be
fell
VeduerSenqweeleeeseenfi
▪
Concept
filter
Design
:
Stee
/brass/AG
633
combination
with
lubrication
Design:
Steel/bronze
with
L32
rejected
(wear)
•
The
FMEA
for
the
shaft/nut/lubrication
system
shows
severity
figures
of
8,
9
or
10
for
•
Material
strength
•
Surface
quality
•
Lubrication
In
today's
thinking
a
figure
of
9
or
10
does
not
automaticaly
result
in
•
special
characteristic
sc/fora
critical
characteristic
cc/h
or
cc/s
r,tr
nue...ern5
mon,
for
bra
earease
:to
be
1..1
J
se.
Q
ZL
...na
MCFY,
errourre-barem
ark
ohneVarereleci
fin
r-
`dufveer.
reps
elan
rwl
Concept,
requirements
d
Unctions
at
vehicle
level,
experience
from
previous
probeern,
safety
requiremerrts,
homologelion-relevent,
legal
and
public
euthonty
regulabons,
customer
requirements
us
System
layout
Respinaments
specification
Risk
analysis
Sabre
neadraments
A.6
Torque
support
BBF-23456-A
•
Design
filter
60
units
operated
to
2
x
life
5
OK.
Pressure
marks
visible
on
Bowden
cable
location.
1
million
load
changes
on
separate
test-rig
S
OK.
Pull-off
force
and
torsional
moment
documented
with
a
safety
factor
of
10
•
Drawings
•
2
cc/s
•
2
sc/f
▪
material
and
pull-off
force
in
the
shaft
assembly
drawing
▪
guide
surface
dimension
and
Bowden
cable
dimension
•
Production
planning
filter
No
experience
from
earlier
designs
S
maintain
sc
/
cc
•
Production
process
filter
No
experience
from
previous
production
maintain
sc
/
cc
A.6
Shaft
/
nut
/
lubrication
system
r
.1
fpaala•M
M1.•••••
a
kaa,...M
a.••
01.1=.31.L.;
o.t•l.d
description;
parromience
specifier
on;
experience
from
previous
project.;
design
leresk
Phis;
aueamerrt;
rmitleetion
V
Design
filter
----
Tsehnicsi
docioneritation
Mr.
sid
i
rcrfleirl
specter
chestectettsUss
•
+Ps
et
Me
strums
kir...MM.
III
relkresam
oy
1
Potent
drew,
1.144E1%V...41J
Steel
/
brass
/Ag633
combination
to
DV
Result:
Very
slight
traces
of
wear
A.6
Shaft
/
nut
/
lubrication
system
•
Design
filter
20
steel/brass
units
tested
to
2
x
life.
Practically
no
wear
detected
4
OK
Test
on
20
x
steel/bronze
units
broken
off
because
of
extensive
wear
•
Drawings
4
x
sc/f
and
1
x
cc/s
(material)
each
for
shaft
and
nut
Also
1
x
sc/f
and
4
x
cc/s
for
sub-assembly
with
lubrication
•
Production
planning
filter
Initial
process
trials
indicate
that
the
steel/brass/AG633
combination
has
the
capacity
to
absorb
process
fluctuations
such
as
flaking
and
layering
during
rolling.
Further
investigations
required
4
maintain
the
sc
/
cc
•
Production
process
filter
Very
different
manufacturing
process
compared
with
previous
production
5
maintain
the
sc
/
cc
A.6
Wear
on
nut
/
shaft
Steel
/
bronze
/
L32
combination
to
DV
Result:
Massive
wear,
finally
destroying
the
thread
rm.-reve
ne
m
hi
ecieducitredeiveraemece.
Concept
requirements
it
fundions
at
vein
de
level,
experience
from
previous
projects,
safety
requirements,
homologatIon-relevert,
legal
end
public
ktiverMyregusewl
wcnarver
moriesserts
repirwir.
Relevant
functions,
requirements
end
cnarecterlsbos
for
ritrlapl
V
.o..
v.r
nselleell.reqUernarcr
0-
0
,Zere.r.
nitdrYlorsevidrieleorm_,
Detailed
description:
perbrmence
specification:
experience
from
previous
projects;
design
layout
co,
o-m.nomia•en.
wrdocon
I
Design
filter
60
units
tested
to
2
x
life.
No
wear
detected
4
OK.
Displacement
force
and
torque
tested
under
higher
temperature
stress
4
OK.
•
Drawings
16
x
sc/f
and
2
x
cc/s
Detailed
description;
performanu
epecificalf
on;
experience
hem
previous
Were..
•
Gelgn
rms.,:
annulate..
Mole;
=easement;
verification
Protot
yp
e
cP
Design
filterNo
epe
del
I
icesmrlo
e•CIC
S
1
validation
by
tAfrdlat11.4c;
Tconnica/
doeurnerstenon
run!
sped/led
egotist
charactmlsocs
keens
Fr
tele,
.
A.6
Slipping
clutch
Sy.t.m
layout
Raosilramants
apaclacklon
Mak
analyals
$0./.y
7.111111.1
•
The
FMEA
for
the
slipping
clutch
ABC-654002
shows
severity
figures
of
8,
9
or
10
for
•
Torque
transfer
N
Firm
retention
on
the
shaft
•
Wear
In
today's
thinking
a
figure
Roqiunmeri,
mgmt
for
ern
e
corset
to
be
!awed
of
9
or
10
does
not
automatically
result
Ina
spedal
characteristic
sc/f
or
a
critical
characteristic
cc/h
or
cc/s
a
Concept
filter
Technical
design
layout
by
plastics
and
mechanical
experts,
using
a
plastic
material
(XZ
100)
shown
as
suitable
in
comparable
applications.
Use
a
known
gear
shape
and
axial
spacings
known
to
be
appropriate.
Firm
axial
/
radial
retention
ensured
by
knurling
and
tight
over-moulding
A.6
Slipping
clutch
Prr-rieurnk
OP
r
Special
chest-
Levu..
t
not
toe
:re
st
vallaalon
by
roburt
concept
vasourectunng
reastillity
abadY
end
Unreality
wrote;
nick
snstreis,
production
planning:
test
cement
Special
cheracterletics
to
be
',Lidded
by
omens.
layout
Special
clurectrinettee
to
On
validated
by
oneness
irveta
V
YmOdation
Producttbo
cencepl.
trielAnspactlen
RUM.:
Validation
of
producbon
concept
teetinepection
planning
C4,110:•••
or
•
F.-0.n
Production
process
filter
.410
1.0..
.
-411111111r
500010
cluancleo
sttc
s
not,
pecked
further
es
validation
Is
Li
documented
stAlttintiMIlt;
P
auces.
Special
character*
gcs
requiring
prObeSS
COMM{
PAM
or
snob..
In•
1.90.rian
Control
Plan
001.1100/41•1•I
.1110,160101111,01,
1
A.6
Slipping
clutch
Ind
.
Tertot4o
ii
COCuntelatellun
Ind.
Spetrieni
special
chataarrIstica
Manufacturing
fsesIbIllty
study
and
testebillty
analysis;
rink
armlyele;
production
planning;
ter
concept
•
Production
planning
filter
Manufacturing
process:
Detailed
investigation
by
supplier
is
required.
Known
assembly
process;
in
terms
of
process
planning
the
results
from
ca.
24
million
units
already
delivered
4
no
further
sc
/
cc
A.6
Slipping
clutch
•
Production
process
filter
For
technical
manufacturing
reasons
the
electric
parking
brake
must
be
calibrated
and
during
this
the
slipping
clutch
is
100%
checked,
including
checks
on
forces
and
torques.
It
is
not
necessary
to
specify
further
sc
/
cc.
Production
passed
prodocrairpieval
TPA)
..doss
btTM
1.19.10n
complalen,
bemire,
rapen.111.•
to
Prod..
Elba
nquallallen
A.6
Force
sensor
•
FMEA
for
B58
electric
parking
brake
■
Force
sensor
consisting
of
shaft,
nut,
spring,
return
spring,
support
washer,
spring
guide,
leaf
spring,
magnet,
Hall-IC,
ECU
and
ECU
for
position
to
transmission
housing
-46P
.
:
.4r
•
•
FMEA
indicates
severity
levels
of
10
for
■
Friction
■
Changes
in
magnetic
conditions
following
calibration
(changes
in
X
and
Z
planes;
20
pm
ca.
1%
error
(±
10%
is
the
limit)
•
4
already
>
300
items
with
a
severity
level
of
10
■
The
problems
cannot
be
handled
by
a
consideration
of
sc
and
cc
•
=>
In
the
view
of
development
and
quality
departments
the
task
is
not
yet
finally
completed.
•
=>
A
study
based
on
the
requirements
of
IEC
6150811S0
26262
is
essential
A.6
Results
•
Overall
it
was
possible
to
reduce
the
number
of
special
characteristics
listed
and
in
the
drawings
to
271
•
Of
these
55
are
cc/s
requiring
special
archiving
•
These
55
cc/s
plus
a
further
27
sc/f
are
handled
according
to
instructions
either
in
production
or
by
suppliers
•
In
the
FMEA
there
are
still
ca.
1200
severity
levels
of
8,
9
or
10
f
In
today's
thinking
a
figure
of
9
or
10
does
not
automatically
result
in
a
special
characteristic
sc/f
or
a
critical
characteristic
cc/h
or
cc/s
•
Highly
complex
problems
require
other
solution
methods
—
for
example
IEC
61508,
ISO
26262
co
3
co
Z
=
U)
CD
cn
B
0.
5'
co
Cn
-
O
5'
Ca
CD
CD
Cn
cn
CD
•
.<
cn
CD
C)
O
U)
CD
iZ
CE)
'
.
CD
F.:
Cn/
:
).
CD
3
Cs
0
co
(5.
•
•
m
5
CD
-
CD
C)
CT
CD
co
•
=
cr
,
C
Z
p
CD
•
M
_s
0
•
C
o
w
•
cr
,
CD
=
CO
st
fa)
CD
CD
CF
CI
CD
0-)
C0
C1
0
.7-
-;
CD
FD
I
CI)
CD
0_
Cr
0
0
Cn
0
t
CD
A.6
Further
action
•
Results,
experience
and
decisions
must
be
documented
and
archived,
for
example
:
*
under
CAProjecffolderlEPB1...
inc.
e-mail
archive
EPB,
*
under
LILabordatenbanklEPB1...,
*
In
the
folder
Validation
trials
EPB
design
*
in
the
EPB
FMEA
under
"Comments"
and
in
the
change
record
*
•
Decisions
regarding
the
sc
and
cc
which
have
been
defined
must
be
checked
on
the
basis
of
results
of
product
monitoring
in
the
field.
This
must
be
carried
out
regularly,
at
least
once
a
year,
by
risk
analysis
within
the
framework
of
the
requalification
checks
•
The
entire
procedure
is
obligatory
and
described
in
detail
in
Process
Instruction
No....
m
co
3
0
CD
CD
m
C)
a
a
CD
5
co
Cl)
C)
CS
cT,
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safely requirements
Pagans ad
aqua,.eel
*OWNnatal p
durs,alla
Concept
change
Relevant functions, requirements and
characteristics for
Safety, registration and bamboo
"VZ.V4ravdvain
":)
butovation came ter full
production dexatopnmel
Concept, requirements 8 functions al vehicle level.
experience from previous projects.
safety requirements, homologaliondelevant,
legal end public authority regulations,
customer requirements
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safety reouirements
Requirements mgmt, for
the contract to be Issued
Relevant funreons, requirements and
cha-ncreristics for
,
Oat' legalalalland battalion
en piecing me Omer
Cala." answer.,performance
spatetun. a',amp ben
rucetats
Cvro.NulaNa; tlesx,ut laficaa-
"t,
alad.
esaanani;
rrg;;;;;
c-p
PO.5.1110 Ofter
Detailed description; performance
specification; experience from previous
ojecta; design layout; simulation; trials;
assessment; verincalCon
-----
Prototype CP
---
lead
(
":g741="
1‘,
specified
documentation Incl.
specified special characteristics
Design
change
I No spaniel
Ichteselerlike as
vailtlettonby
I ,shoat dadan
a dOCOIlladdd
A.7.1 Description of the process sequence
a) The development process sequence
A.7.1.1 Requirements regarding the concept
Firstly, the relevant requirements
and functions regarding the vehicle
concept are examined, with experi-
ence from previous projects.
There are no customer requirements
regarding the ECU which give rise to
special characteristics.
The system layout, requirements specifications and safety requirements form
the basis for the risk analysis. This highlights out failure modes and their
consequences. These results flow into the concept filter to enable a determi-
nation of relevant requirements, functions and characteristics. One of the
important requirements is set out in the requirements specification and
demands compliance with EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) limits.
A.7.1.2 Concept filter
The concept is examined.
Compliance with the EMC
requirements is assessed
critically.
The requirement cannot
Be changed by a modi-
fication of the concept.
It is therefore regarded
as a relevant homologation
requirement and is carried
forward to the design
phase for further
examination.
Other functions and requirements which were secured at the concept phase
have been confirmed by tests and are not forwarded to the design phase as
relevant functions and requirements. The associated tests and their results
are documented in the development report EB14-2010.
A.7.1.3 Requirements regarding the design
The ECU is laid out in detail.
Appropriate actions are speci-
fied in the layout to ensure
compliance with homologation
requirements regarding out-
ward radiation and resistance
to inward radiation.
Experience regarding EMC
from previous projects is taken into account.
Following measurements in the EMC laboratory, the layout, components and
housing are optimized. The changes made are verified by further
measurements with the ECU (test report PB-E 07/2010).
Final confirmation that the EMC requirements are satisfied can be obtained
only by later measurements in the target vehicle.
A.7.1.4 Design filter
Measurements in the EMC building with the ECU installed in the target
vehicle indicate that all requirements can be met, provided there is a
satisfactory ground connection to the vehicle. However, tests with an
inadequate ground connection show that the limit figures are exceeded.
The ground connection
is therefore classified as
a critical characteristic
cc/h.
These tests also reveal
that an inadequate
ground connection also
leads to safety-relevant
functional failures of the
ECU. It is therefore also
classified as a critical
characteristic cc/s.
No further special characteristics were noted in the design phase.
84 85
The ECU and earthing cable are pre-assembled by the supplier and delivered
as a single unit to the customer. The earthing cable is installed by the OEM.
The customer must be informed of these special characteristics.
In the customer documentation (drawing issued for quotations, technical
customer documentation) the ground connection for the earthing cable is
identified and classified with s and h.
A.7.2 Consequences
In discussions between the customer and the production planning
department, as well as the customer's quality assurance department,
agreement is reached on the tightening torque and test/checking measures
(100% test/inspection).
The customer includes the special characteristics, the associated data and
the test/inspection measures in his control plan.
A.8 Example : Sliding roof drive motor
Design drawing (section)
86 87
System layout
Reek/in:moots specification
Rink anotysis
Safety roquiteMenis
sue et a Mrs
csinsem
strange
hiL2
sPITZ:17,
supply
Concept filter
- &
,ncspl Vallttatad?
Cern:opt change
noettipie?
B
Relevant functions, requirements and
characteristics for
Safely, registration and function
unmansma
inearnanarre not
rmelrinp warm
ansinceinnixa
( MLQ
J
Innotration release for full
pioductleet developmeet
Concept, requirements 8 functions at vehicle level,
experience from previous projects,
safety requirements, hornologationirelevani,
legal and public authority regulations,
customer requirements
System layout
Requirements specification
Risk analysis
Safety requirements
Requirements mgmt for
the contract to be Issued
Relevant ronitheins, requirements and
theracierislics far
palely, registration grid funratiot.,
"Vpiane
raigrZgm
Detailed description; performance
specification; experience from
previous projects; design layout;
covering simulation; teals:
assessment; verification
-------
-------------- Prototype CP
-
1
-------1
Detailed descrIprbon: perfOrmance
pecification; experience from previous
ognisi. design layout; simulation; trials
assessment; verification
L
Design filter
Daman validated?
Onoslump; --
possaget
3
LL
Technical documentation incl.
s special characteristics
Design
change
---
Prototype CP
.
I
.........
I No
ichatectertelles
validation by I
I robust dellan I
I.documented
1
A.8.1 Description of the process sequence
a) The development process sequence
A.8.1.1 Requirements regarding the concept
Firstly, the relevant requirements and
functions regarding the vehicle concept
are examined, with experience from
previous projects.
There are no customer requirements
regarding the sliding roof drive motor
which give rise to special characteristics.
The system layout, requirements specifications and safety requirements form
the basis for the risk analysis. This highlights failure modes and their conse-
quences. These results flow into the concept filter to enable a determination
of relevant requirements, functions and characteristics. One of the important
requirements is set out in the requirements specification and demands
compliance with the limit figures for the closing force of the sliding roof.
A.8.1.2 Concept filter
The concept is examined.
The requirements for the
closing force are analysed.
These requirements cannot
be changed by a modification
to the concept.
The closing force is examined
further as a safety-relevant and
homologation-relevant require-
ment and is carried forward to
the design phase for further
examination. Because of American FMVSS traffic homologation regulations
there is also an homologation relevance here.
Other functions and requirements which were secured at the concept phase
rheale
vevabnetefunnccotinofinrs d
m
a
e
n
db
r
y
eg
te
u
s
i
t
rrnnt
s
e
an
e
da
s
r
.
e not forwarded to the design phase as
Proof of compliance is documented in test report EV32/SC/2009.
A.8.1.3 Requirements regarding the design
The functions and requirements
Which have been identified are
taken into account when drawing
up the performance specification
and the design layout.
The position of the ring magnet
is identified as a safety-relevant characteristic because this has a crucial
influence on the closing force.
Closing force measurements on assembled samples are used to determine
the optimum position of the ring magnet.
A.8.1.4 Design filter
In design discussions it
determined that the position
of the ring magnet cannot
be secured by design
measures alone. The SE
team and the production
department therefore agree
that the position of the ring
magnet must be classified
as a cc/s to be handled as
a test dimension.
No further special characteristics are determined in the design phase.
The special characteristic is specified in the technical documentation of the
development phase (in particular in the drawing — see the illustration on the
first page of this example) and is forwarded to the technical documentation
department for production planning.
88 89
-VDA-Special-Characteristics Special characteristics.pdf
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