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Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Using Balanced Scorecard to Build a
Project Focused IT Organization
Driving high performance teams
with Balanced Scorecard and a
Program Management Office

© 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group

Thank you for the kind invitation to speak today on Balanced Scorecard and
project management. I’m Glen Alleman from CH2M HILL. CH’s primary focus
is on technology and services to safeguard the environment.
I work in the Communications and Information Solutions (CIS) Group. Our
Information and Communications Technology business unit provides ICT
services to Department of Energy weapons systems closure sites across the
nation.
Although this may sound like it is far removed from the every day world of
business, most of our ICT issues can be found in banks, manufacturers, and
other service providers. Our products come and go in containers, we have
inventory control system, work planning systems, purchasing, human
resources, and 100’s of custom applications – like any other large business.
Our “product” just happens to be the radioactive waste products of the former
nuclear weapons plants.
Other than compartmental access, lots of badges and hard hats, we’re like
any other large complex business operation – continually searching for ways
to improve our processes while serving our customer’s needs.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

1
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

© 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group

The CH2M HILL CIS Group works in conjunction with the Nuclear Group for
the Department of Energy. They do the cleanup we keep track of all the data
that results from their efforts.
DOE owns and operates the Nuclear Weapons Complex in many locations
across the US. Rocky Flats is one of those sites. The locations shown in this
slide represent the current Complex sites involved in some aspect of
weapons production, research, or cleanup. We’re on the cleanup end of the
process. Our site, Rocky Flats, manufactured and assembled portions of
weapons until the early 1990’s.
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law on
January 1, 1970, to address the need for an environmental policy to guide the
growing consciousness and shape the national response to the legacy of the
nuclear weapons complex. From this basis most of the environmental law
regarding cleanup and disposal of nuclear waste has been derived.
A good history of the NWC can be found in Building the Bombs: A History of
the Nuclear Weapons Complex, Charles R. Loeber, Sandia National
Laboratories, SAND2002-0307P, United States Government Printing Office,
ISBN: 0-16-067187-6

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

2
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

© 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group

Our site is located at the base of the Rocky Mountains, along the Front
Range just north west of Denver. This site is being restored to its original
pristine environment in late 2005.
Although this picture shows a bucolic setting, inside the buildings are the
rements of the cold war. Bomb parts, the machines used to manufacture
them, and all the materials and waste left over from the manufacturing.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

3
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Our Customer is not your normal commercial business producing
household items, consumer products of business items
The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) is a nationwide group of
government-owned and contractor operated laboratories and
production plants managed by the National Nuclear Security
Administration under the U.S. Department of Energy.
Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS) was one of
those plants.
It was shut down in 1989 in order to bring it in line with environment
regulations.
It never restarted
Clean up and closure has been its mission since then

This effort has been managed by Kaiser-Hill Company LLC
Closure is scheduled for late 2005

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The closure of the former nuclear weapons sites, is a half trillion dollar
enterprise. DOE’s Environmental Management budget for 2004 is $7.2
Billion. The National Nuclear Security Administration's budget for FY 2004 is
$8.835 billion, for a combined total of $16 billion per year.
Managing the IT portion of these projects is our core competency. IT in the
past was not a critical success factor for safe site closure. Our experiences at
Rocky Flats have shown that IT can now been seen as an integral
component of the cleanup process. Although we are still a second order
impact on cleanup, the safe, effective, and efficient closure can no longer
proceed without modern IT processes.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

4
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

A Quick Background Of Our Business Environment, Clients And
Business Model
CH2M HILL is a $2.2B project completion services firm
Our current engagement is a $12M annual IT services contract with
the Department of Energy
We provide information and communication technology (ICT) services
to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site
The closure mission supports D&D efforts for all waste clean up
All activities are mission critical
Steady reduction in budget and staff in support of
closure is our “normal” business environment
Closure projects have accelerated cost
reduction budgets until they reach ZERO
Our goal is to turn Rocky Flats into dirt, prairie
dogs, and 10TB of data
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I come to Balanced Scorecard not as a business executive but as the leader
of a Program Management Office. My role in our IT organization is to turn our
strategy into actionable outcomes. I participate in the development of strategy
as a member of the executive management team. In the end though the
PMO is on the delivery end of the objectives, portfolios, and projects that
make up the portfolios.
Our work environment may be unique from the experience of most of you
here. Our business is to “go out of business” – we manage the IT processes
for DOE weapons plant closure projects. There 114 of these sites in the
continental US, ranging from 650 square miles to small rooms in the
basements of university physics departments.
These projects are like construction projects but in reverse. All the buildings,
nuclear and chemical wastes, all the infrastructure, and any remnants of the
site are removed, shipped to various sites or disposed of in some way. For
our site at Rocky Flats all that will be left in 2005 is 6,500 acres of clean dirt,
prairie dogs, and 30 TB of data.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

5
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Balanced
Scorecard, and Program Management
ICT provides
Server and network operations
Applications
Desktop support
Telecommunications
Program Management Office
IT Governance

Core ICT strategies
Use technology in place of labor
Never be an impediment to progress toward site closure
Withdraw services that follow closure processes
On Time / On Budget / On Scope
© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
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The connection between our ICT operations at Rocky Flats and other closure
sites and Balanced Scorecard involves our mission – close the site with the
least cost, fastest schedule, without injuring or killing anyone, and without
being on the critical path for any other project task.
This goal could easily be met with simple seat of the pants project
management and maintenance and operations IT processes. The problems
arise when our customers – those doing the physical removal of the site
materials – come into the picture.
Like any real construction project, changing requirements is an everyday
occurrence. Adapting to change is the mantra of any IT organization. But in
order to adapt to change a foundation from which to make change is needed.
This is usually called “governance.” But governance alone is not enough. A
strategy for adapting to change is required. This strategy needs to consider
not only technologies and customers, but also the broader mission of the ICT
function – which asks “why are we here?” and “what have you done for us
lately?”

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

6
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Inverting the Balanced Scorecard pushes strategy down into the
organization to the project management level
Many speakers here will be talking about using Balanced
Scorecard to implement strategy up and down the organization
Our approach includes the above, but also the use of BSC to
improve the performance of a project based organization
This is a Program Management Office view of BSC rather than a
CXO view
This closes the gap between “vision” and
“execution”
Where should dollars be invested to achieve
value?
How can this delivered be measured?
How can investments be connected to strategy
as well as the tactical side of PM?
© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group

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Our approach to Balanced Scorecard may be different than others. We did
not start with some broad business goal – grow this company to a larger size.
Ours started with the question “how can we provide more with less?”
Since we live in a project based operation, the second question was “how
can we better deliver our projects to meet the strategic needs of our
customers?”
This was an inside out view of Balanced Scorecard.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

7
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Program Management View of Balanced Scorecard Involves More
Than The Original Four Perspectives

Earned Value
Earned Value

Performance
Performance
Management
Management

Project
Project
Management
Management

Balanced Scorecard
Direction
Strategic metrics

Lessons
Lessons
Learned
Learned

Performance metrics
Actual cost
Delivered value
Resource utilization

Risk
Risk
Management
Management
Risk related project data
Strategic data
Continuous risk management

Strategy is a hypothesis
Metrics are the data for
testing the hypothesis

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The forces on project management are show here. Let’s take a quick tour for
those not familiar with government contracting performance management
practices. By the way these practices are applicable to any project
management environment not just DOE and DoD. Especially in the software
development world, where the question “when will we be done and how much
will it cost” is asked everyday.
• Performance management is our balanced scorecard. I’ll show one
version later in the presentation.
• Earned value management is the core processes for managing projects. It
asks and answers the question what is the cost at completion, when will
we be done, and what have you delivered in terms of value for the money
you’ve spent.
• Risk management is how adults do project management.
• Lessons learned is a core process improvement process. With looking
back and asking free and frank questions about improvements, moving
forward is difficult.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

8
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Talking About Project Driven Organizations Means Walking The Walk
As Well, Which Means Full Engagement With Project Execution
The Project Driven Organization
Strategy

Balanced
Scorecard

Stakeholders

Objectives

Requirements

Governance
Methods

Business
Organization

Scope
Processes

Deliverables

Teams

Portfolios

Activities
Risks

Milestones
Techniques

Roles
Responsibilities
Projects

Resources
Skills

Models
Budget

Data
Costs
Locations
Earned Value

Applications

Databases
Hardware
Tools
Exec
Entr

Servers

One Up Reviews

Standards

Desktops

PMO
Apps

Telecomm

Networks

Security

All

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When someone uses the term “project management” they usually mean the
planning of cost and schedule for the activities to deliver a product or service.
But there are many other connections between projects and strategy. But first
let’s look at the connections between the process of managing a project.
Many activities are taking place besides cost and schedule. All influencing
the outcome of the project and its support of a strategy

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

9
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

One Critical Understanding Missing From Many Strategy Discussions Is
– “What Is Strategy In The Context Of IT Deliverable Projects?”
Strategy creates fit among a firms activities
The success of strategy depends on doing many things well, not
just a few
All things that are done well must operate within a close knit
system
If there is no fit, there is no strategy
Without fit management becomes the
search for operational excellence
Improving operational excellence is
necessary but it is not the same as strategy
Managing fit is “strategic management”

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group

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Strategy usually starts with the Mickey Rooney school of management from
“Babes on Broadway” in 1941 where Mickey says to Judy Garland, “Hey
gang let’s put on a show.” The CXO comes to the business team and says
“Let’s go get a strategy.” This is clearly not the right approach, but it happens
more than you think.
The definition of “strategy” is not well understood in the IT domain. People
talk about architectural strategy, network deployment strategy, business
development strategy, and shared services strategy.
Defining strategy in terms of hardware, software, and processes is not
strategy – it’s operational effectiveness. Confusing these two is common.
Next comes the simple minded belief that making strategy is a linear stepwise process. This is obviously not true, but many strategic process
developments do not incorporate the “testing” parts of strategy found in
Balanced Scorecard. The participants make a strategy without the means to
test their hypothesis. What they have done is simply created an experiment
without any feedback from the laboratory. This is usually the start of a failed
strategy process, leading to disappointment for all.
Strategy making must have hypothesis testing metrics. These metrics are
used to “test” the strategy to determine if it is working. When the tests come
in, the owner of the strategy can ask and answer one of two questions:
• Do I have the right strategy?
• Do I have the right tests to verify the strategy?
Both questions need to be asked and answered
Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

10
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

So What Is Strategy And How Can It Be Deployed In A Project
Management Context?
Operational effectiveness involves continual improvement that
have no trade off opportunities
The operational effectiveness agenda is the proper place for
constant change, flexibility, and relentless efforts to achieve best
practices
The strategic agenda in the place for making clear tradeoffs and
strengthening the fit between the business components
Strategy involves the continual search for ways to reinforce and
extend a firms position and the delivery of value
This includes the IT “firm” within the business firm
As well as a department within the IT organization

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The difference between strategy and operational effectiveness is critical to
the deployment of Balanced Scorecard and the management of projects that
fulfill the strategy.
Keeping these differences in mind at all times is as critical as discovering the
various strategies.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

11
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Strategy Is About Creating Fit Among The Various Components,
Participants, And Forces Driving Of An IT Organization
Fit creates incentives and the
pressure to improve
Poor fit means poor performance
Poor performance exposed
Weaknesses
Increasing fit improves
performance in other areas as
well as target area of the
improvement
Strategy is making a hypothesis about a desired outcome,
constructing the measures to test the hypothesis, deploying the
experiment to test the hypothesis, then making adjustments
based on the metrics
© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group

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The concept of strategy as a hypothesis and the experiments to test the
hypothesis may be new to many. But this approach puts strategy in a
different light.
Strategy is not something you do then go off to execute the plan. It is a
continuous feedback process. Always testing the strategy with metrics
derived from projects.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

12
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

A Framework For IT Strategy In The Absence Of Balanced
Scorecard Fails To Answer Many Questions Needed For Success
What ––is the system made of?
What is the system made of?
How ––does the system work?
How does the system work?
Where ––are the components of
Where are the components of
the system located relative to one
the system located relative to one
another?
another?

Who ––does what relative to these
Who does what relative to these
system components?
system components?
When ––do things happen in the
When do things happen in the
system?
system?
Why ––are various system
Why are various system
choices being made?
choices being made?

What is the information systems strategy?
What is the information systems strategy?
How is the information technology strategy?
How is the information technology strategy?
Who is the information management strategy?
Who is the information management strategy?
Why is the organizational strategy?
Why is the organizational strategy?

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One place to start building an IT strategy framework is with the following
structure.
Asking questions about what, how, where, who, when, and why is critical to
focusing the discussion on strategy and away from technology – at least in
the beginning.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

13
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

There Are Four Elements Of IT Strategy That Must Be Present To
Fully Assess The Connection Between Objectives And Projects
Organizational Strategy – WHY

Information Technology Strategy – HOW

The wherefore and rational for the strategy
Organizational components – chose the structure or
design, management control systems and formal
policies.
Business Components – the corporate strategy
concerned with mission. Strategic business unit
strategy concerned with competitive advantage

The mechanism of the strategy
Scope – which technologies are to be formally
included in the information strategy
Architecture – the technology framework which
drives, shapes, and control the Information
technology strategy.

Information Systems Strategy – WHAT

Information Management Strategy – WHO

The components of the strategy
Alignment – identify the applications required to
support the business strategy
Opportunity – search for innovative uses of IT to
enable business to perform better

The participants in the strategy
Roles – who has what responsibility for information
resources and policies and actions
Relationships – how are relationships built between
the CIO and others to assure success over time

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There are four elements of IT strategy shown here.
Why
How
What
Who
Answering these questions is the starting point for building a strategy

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

14
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

The BIG Question of Searching for Strategic Fit Becomes The
Outcome of the Alignment Process
If strategy and structure must fit each other, then what is not
stated is:
Which aspects are to fit other aspects?
Business / Information relationships?
Information / Business relationships?

The answer to these should be obvious, but the consequences of
the answer needs to be understood:
The business strategy “drives” the IT Strategy
The IT Strategy drives the Technology Strategy
A loop is created which must be created between the technology
strategy and the business strategy before any measurable value
can be created.

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The real question though is how to define “fit” in terms of strategy.
How does the IT strategy “fit” with other business strategies?
What if the other business units don’t have a strategy?
What if other business units don’t really know what you’re talking about when
you speak of strategy?

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

15
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Balanced Scorecard And Project Management Are Natural “Soul
Mates” In An IT Organization, But Connecting Them Is Difficult
BSC provides a strategy focused view of the IT operation.
Projects and Project Management provides a tactical view of the
IT operation.
Putting these two views together creates a synergy not found in
the individual views
Tactics enable the fulfillment of strategy
Strategy validates tactical decisions

Deploying these activities require a top-to-bottom rethinking of the
IT organization
Projects must have meaningful measures
Ruthless pursuit of value must be a core management process
Viewing strategy as “hypothesis making” turns the organization
toward “goal seeking” behaviors
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By connecting BSC directly with project management, a bridge can be built
for top to bottom execution. BSC without project execution leaves the details
open. Project management with a strategy leaves open the “why” for each
project.
In the end the work force needs to answer the question – “why are we here?
What is the direct strategic purpose of the project I’m working on?”

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

16
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Project Management Is More Than Managing Projects, It’s About
Managing The Right Projects, And Dropping The Wrong Projects
Traditional view of a “project”
Defined start and end
Defined resources, cost, and delivered value
Customer, technology,

Balanced Scorecard view of a “project”
What objective of the strategy does this project support?
If the project were implemented, what goals would be fulfilled?
When will the cost of the project be earned back by a specific
objective in the strategy.

These questions and their answers are also found in project
portfolio management.

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Once project management concepts are connected with Balanced Scorecard,
the answers to the previous questions can be provided.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

17
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Project Portfolio Management is a continuous process of
assessment, corrections to plans, and reassessment
Identification
Identification
• •Needs
Needs
• •Source of ideas
Source of ideas

Timing
Timing
• •Competitiveness
Competitiveness
• •Resource Availability
Resource Availability
• •Logical sequence
Logical sequence

Project
Project
Portfolio
Portfolio
Management
Management

Evaluation
Evaluation
• •Feasibility
Feasibility
• Benefits
• Benefits
• Evaluation Criteria
• Evaluation Criteria

Selection
Selection
• Performance Metrics
• Performance Metrics
• Strategy connection
• Strategy connection

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Once projects are seen as the means to fulfilling strategy and strategy as the
guiding force for projects, the project portfolio framework makes more sense.
Assembling projects into portfolios without an overarching strategy adds little
value.
The project portfolio approach many times starts with the desire to collect
projects and provide a justification for the expenses. The real question to ask
though is “why does this project exist?” The answer is “this project supports
the following strategic initiatives.”
This seems so simple looking back through the Balanced Scorecard lens. But
it is amazing how hard it is to come to the viewpoint without first starting with
balanced scorecard. The purveyors of Balanced Scorecard and Project
Portfolio Management software sometimes miss the simplest value –
identifying the reason for a project’s existence by asking (yet again) “why are
you here?”

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

18
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Project Portfolio Management Is An “Implementation Process,” But
Alone It Is Not Sufficient To Answer The Strategy Questions
PPM has many of the tools to answer the previous questions.
PPM alone is not sufficient to assure success.
Project selection criteria are typically financial and technical.
Strategic impact analysis is needed as well.

What are the units of measure of the “strategic impact?”
Economic value added?
“Real options” exercisable value?
Market opportunities?

The business situation defines the units of measure
But most importantly connecting strategy and tactics can be done
through projects.

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Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is an implementation process not a
strategic process. PPM provides information (performance) about projects.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

19
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Leading Indicators of Project Performance Are Needed Before
Project Portfolio Management Can Be Deployed Successfully
Portfolios can be “managed” through their performance
metrics. Cost and Schedule variances as well as Estimate At
Completion are “leading” indicators of project performance
Static and dynamic
trends show where the
projects are headed
The Bulls Eye chart
provides an overview in
a single picture how the
portfolio is performing
This chart and the BSC
chart connects both
ends of the problem.
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Success of project portfolio management depends on “leading indicators.”
Without these, managing projects is like “driving in the rear view mirror.” It
can be done, but when you run over something you don’t know it until its too
late.
Earned Value Management Systems provide leading and well as trailing
indicators for projects. Connecting these leading indicators to BSC satisfies
½ of the equation for developing metrics to test the strategic hypothesis.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

20
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Projectizing IT Organizations Is Harder Than It Looks, Everyone
Has “Enlightened Self Interest” For The Use Of Their Budget
The curse of the “level of effort” project
“Train watching” is a common term
As time passes resources are consumed, services delivered, but
delivered value is not always measured.

How to measure “value” of a project
Expected Monetary Value (EMV)
Project “profit,” ROI, IRR, etc.
Opportunity costs

These all have static monetary units of measure with little or no
connection to strategy
It’s the interaction between “value” and ”strategy” that must be
evaluated
Real Options is an approach to this connection
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Project Management and Projects have “enlighten self interest” as a core
value. It is unlikely any project manager is willing to give up resources,
funding, or scope for the higher good of the organization.
By focusing on the “strategic” view of projects, the project owners and
managers are put in a position where they need to answer the question “what
strategic value does your project bring to the table?”

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

21
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

What is the “value” of fulfilling a specific strategy and how can this
value be monetized in the same units as development costs?
There are many ways of measuring “value”
Expected Monetary Value
Earned Value
Real Options
Internal rate of return

Return on Assets
Payback Period
Return on Investment
Economic Value Added

All these methods are useful, but care needs to be taken not to
put too much “faith” in the absolute numbers
The “value” aspects need to not only fit the strategic needs, they
need to be acceptable to both the finance team as well as the
customers

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The term “value” keeps coming up. The definition of value is usually vague
and many times conflicting from various organizations. Establishing a
common and agreed upon definition of the “value of a project” is critical.
One place to look for a definition is in the “real options” domain. Here the
value of the option is necessary prior to the exercise decision.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

22
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Our Method Of Measuring “Value” Involves Discovering The Expected
Cost Of The Project With A High Degree Of Certainty: Earned Value
$1,000K

Authorized Budget = $1,000K

$750K
Planned Cost = BCWS= $300K
$500K
Actual Cost = ACWP = $300K
$250K

Earned Value = BCWP = $200K
1

2

3

4

Traditional Project Management
Traditional Project Management
Planned Cost = $300K
Actual Costs = $300K

Variance from
Plan = ($0K)

Earned Value Project Management
Earned Value Project Management

This is a simple project in which the first
This is a simple project in which the first
reported period has completed.
reported period has completed.
$300K was planned to be spent, $300K
$300K was planned to be spent, $300K
was actually spent, but only $200K of
was actually spent, but only $200K of
physical progress has been made.
physical progress has been made.
In the traditional project management
In the traditional project management
method, “we’ve spent to our plan,” so
method, “we’ve spent to our plan,” so
we’re right on track. We’re OK.
we’re right on track. We’re OK.
In EV “we’ve spent to plan, but under–
In EV “we’ve spent to plan, but under–
delivered, by $100K. We’re in trouble.
delivered, by $100K. We’re in trouble.
Now we need to increase our efficiency
Now we need to increase our efficiency
just to get back on track and increase even
just to get back on track and increase even
more to stay ahead.
more to stay ahead.
By reducing the reporting period to finer
By reducing the reporting period to finer
and finer granularity, software
and finer granularity, software
development methods like Extreme
development methods like Extreme
Programming and SCRUM can be laid
Programming and SCRUM can be laid
over the Earned Value system. Adding
over the Earned Value system. Adding
Testable requirements to these methods
Testable requirements to these methods
re-connects EV with software
re-connects EV with software
development, closing the loop between
development, closing the loop between
traditional and agile management
traditional and agile management
processes.
processes.

Planned Cost = $300K
SV = BCWP – BCWS: Schedule variance from Plan = (–$100K)
Earned Value = $200K
Actual Cost = $300K

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

CV = BCWP – ACWP: The true cost variance = (–$100K)

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

23/38

The value measuring method we use is Earned Value. We saw a bit of EV in
a previous slide. Here’s some more details. For IT projects EV is a powerful
tool worth the initial effort to integrate into the portfolio management process.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

23
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Our Balanced Scorecard is Based On A Strategy Of “Going Out Of
Business” On December 15th, 2005
Getting all participants accountable for the outcome is critical
Strategy is developed both top down and bottom up
Matrixed approach to projects, portfolios, and metrics – not
dictated by management but collaborative development

Projectizing all activities with specific measurements creates a
focused team, but metrics must match the underlying behavior of
the process
Bottom up cost and schedule estimates
Deliverables management continuous rather than stages

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

24/38

Our balanced scorecard based on a closure strategy is an easy to
understand set of objectives and metrics to guide and measure progress to
plan.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

24
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Turning Strategy Into Tactics Connects The Strategic Planning
Process With The Delivery On That Strategy Using the PMO
The Strategy Focused
IT Organization

Mobilization Phase
Initiate the Process of Change – Gain Consensus and Momentum from Participants

Migration Phase
Create Focus – Create Focus and Establish New Performance Culture

Management Phase
Institutionalize Change – Deploy Changes and New Management Processes

BALANCED PROJECT
MANAGEMENT CYCLE

Strategies

Objectives

Measures

Targets

Initiatives
Business Case

Strategic
Objectives

Critical Success
Factors

Performance
Drivers

Performance
Indicators

Balanced Scorecard
Business
Outcome

Project
Needs

Project Objectives

PMO

Process
Improvement

Growth
Training

Critical Success Factors

EVMS

Balanced Scorecard Database
Budget
Customer
CSS
SQA
SNO
Skill
Measures Measures Measures Measures Measures Measures

Performance Metrics
(Drivers and Indicators)

Proj Srvr
Project
Portfolio(s)

Targets and Budgets
Project Managers

Participants
IT
Directors

Functional
Managers

CRMs

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Project Implementation
Supervisors

Dec 15, 2002

PROJECT PLANNING
AND BUDGETING

Jan 30, 2003

Project
Managers

Internal and
External
Communications
Mar 31, 2003

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

PERFORMANCE AND
APPRAISAL PROCESS

Performance Evaluation

Value Delivery

25/38

Embedding Balanced Scorecard in the organization is a better approach than
starting at the top and working down. What the people who do the work want
to know is – “how is this going to help me do my job better?”
The introduction of Balanced Scorecard MUST show these benefits early in
the process, or the end users will see this as just another gimmick cooked up
by the MBA types.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

25
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Assembling The Components Of Strategy And Tactics
Turning the strategy into projects requires a project oriented
organization
Project organizations start with changing the role of the functional
managers
Self directed teams
Project Manager led teams
Functional manager led teams = level of effort teams

Cascading strategy to the functional managers
Ownership of objectives now a a low level
Roll up the objectives from the bottom
Combine top down and bottom up

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

26/38

Combining Balanced Scorecard and project management takes work. But the
pay off is worth the effort

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

26
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Organizing Around “Project Driven” Processes Means A Matrix Structure
With Teams, Functional Managers, And Project Management
Balanced Score Card + Portfolios + Teams = High Performance Organization
Business Domain
Operations
Manager
(Caterham)

IT Management

Senior Management

Customer & Stakeholder Community

Managing Dir
Business Dev
CTO
Program Mgmnt

Portfolio
Management
Shared
Services

Data
Stewardship

Enterprise
Communications

Business Units
Customer
Advisory
Group
(CAG)

Hittelman
Martin
Radley
Henderson
Conan
Barefield
Swanson

Architecture
Controls

Business
Development

Policy &
Administration

Governance

Alleman
Guthner
Oshinski
Barefield
Martin

IT Leadership

Oshinski
Alleman
Guthner
Caterham

Guthner
Bontempo
Gwin
Teegarden
Ploughman

Purchasing
(Murray)

Administration
(Bontempo)

Enterprise

PMO
Architecture &
Governance

Applications
Management

Project &
Portfolio
Management

Infrastructure
Management

Manager
(Alleman)

CTO
(Guthner)

Safety
(Lewis)

Enterprise

Telecommunications
(Conan)

Manager
(Oshinski)

Administration
(Gwinn)

Mission

SQA
(Trivett)

CM
(Simon)

CSS
(3)

Telecommunications
(Lindsey)

Network
Operations
(Goldberg)

SQA/SV&V
Staff

PMO

Vision

Project
Accounting
(Ploughman)

Alleman
Oshinski
Barefield
Henderson
Guthner

Caterham Oshinski
Alleman
Guthner
Barefield Hittelman
Radley
Martin
Conan
Swanson
Teegarden Henderson

CM
Staff

CSS
Staff

Telecommunications
Staff

Network
Operations
Staff

Applications
Solutions
(Henderson)

Deputy CTO
(Barefield)

Cyber
Security
(Weber)

Cyber
Security
Staff

Server
Operations
Staff

Business
Solutions
(Martin)

Applications
Solutions
Staff

Customer
Relationship
Managers

Business
Solutions
Staff

Server
Operations
(Russo)

Culture

Project Delivery Team

Initiatives

Portfolio(s)
Project Delivery Team

Measures
Initiative(s)

Strategies

Project Delivery Team
Portfolio(s)

Objectives

Project Delivery Team
Initiative(s)

Targets

Project Delivery Team
Portfolio(s)
Project Delivery Team

Individual Business Units
Balanced Scorecard
Individual Business Units

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

27/38

Here’s our high level organization chart with BSC, traditional hierarchical line
managers, and self directed teams.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

27
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Balanced Scorecard And Project Management Can Be Blended
Together To Build A Powerful Tool For Managing IT Projects
The Balanced Scorecard components are necessary but not
always sufficient for success
Matrix of components
Strategy map – tells the strategy story in one page
Objectives – describes the deliverables from the strategy
Measures – indicators of success
Targets – goals
Initiatives – collections of work efforts
Projects – tactical work packages

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

28/38

The components of the Balanced Scorecard and Project Management
approach include core processes and components. These components are
ALL needed to make Balanced Scorecard and Project Management work.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

28
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

The Hard Part Is When We’re Asked To Manage Projects That
Don’t Fulfill A Strategy
Connecting project costs with strategic value is critical
Two different units of measure
Two different spheres of influence – one looks outward, one looks
inward

Making visible the project’s “value” to the strategy.
Making the “value” of a project visible beyond cost and schedule.
One approach is to use “earned value” to manage IT projects
EV is commonly found in construction, aerospace and
government contracting environments.
But in IT development?

The Balanced Scorecard is the place to start as well as end

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

29/38

Once Balanced Scorecard and Project Management have started down the
path together it is important to unify the units of measure as well.
In Balanced Scorecard many of the units of measure will have business type
attributes. The projects will be restricted to cost and schedule variances.
These can be tied together by associating cost and schedule variance to the
specific business attributes. For example:
•What is the cost and schedule impact of not achieving the planned service
turnaround rate for a customer support help desk? Can the business unit of
measure be “dollarized” or shown to have specific schedule impact?
•What is the dollarized savings of moving from a fat client technology to a thin
client technology for the desktop? The project that manages the rollout of thin
client has cost and schedule variances produced from the earned value
reports. Along with estimates at completion, probabilities of completion on
schedule, etc. these metrics can be used in parallel with the Balanced
Scorecard metrics of the benefits of the cost reduction strategy for desktop
computing.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

29
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Alignment Means “Actions Have Consequences”
Alignment Actions
Full engagement with the
“customers” at the detailed level
Aligning in “stages” by sorting
out “going forward” applications

Alignment Consequences
Servicing the customer is a
“strategy”
Identifying the value of each
application.

Shared strategic objectives that
start with the “customers” needs
Short–term tactical success
means long–term strategic
success.
Knowing about the business,
but not making the business
decisions, this belongs to the
“customers”

Capturing needs is a continuous
process.
Continuous building on success is
a difficult and fulltime job

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Having the customer “inside” the
process, rather than as an
external source of information.

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

30/38

Like all good process improvement processes, understanding how actions
create consequences is important. Without this understanding the actions will
be taken – by following the instructions of the prescribed method. But those
directing the actions will be surprised by the outcomes or consequences.
With this surprise comes disappointment as well.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

30
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Our Balanced Scorecard Follows
This is a “traditional” BSC
Four levels
Bubbles, but no connecting lines of a map (too confusing)
Some partitioning of functions on a horizontal scale

There are other way to represent the BSC
Simple lists with metrics and goals
Quadrants with everything on one page

A current way is to list the objectives in a table, with metrics
Assign portfolios of projects
Cascade the Scorecard down to the functional manager level
Tie “every thing” to an objective even the level of effort projects

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

31/38

The Balanced Scorecard currently in place at Rocky Flats is based on a
traditional approach of decomposing the objectives into the four layers. This
is a perfectly good approach, but we’ve learned more about cascading the
scorecard since we made this one.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

31
Project
Expectations

Business
Results

Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

“Do the right things, do them well, do them with less, to…”
…enable profitable
…enable profitable
operations -- R1
operations R1

……reduce overall
……reduce overall
operating costs -- R2
operating costs R2
Competency
Competency
“Keep my
“Keep my
systems running”
systems running”
-- E1
E1

“Manage to
“Manage to
corporate goals”
corporate goals”
-- E2
E2

“Understand my
“Understand my
operation” -- E3
operation” E3

Project // IT Alignment
Project IT Alignment

Reduce the cost of
Reduce the cost of
providing services -- P1
providing services P1

Improve
Improve
processes for
processes for
efficiency
efficiency
and quality -and quality
P4
P4

…enable firm to accelerate
…enable firm to accelerate
market deployment -- R3
market deployment R3
Contribution
Contribution

Credibility

Operational Excellence
Operational Excellence

Internal Processes

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

“Implement timely and cost“Implement timely and costeffective solutions” -- E4
effective solutions” E4

Solutions Leadership
Solutions Leadership

Provide appropriate technology to
Provide appropriate technology to
enable success -- P2
enable success P2

Provide innovative
Provide innovative
solutions -- P3
solutions P3

Deliver solutions
Deliver solutions
on schedule -- P6
on schedule P6

Manage
Manage
requirements -- P7
requirements P7

Leverage
Leverage
knowledge and
knowledge and
best practices -- P10
best practices P10

Centralize IT
Centralize IT
resources -- P5
resources P5

Enhance customer
Enhance customer
relationships -- P9
relationships P9

People and
Tools

Strategically deploy services -- P8
Strategically deploy services P8

Develop and
Develop and
retain critical
retain critical
skills -- S1
skills S1

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group

Build a high performance
Build a high performance
culture -- S2
culture S2

Recognize team
Recognize team
and individual
and individual
performance -- S3
performance S3

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

BD02005 A 08/29/02

Provide employees with
Provide employees with
the tools and knowledge
the tools and knowledge
they need -- S4
they need S4

32/38

Here’s our current scorecard

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

32
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

Lessons Learned From A “Fresh” Assessment Of Our Current
Balanced Scorecard – Continued Training And Consulting Is Needed
Some of the goals are hard to create metrics for
“Manage requirements?”
Who get to say we’re managing requirements?

The customer wording is too soft at times, since the metrics for
satisfaction are hard to come by in our environment
“Strategically deploy services”
This is a tautology

“Deliver solutions on schedule”
This is easy, and having a program office makes it easier

“Keep my systems running”
This can be measured everyday

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

33/38

After attending some more training, working with the scorecard, talking
through all our objectives, defending the not so obvious ones, and doing lots
of reading, there are things we’d change.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

33
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

The Risks To This Approach Are Numerous,
Our Experience Includes …
Lack of time for the decision makers to focus on strategy
Having strategy sessions on a continuous basis is difficult
Running the business seems to come first

Confusion between operational efficiency and strategy
This is a continual problem
Always ask “do I have options?” if so then it’s strategy

Difficulty in creating well defined metrics and connecting them to
deliverables
Scalar metrics with defined “units of measure”

Cascading the objectives down to the staff that can deliver the
results
This is the hardest and where there is the most resistance
© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

34/38

Along the way we also encountered problems with Balanced Scorecard.
Nothing that would prevent us from using the approach or recommending it to
others. Just that now we’ve got more experience – many times learned the
hard way.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

34
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

The Risks To This Approach Are Numerous,
Our Experience Includes …
Once the strategy has been defined, loosing the picture focus and
delving into the details
Continuous re-visiting of the strategy to test the hypothesis
Adjusting metrics and measures to increase the confidence in the
hypothesis tests

Becoming enamored with the “pretty pictures, charts and graphs”
The real measure is the improvement in the operational
effectiveness of the organization.
This is the other half of strategy that needs to be delivered as well
if not better

Facing the reality that this is much harder than it looks
Strong convictions are needed to overcome objections
In the end delivery of the results MUST be done
© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

35/38

Staying focused in an IT environment is difficult. Doing it in a closure
environment where budgets are being reduced, systems withdrawn and
customers being put under continuous pressure to accelerate their work –
creates further opportunities for mistakes and mis-steps.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

35
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

The Balanced Scorecard School Of Management Is Not For The
Faint Of Heart
The individuals and teams should:
Be committed to making the scorecard process work across all
levels of the organization
By-in has to be gained up and down the organization
Keeping the commitment is a full time job

Seek to close any gaps that open in the process in the same way
they manage their daily activities
Make BSC a “project” like any other
Plans, budget, and deliverables

Understand that without the commitment and dedication, not only
will Balanced Scorecard fail, the underlying business process will
suffer as well.

© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

36/38

If you’re going to start with Balanced Scorecard, take a deep and long look at
your commitment. Although the benefits are certainly there the effort to bring
them forward is greater than many think.
This is true of any change agent process. If it was easy then anyone could
improve a firms performance.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

36
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

The Balanced Scorecard School Of Management Is Not For The
Faint Of Heart
The scorecard should:
Measure performance against goals
Determine if the goals are appropriate
Determine if the strategy or measures should be changed
Provide direct measurable outcomes traceable to the actions of
individuals and teams

These measures and metrics should
Have scalar units of measure: dollars, defects/1000, percentiles,
etc.
Have metrics that are first order derivatives from the work process:
quality, response time, budget compliance
Have independent variables that can be controlled which are
connected to the dependent variables
© 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group
BD02005 A 08/29/02

Strategy Driven … Customer Focused

37/38

Having a clear goal of what you expect from the Balanced Scorecard is
important. Continually reminding yourself of these goals and benefits is just
as critical.
Continually re-assessing these goals and the strategies they support is just
as important.

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

37
Balanced Scorecard Presentation
IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA

Glen B. Alleman
VP, Program Management Office

A Final Thought
“One of the most dangerous forms of
human error is forgetting what one is
trying to achieve.”
– Paul Nitze
© 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group

Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL

38

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Balanced Scorecard Drives IT Project Success

  • 1. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Using Balanced Scorecard to Build a Project Focused IT Organization Driving high performance teams with Balanced Scorecard and a Program Management Office © 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group Thank you for the kind invitation to speak today on Balanced Scorecard and project management. I’m Glen Alleman from CH2M HILL. CH’s primary focus is on technology and services to safeguard the environment. I work in the Communications and Information Solutions (CIS) Group. Our Information and Communications Technology business unit provides ICT services to Department of Energy weapons systems closure sites across the nation. Although this may sound like it is far removed from the every day world of business, most of our ICT issues can be found in banks, manufacturers, and other service providers. Our products come and go in containers, we have inventory control system, work planning systems, purchasing, human resources, and 100’s of custom applications – like any other large business. Our “product” just happens to be the radioactive waste products of the former nuclear weapons plants. Other than compartmental access, lots of badges and hard hats, we’re like any other large complex business operation – continually searching for ways to improve our processes while serving our customer’s needs. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 1
  • 2. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office © 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group The CH2M HILL CIS Group works in conjunction with the Nuclear Group for the Department of Energy. They do the cleanup we keep track of all the data that results from their efforts. DOE owns and operates the Nuclear Weapons Complex in many locations across the US. Rocky Flats is one of those sites. The locations shown in this slide represent the current Complex sites involved in some aspect of weapons production, research, or cleanup. We’re on the cleanup end of the process. Our site, Rocky Flats, manufactured and assembled portions of weapons until the early 1990’s. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970, to address the need for an environmental policy to guide the growing consciousness and shape the national response to the legacy of the nuclear weapons complex. From this basis most of the environmental law regarding cleanup and disposal of nuclear waste has been derived. A good history of the NWC can be found in Building the Bombs: A History of the Nuclear Weapons Complex, Charles R. Loeber, Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2002-0307P, United States Government Printing Office, ISBN: 0-16-067187-6 Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 2
  • 3. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office © 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group Our site is located at the base of the Rocky Mountains, along the Front Range just north west of Denver. This site is being restored to its original pristine environment in late 2005. Although this picture shows a bucolic setting, inside the buildings are the rements of the cold war. Bomb parts, the machines used to manufacture them, and all the materials and waste left over from the manufacturing. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 3
  • 4. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Our Customer is not your normal commercial business producing household items, consumer products of business items The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) is a nationwide group of government-owned and contractor operated laboratories and production plants managed by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the U.S. Department of Energy. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS) was one of those plants. It was shut down in 1989 in order to bring it in line with environment regulations. It never restarted Clean up and closure has been its mission since then This effort has been managed by Kaiser-Hill Company LLC Closure is scheduled for late 2005 © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 4/38 The closure of the former nuclear weapons sites, is a half trillion dollar enterprise. DOE’s Environmental Management budget for 2004 is $7.2 Billion. The National Nuclear Security Administration's budget for FY 2004 is $8.835 billion, for a combined total of $16 billion per year. Managing the IT portion of these projects is our core competency. IT in the past was not a critical success factor for safe site closure. Our experiences at Rocky Flats have shown that IT can now been seen as an integral component of the cleanup process. Although we are still a second order impact on cleanup, the safe, effective, and efficient closure can no longer proceed without modern IT processes. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 4
  • 5. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office A Quick Background Of Our Business Environment, Clients And Business Model CH2M HILL is a $2.2B project completion services firm Our current engagement is a $12M annual IT services contract with the Department of Energy We provide information and communication technology (ICT) services to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site The closure mission supports D&D efforts for all waste clean up All activities are mission critical Steady reduction in budget and staff in support of closure is our “normal” business environment Closure projects have accelerated cost reduction budgets until they reach ZERO Our goal is to turn Rocky Flats into dirt, prairie dogs, and 10TB of data © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 5/38 I come to Balanced Scorecard not as a business executive but as the leader of a Program Management Office. My role in our IT organization is to turn our strategy into actionable outcomes. I participate in the development of strategy as a member of the executive management team. In the end though the PMO is on the delivery end of the objectives, portfolios, and projects that make up the portfolios. Our work environment may be unique from the experience of most of you here. Our business is to “go out of business” – we manage the IT processes for DOE weapons plant closure projects. There 114 of these sites in the continental US, ranging from 650 square miles to small rooms in the basements of university physics departments. These projects are like construction projects but in reverse. All the buildings, nuclear and chemical wastes, all the infrastructure, and any remnants of the site are removed, shipped to various sites or disposed of in some way. For our site at Rocky Flats all that will be left in 2005 is 6,500 acres of clean dirt, prairie dogs, and 30 TB of data. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 5
  • 6. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Balanced Scorecard, and Program Management ICT provides Server and network operations Applications Desktop support Telecommunications Program Management Office IT Governance Core ICT strategies Use technology in place of labor Never be an impediment to progress toward site closure Withdraw services that follow closure processes On Time / On Budget / On Scope © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 6/38 The connection between our ICT operations at Rocky Flats and other closure sites and Balanced Scorecard involves our mission – close the site with the least cost, fastest schedule, without injuring or killing anyone, and without being on the critical path for any other project task. This goal could easily be met with simple seat of the pants project management and maintenance and operations IT processes. The problems arise when our customers – those doing the physical removal of the site materials – come into the picture. Like any real construction project, changing requirements is an everyday occurrence. Adapting to change is the mantra of any IT organization. But in order to adapt to change a foundation from which to make change is needed. This is usually called “governance.” But governance alone is not enough. A strategy for adapting to change is required. This strategy needs to consider not only technologies and customers, but also the broader mission of the ICT function – which asks “why are we here?” and “what have you done for us lately?” Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 6
  • 7. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Inverting the Balanced Scorecard pushes strategy down into the organization to the project management level Many speakers here will be talking about using Balanced Scorecard to implement strategy up and down the organization Our approach includes the above, but also the use of BSC to improve the performance of a project based organization This is a Program Management Office view of BSC rather than a CXO view This closes the gap between “vision” and “execution” Where should dollars be invested to achieve value? How can this delivered be measured? How can investments be connected to strategy as well as the tactical side of PM? © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 7/38 Our approach to Balanced Scorecard may be different than others. We did not start with some broad business goal – grow this company to a larger size. Ours started with the question “how can we provide more with less?” Since we live in a project based operation, the second question was “how can we better deliver our projects to meet the strategic needs of our customers?” This was an inside out view of Balanced Scorecard. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 7
  • 8. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Program Management View of Balanced Scorecard Involves More Than The Original Four Perspectives Earned Value Earned Value Performance Performance Management Management Project Project Management Management Balanced Scorecard Direction Strategic metrics Lessons Lessons Learned Learned Performance metrics Actual cost Delivered value Resource utilization Risk Risk Management Management Risk related project data Strategic data Continuous risk management Strategy is a hypothesis Metrics are the data for testing the hypothesis © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 8/38 The forces on project management are show here. Let’s take a quick tour for those not familiar with government contracting performance management practices. By the way these practices are applicable to any project management environment not just DOE and DoD. Especially in the software development world, where the question “when will we be done and how much will it cost” is asked everyday. • Performance management is our balanced scorecard. I’ll show one version later in the presentation. • Earned value management is the core processes for managing projects. It asks and answers the question what is the cost at completion, when will we be done, and what have you delivered in terms of value for the money you’ve spent. • Risk management is how adults do project management. • Lessons learned is a core process improvement process. With looking back and asking free and frank questions about improvements, moving forward is difficult. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 8
  • 9. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Talking About Project Driven Organizations Means Walking The Walk As Well, Which Means Full Engagement With Project Execution The Project Driven Organization Strategy Balanced Scorecard Stakeholders Objectives Requirements Governance Methods Business Organization Scope Processes Deliverables Teams Portfolios Activities Risks Milestones Techniques Roles Responsibilities Projects Resources Skills Models Budget Data Costs Locations Earned Value Applications Databases Hardware Tools Exec Entr Servers One Up Reviews Standards Desktops PMO Apps Telecomm Networks Security All © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 9/38 When someone uses the term “project management” they usually mean the planning of cost and schedule for the activities to deliver a product or service. But there are many other connections between projects and strategy. But first let’s look at the connections between the process of managing a project. Many activities are taking place besides cost and schedule. All influencing the outcome of the project and its support of a strategy Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 9
  • 10. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office One Critical Understanding Missing From Many Strategy Discussions Is – “What Is Strategy In The Context Of IT Deliverable Projects?” Strategy creates fit among a firms activities The success of strategy depends on doing many things well, not just a few All things that are done well must operate within a close knit system If there is no fit, there is no strategy Without fit management becomes the search for operational excellence Improving operational excellence is necessary but it is not the same as strategy Managing fit is “strategic management” © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 10/38 Strategy usually starts with the Mickey Rooney school of management from “Babes on Broadway” in 1941 where Mickey says to Judy Garland, “Hey gang let’s put on a show.” The CXO comes to the business team and says “Let’s go get a strategy.” This is clearly not the right approach, but it happens more than you think. The definition of “strategy” is not well understood in the IT domain. People talk about architectural strategy, network deployment strategy, business development strategy, and shared services strategy. Defining strategy in terms of hardware, software, and processes is not strategy – it’s operational effectiveness. Confusing these two is common. Next comes the simple minded belief that making strategy is a linear stepwise process. This is obviously not true, but many strategic process developments do not incorporate the “testing” parts of strategy found in Balanced Scorecard. The participants make a strategy without the means to test their hypothesis. What they have done is simply created an experiment without any feedback from the laboratory. This is usually the start of a failed strategy process, leading to disappointment for all. Strategy making must have hypothesis testing metrics. These metrics are used to “test” the strategy to determine if it is working. When the tests come in, the owner of the strategy can ask and answer one of two questions: • Do I have the right strategy? • Do I have the right tests to verify the strategy? Both questions need to be asked and answered Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 10
  • 11. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office So What Is Strategy And How Can It Be Deployed In A Project Management Context? Operational effectiveness involves continual improvement that have no trade off opportunities The operational effectiveness agenda is the proper place for constant change, flexibility, and relentless efforts to achieve best practices The strategic agenda in the place for making clear tradeoffs and strengthening the fit between the business components Strategy involves the continual search for ways to reinforce and extend a firms position and the delivery of value This includes the IT “firm” within the business firm As well as a department within the IT organization © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 11/38 The difference between strategy and operational effectiveness is critical to the deployment of Balanced Scorecard and the management of projects that fulfill the strategy. Keeping these differences in mind at all times is as critical as discovering the various strategies. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 11
  • 12. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Strategy Is About Creating Fit Among The Various Components, Participants, And Forces Driving Of An IT Organization Fit creates incentives and the pressure to improve Poor fit means poor performance Poor performance exposed Weaknesses Increasing fit improves performance in other areas as well as target area of the improvement Strategy is making a hypothesis about a desired outcome, constructing the measures to test the hypothesis, deploying the experiment to test the hypothesis, then making adjustments based on the metrics © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 12/38 The concept of strategy as a hypothesis and the experiments to test the hypothesis may be new to many. But this approach puts strategy in a different light. Strategy is not something you do then go off to execute the plan. It is a continuous feedback process. Always testing the strategy with metrics derived from projects. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 12
  • 13. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office A Framework For IT Strategy In The Absence Of Balanced Scorecard Fails To Answer Many Questions Needed For Success What ––is the system made of? What is the system made of? How ––does the system work? How does the system work? Where ––are the components of Where are the components of the system located relative to one the system located relative to one another? another? Who ––does what relative to these Who does what relative to these system components? system components? When ––do things happen in the When do things happen in the system? system? Why ––are various system Why are various system choices being made? choices being made? What is the information systems strategy? What is the information systems strategy? How is the information technology strategy? How is the information technology strategy? Who is the information management strategy? Who is the information management strategy? Why is the organizational strategy? Why is the organizational strategy? © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 13/38 One place to start building an IT strategy framework is with the following structure. Asking questions about what, how, where, who, when, and why is critical to focusing the discussion on strategy and away from technology – at least in the beginning. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 13
  • 14. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office There Are Four Elements Of IT Strategy That Must Be Present To Fully Assess The Connection Between Objectives And Projects Organizational Strategy – WHY Information Technology Strategy – HOW The wherefore and rational for the strategy Organizational components – chose the structure or design, management control systems and formal policies. Business Components – the corporate strategy concerned with mission. Strategic business unit strategy concerned with competitive advantage The mechanism of the strategy Scope – which technologies are to be formally included in the information strategy Architecture – the technology framework which drives, shapes, and control the Information technology strategy. Information Systems Strategy – WHAT Information Management Strategy – WHO The components of the strategy Alignment – identify the applications required to support the business strategy Opportunity – search for innovative uses of IT to enable business to perform better The participants in the strategy Roles – who has what responsibility for information resources and policies and actions Relationships – how are relationships built between the CIO and others to assure success over time © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 14/38 There are four elements of IT strategy shown here. Why How What Who Answering these questions is the starting point for building a strategy Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 14
  • 15. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office The BIG Question of Searching for Strategic Fit Becomes The Outcome of the Alignment Process If strategy and structure must fit each other, then what is not stated is: Which aspects are to fit other aspects? Business / Information relationships? Information / Business relationships? The answer to these should be obvious, but the consequences of the answer needs to be understood: The business strategy “drives” the IT Strategy The IT Strategy drives the Technology Strategy A loop is created which must be created between the technology strategy and the business strategy before any measurable value can be created. © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 15/38 The real question though is how to define “fit” in terms of strategy. How does the IT strategy “fit” with other business strategies? What if the other business units don’t have a strategy? What if other business units don’t really know what you’re talking about when you speak of strategy? Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 15
  • 16. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Balanced Scorecard And Project Management Are Natural “Soul Mates” In An IT Organization, But Connecting Them Is Difficult BSC provides a strategy focused view of the IT operation. Projects and Project Management provides a tactical view of the IT operation. Putting these two views together creates a synergy not found in the individual views Tactics enable the fulfillment of strategy Strategy validates tactical decisions Deploying these activities require a top-to-bottom rethinking of the IT organization Projects must have meaningful measures Ruthless pursuit of value must be a core management process Viewing strategy as “hypothesis making” turns the organization toward “goal seeking” behaviors © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 16/38 By connecting BSC directly with project management, a bridge can be built for top to bottom execution. BSC without project execution leaves the details open. Project management with a strategy leaves open the “why” for each project. In the end the work force needs to answer the question – “why are we here? What is the direct strategic purpose of the project I’m working on?” Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 16
  • 17. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Project Management Is More Than Managing Projects, It’s About Managing The Right Projects, And Dropping The Wrong Projects Traditional view of a “project” Defined start and end Defined resources, cost, and delivered value Customer, technology, Balanced Scorecard view of a “project” What objective of the strategy does this project support? If the project were implemented, what goals would be fulfilled? When will the cost of the project be earned back by a specific objective in the strategy. These questions and their answers are also found in project portfolio management. © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 17/38 Once project management concepts are connected with Balanced Scorecard, the answers to the previous questions can be provided. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 17
  • 18. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Project Portfolio Management is a continuous process of assessment, corrections to plans, and reassessment Identification Identification • •Needs Needs • •Source of ideas Source of ideas Timing Timing • •Competitiveness Competitiveness • •Resource Availability Resource Availability • •Logical sequence Logical sequence Project Project Portfolio Portfolio Management Management Evaluation Evaluation • •Feasibility Feasibility • Benefits • Benefits • Evaluation Criteria • Evaluation Criteria Selection Selection • Performance Metrics • Performance Metrics • Strategy connection • Strategy connection © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 18/38 Once projects are seen as the means to fulfilling strategy and strategy as the guiding force for projects, the project portfolio framework makes more sense. Assembling projects into portfolios without an overarching strategy adds little value. The project portfolio approach many times starts with the desire to collect projects and provide a justification for the expenses. The real question to ask though is “why does this project exist?” The answer is “this project supports the following strategic initiatives.” This seems so simple looking back through the Balanced Scorecard lens. But it is amazing how hard it is to come to the viewpoint without first starting with balanced scorecard. The purveyors of Balanced Scorecard and Project Portfolio Management software sometimes miss the simplest value – identifying the reason for a project’s existence by asking (yet again) “why are you here?” Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 18
  • 19. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Project Portfolio Management Is An “Implementation Process,” But Alone It Is Not Sufficient To Answer The Strategy Questions PPM has many of the tools to answer the previous questions. PPM alone is not sufficient to assure success. Project selection criteria are typically financial and technical. Strategic impact analysis is needed as well. What are the units of measure of the “strategic impact?” Economic value added? “Real options” exercisable value? Market opportunities? The business situation defines the units of measure But most importantly connecting strategy and tactics can be done through projects. © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 19/38 Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is an implementation process not a strategic process. PPM provides information (performance) about projects. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 19
  • 20. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Leading Indicators of Project Performance Are Needed Before Project Portfolio Management Can Be Deployed Successfully Portfolios can be “managed” through their performance metrics. Cost and Schedule variances as well as Estimate At Completion are “leading” indicators of project performance Static and dynamic trends show where the projects are headed The Bulls Eye chart provides an overview in a single picture how the portfolio is performing This chart and the BSC chart connects both ends of the problem. © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 20/38 Success of project portfolio management depends on “leading indicators.” Without these, managing projects is like “driving in the rear view mirror.” It can be done, but when you run over something you don’t know it until its too late. Earned Value Management Systems provide leading and well as trailing indicators for projects. Connecting these leading indicators to BSC satisfies ½ of the equation for developing metrics to test the strategic hypothesis. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 20
  • 21. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Projectizing IT Organizations Is Harder Than It Looks, Everyone Has “Enlightened Self Interest” For The Use Of Their Budget The curse of the “level of effort” project “Train watching” is a common term As time passes resources are consumed, services delivered, but delivered value is not always measured. How to measure “value” of a project Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Project “profit,” ROI, IRR, etc. Opportunity costs These all have static monetary units of measure with little or no connection to strategy It’s the interaction between “value” and ”strategy” that must be evaluated Real Options is an approach to this connection © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 21/38 Project Management and Projects have “enlighten self interest” as a core value. It is unlikely any project manager is willing to give up resources, funding, or scope for the higher good of the organization. By focusing on the “strategic” view of projects, the project owners and managers are put in a position where they need to answer the question “what strategic value does your project bring to the table?” Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 21
  • 22. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office What is the “value” of fulfilling a specific strategy and how can this value be monetized in the same units as development costs? There are many ways of measuring “value” Expected Monetary Value Earned Value Real Options Internal rate of return Return on Assets Payback Period Return on Investment Economic Value Added All these methods are useful, but care needs to be taken not to put too much “faith” in the absolute numbers The “value” aspects need to not only fit the strategic needs, they need to be acceptable to both the finance team as well as the customers © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 22/38 The term “value” keeps coming up. The definition of value is usually vague and many times conflicting from various organizations. Establishing a common and agreed upon definition of the “value of a project” is critical. One place to look for a definition is in the “real options” domain. Here the value of the option is necessary prior to the exercise decision. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 22
  • 23. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Our Method Of Measuring “Value” Involves Discovering The Expected Cost Of The Project With A High Degree Of Certainty: Earned Value $1,000K Authorized Budget = $1,000K $750K Planned Cost = BCWS= $300K $500K Actual Cost = ACWP = $300K $250K Earned Value = BCWP = $200K 1 2 3 4 Traditional Project Management Traditional Project Management Planned Cost = $300K Actual Costs = $300K Variance from Plan = ($0K) Earned Value Project Management Earned Value Project Management This is a simple project in which the first This is a simple project in which the first reported period has completed. reported period has completed. $300K was planned to be spent, $300K $300K was planned to be spent, $300K was actually spent, but only $200K of was actually spent, but only $200K of physical progress has been made. physical progress has been made. In the traditional project management In the traditional project management method, “we’ve spent to our plan,” so method, “we’ve spent to our plan,” so we’re right on track. We’re OK. we’re right on track. We’re OK. In EV “we’ve spent to plan, but under– In EV “we’ve spent to plan, but under– delivered, by $100K. We’re in trouble. delivered, by $100K. We’re in trouble. Now we need to increase our efficiency Now we need to increase our efficiency just to get back on track and increase even just to get back on track and increase even more to stay ahead. more to stay ahead. By reducing the reporting period to finer By reducing the reporting period to finer and finer granularity, software and finer granularity, software development methods like Extreme development methods like Extreme Programming and SCRUM can be laid Programming and SCRUM can be laid over the Earned Value system. Adding over the Earned Value system. Adding Testable requirements to these methods Testable requirements to these methods re-connects EV with software re-connects EV with software development, closing the loop between development, closing the loop between traditional and agile management traditional and agile management processes. processes. Planned Cost = $300K SV = BCWP – BCWS: Schedule variance from Plan = (–$100K) Earned Value = $200K Actual Cost = $300K © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 CV = BCWP – ACWP: The true cost variance = (–$100K) Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 23/38 The value measuring method we use is Earned Value. We saw a bit of EV in a previous slide. Here’s some more details. For IT projects EV is a powerful tool worth the initial effort to integrate into the portfolio management process. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 23
  • 24. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Our Balanced Scorecard is Based On A Strategy Of “Going Out Of Business” On December 15th, 2005 Getting all participants accountable for the outcome is critical Strategy is developed both top down and bottom up Matrixed approach to projects, portfolios, and metrics – not dictated by management but collaborative development Projectizing all activities with specific measurements creates a focused team, but metrics must match the underlying behavior of the process Bottom up cost and schedule estimates Deliverables management continuous rather than stages © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 24/38 Our balanced scorecard based on a closure strategy is an easy to understand set of objectives and metrics to guide and measure progress to plan. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 24
  • 25. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Turning Strategy Into Tactics Connects The Strategic Planning Process With The Delivery On That Strategy Using the PMO The Strategy Focused IT Organization Mobilization Phase Initiate the Process of Change – Gain Consensus and Momentum from Participants Migration Phase Create Focus – Create Focus and Establish New Performance Culture Management Phase Institutionalize Change – Deploy Changes and New Management Processes BALANCED PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE Strategies Objectives Measures Targets Initiatives Business Case Strategic Objectives Critical Success Factors Performance Drivers Performance Indicators Balanced Scorecard Business Outcome Project Needs Project Objectives PMO Process Improvement Growth Training Critical Success Factors EVMS Balanced Scorecard Database Budget Customer CSS SQA SNO Skill Measures Measures Measures Measures Measures Measures Performance Metrics (Drivers and Indicators) Proj Srvr Project Portfolio(s) Targets and Budgets Project Managers Participants IT Directors Functional Managers CRMs © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Project Implementation Supervisors Dec 15, 2002 PROJECT PLANNING AND BUDGETING Jan 30, 2003 Project Managers Internal and External Communications Mar 31, 2003 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused PERFORMANCE AND APPRAISAL PROCESS Performance Evaluation Value Delivery 25/38 Embedding Balanced Scorecard in the organization is a better approach than starting at the top and working down. What the people who do the work want to know is – “how is this going to help me do my job better?” The introduction of Balanced Scorecard MUST show these benefits early in the process, or the end users will see this as just another gimmick cooked up by the MBA types. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 25
  • 26. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Assembling The Components Of Strategy And Tactics Turning the strategy into projects requires a project oriented organization Project organizations start with changing the role of the functional managers Self directed teams Project Manager led teams Functional manager led teams = level of effort teams Cascading strategy to the functional managers Ownership of objectives now a a low level Roll up the objectives from the bottom Combine top down and bottom up © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 26/38 Combining Balanced Scorecard and project management takes work. But the pay off is worth the effort Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 26
  • 27. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Organizing Around “Project Driven” Processes Means A Matrix Structure With Teams, Functional Managers, And Project Management Balanced Score Card + Portfolios + Teams = High Performance Organization Business Domain Operations Manager (Caterham) IT Management Senior Management Customer & Stakeholder Community Managing Dir Business Dev CTO Program Mgmnt Portfolio Management Shared Services Data Stewardship Enterprise Communications Business Units Customer Advisory Group (CAG) Hittelman Martin Radley Henderson Conan Barefield Swanson Architecture Controls Business Development Policy & Administration Governance Alleman Guthner Oshinski Barefield Martin IT Leadership Oshinski Alleman Guthner Caterham Guthner Bontempo Gwin Teegarden Ploughman Purchasing (Murray) Administration (Bontempo) Enterprise PMO Architecture & Governance Applications Management Project & Portfolio Management Infrastructure Management Manager (Alleman) CTO (Guthner) Safety (Lewis) Enterprise Telecommunications (Conan) Manager (Oshinski) Administration (Gwinn) Mission SQA (Trivett) CM (Simon) CSS (3) Telecommunications (Lindsey) Network Operations (Goldberg) SQA/SV&V Staff PMO Vision Project Accounting (Ploughman) Alleman Oshinski Barefield Henderson Guthner Caterham Oshinski Alleman Guthner Barefield Hittelman Radley Martin Conan Swanson Teegarden Henderson CM Staff CSS Staff Telecommunications Staff Network Operations Staff Applications Solutions (Henderson) Deputy CTO (Barefield) Cyber Security (Weber) Cyber Security Staff Server Operations Staff Business Solutions (Martin) Applications Solutions Staff Customer Relationship Managers Business Solutions Staff Server Operations (Russo) Culture Project Delivery Team Initiatives Portfolio(s) Project Delivery Team Measures Initiative(s) Strategies Project Delivery Team Portfolio(s) Objectives Project Delivery Team Initiative(s) Targets Project Delivery Team Portfolio(s) Project Delivery Team Individual Business Units Balanced Scorecard Individual Business Units © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 27/38 Here’s our high level organization chart with BSC, traditional hierarchical line managers, and self directed teams. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 27
  • 28. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Balanced Scorecard And Project Management Can Be Blended Together To Build A Powerful Tool For Managing IT Projects The Balanced Scorecard components are necessary but not always sufficient for success Matrix of components Strategy map – tells the strategy story in one page Objectives – describes the deliverables from the strategy Measures – indicators of success Targets – goals Initiatives – collections of work efforts Projects – tactical work packages © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 28/38 The components of the Balanced Scorecard and Project Management approach include core processes and components. These components are ALL needed to make Balanced Scorecard and Project Management work. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 28
  • 29. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office The Hard Part Is When We’re Asked To Manage Projects That Don’t Fulfill A Strategy Connecting project costs with strategic value is critical Two different units of measure Two different spheres of influence – one looks outward, one looks inward Making visible the project’s “value” to the strategy. Making the “value” of a project visible beyond cost and schedule. One approach is to use “earned value” to manage IT projects EV is commonly found in construction, aerospace and government contracting environments. But in IT development? The Balanced Scorecard is the place to start as well as end © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 29/38 Once Balanced Scorecard and Project Management have started down the path together it is important to unify the units of measure as well. In Balanced Scorecard many of the units of measure will have business type attributes. The projects will be restricted to cost and schedule variances. These can be tied together by associating cost and schedule variance to the specific business attributes. For example: •What is the cost and schedule impact of not achieving the planned service turnaround rate for a customer support help desk? Can the business unit of measure be “dollarized” or shown to have specific schedule impact? •What is the dollarized savings of moving from a fat client technology to a thin client technology for the desktop? The project that manages the rollout of thin client has cost and schedule variances produced from the earned value reports. Along with estimates at completion, probabilities of completion on schedule, etc. these metrics can be used in parallel with the Balanced Scorecard metrics of the benefits of the cost reduction strategy for desktop computing. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 29
  • 30. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Alignment Means “Actions Have Consequences” Alignment Actions Full engagement with the “customers” at the detailed level Aligning in “stages” by sorting out “going forward” applications Alignment Consequences Servicing the customer is a “strategy” Identifying the value of each application. Shared strategic objectives that start with the “customers” needs Short–term tactical success means long–term strategic success. Knowing about the business, but not making the business decisions, this belongs to the “customers” Capturing needs is a continuous process. Continuous building on success is a difficult and fulltime job © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Having the customer “inside” the process, rather than as an external source of information. Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 30/38 Like all good process improvement processes, understanding how actions create consequences is important. Without this understanding the actions will be taken – by following the instructions of the prescribed method. But those directing the actions will be surprised by the outcomes or consequences. With this surprise comes disappointment as well. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 30
  • 31. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Our Balanced Scorecard Follows This is a “traditional” BSC Four levels Bubbles, but no connecting lines of a map (too confusing) Some partitioning of functions on a horizontal scale There are other way to represent the BSC Simple lists with metrics and goals Quadrants with everything on one page A current way is to list the objectives in a table, with metrics Assign portfolios of projects Cascade the Scorecard down to the functional manager level Tie “every thing” to an objective even the level of effort projects © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 31/38 The Balanced Scorecard currently in place at Rocky Flats is based on a traditional approach of decomposing the objectives into the four layers. This is a perfectly good approach, but we’ve learned more about cascading the scorecard since we made this one. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 31
  • 32. Project Expectations Business Results Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA “Do the right things, do them well, do them with less, to…” …enable profitable …enable profitable operations -- R1 operations R1 ……reduce overall ……reduce overall operating costs -- R2 operating costs R2 Competency Competency “Keep my “Keep my systems running” systems running” -- E1 E1 “Manage to “Manage to corporate goals” corporate goals” -- E2 E2 “Understand my “Understand my operation” -- E3 operation” E3 Project // IT Alignment Project IT Alignment Reduce the cost of Reduce the cost of providing services -- P1 providing services P1 Improve Improve processes for processes for efficiency efficiency and quality -and quality P4 P4 …enable firm to accelerate …enable firm to accelerate market deployment -- R3 market deployment R3 Contribution Contribution Credibility Operational Excellence Operational Excellence Internal Processes Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office “Implement timely and cost“Implement timely and costeffective solutions” -- E4 effective solutions” E4 Solutions Leadership Solutions Leadership Provide appropriate technology to Provide appropriate technology to enable success -- P2 enable success P2 Provide innovative Provide innovative solutions -- P3 solutions P3 Deliver solutions Deliver solutions on schedule -- P6 on schedule P6 Manage Manage requirements -- P7 requirements P7 Leverage Leverage knowledge and knowledge and best practices -- P10 best practices P10 Centralize IT Centralize IT resources -- P5 resources P5 Enhance customer Enhance customer relationships -- P9 relationships P9 People and Tools Strategically deploy services -- P8 Strategically deploy services P8 Develop and Develop and retain critical retain critical skills -- S1 skills S1 © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group Build a high performance Build a high performance culture -- S2 culture S2 Recognize team Recognize team and individual and individual performance -- S3 performance S3 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused BD02005 A 08/29/02 Provide employees with Provide employees with the tools and knowledge the tools and knowledge they need -- S4 they need S4 32/38 Here’s our current scorecard Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 32
  • 33. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office Lessons Learned From A “Fresh” Assessment Of Our Current Balanced Scorecard – Continued Training And Consulting Is Needed Some of the goals are hard to create metrics for “Manage requirements?” Who get to say we’re managing requirements? The customer wording is too soft at times, since the metrics for satisfaction are hard to come by in our environment “Strategically deploy services” This is a tautology “Deliver solutions on schedule” This is easy, and having a program office makes it easier “Keep my systems running” This can be measured everyday © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 33/38 After attending some more training, working with the scorecard, talking through all our objectives, defending the not so obvious ones, and doing lots of reading, there are things we’d change. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 33
  • 34. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office The Risks To This Approach Are Numerous, Our Experience Includes … Lack of time for the decision makers to focus on strategy Having strategy sessions on a continuous basis is difficult Running the business seems to come first Confusion between operational efficiency and strategy This is a continual problem Always ask “do I have options?” if so then it’s strategy Difficulty in creating well defined metrics and connecting them to deliverables Scalar metrics with defined “units of measure” Cascading the objectives down to the staff that can deliver the results This is the hardest and where there is the most resistance © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 34/38 Along the way we also encountered problems with Balanced Scorecard. Nothing that would prevent us from using the approach or recommending it to others. Just that now we’ve got more experience – many times learned the hard way. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 34
  • 35. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office The Risks To This Approach Are Numerous, Our Experience Includes … Once the strategy has been defined, loosing the picture focus and delving into the details Continuous re-visiting of the strategy to test the hypothesis Adjusting metrics and measures to increase the confidence in the hypothesis tests Becoming enamored with the “pretty pictures, charts and graphs” The real measure is the improvement in the operational effectiveness of the organization. This is the other half of strategy that needs to be delivered as well if not better Facing the reality that this is much harder than it looks Strong convictions are needed to overcome objections In the end delivery of the results MUST be done © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 35/38 Staying focused in an IT environment is difficult. Doing it in a closure environment where budgets are being reduced, systems withdrawn and customers being put under continuous pressure to accelerate their work – creates further opportunities for mistakes and mis-steps. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 35
  • 36. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office The Balanced Scorecard School Of Management Is Not For The Faint Of Heart The individuals and teams should: Be committed to making the scorecard process work across all levels of the organization By-in has to be gained up and down the organization Keeping the commitment is a full time job Seek to close any gaps that open in the process in the same way they manage their daily activities Make BSC a “project” like any other Plans, budget, and deliverables Understand that without the commitment and dedication, not only will Balanced Scorecard fail, the underlying business process will suffer as well. © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 36/38 If you’re going to start with Balanced Scorecard, take a deep and long look at your commitment. Although the benefits are certainly there the effort to bring them forward is greater than many think. This is true of any change agent process. If it was easy then anyone could improve a firms performance. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 36
  • 37. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office The Balanced Scorecard School Of Management Is Not For The Faint Of Heart The scorecard should: Measure performance against goals Determine if the goals are appropriate Determine if the strategy or measures should be changed Provide direct measurable outcomes traceable to the actions of individuals and teams These measures and metrics should Have scalar units of measure: dollars, defects/1000, percentiles, etc. Have metrics that are first order derivatives from the work process: quality, response time, budget compliance Have independent variables that can be controlled which are connected to the dependent variables © 2003 CH2M HILL Communications Group BD02005 A 08/29/02 Strategy Driven … Customer Focused 37/38 Having a clear goal of what you expect from the Balanced Scorecard is important. Continually reminding yourself of these goals and benefits is just as critical. Continually re-assessing these goals and the strategies they support is just as important. Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 37
  • 38. Balanced Scorecard Presentation IQPC Conference, October 2003, San Francisco, CA Glen B. Alleman VP, Program Management Office A Final Thought “One of the most dangerous forms of human error is forgetting what one is trying to achieve.” – Paul Nitze © 2002 CH2M HILL Communications Group Copyright ©, 2003 CH2M HILL 38