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Agile in the government

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Starting with an EIA–748–C compliant Earned Value Management System, integrating an Agile Software Development Lifecycle (Agile) is straightforward when there is a Bright Line between the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) and the Sprints and Tasks of the Agile Software Development Process.

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Agile in the government

  1. 1. + Agile Software Development for Government Software Intensive System of Systems (SISoS) Boulder Agile Meetup, 27 July 2016 6:00 PM CA Rally Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 If we’re looking to increase the probability of success for Software Intensive System of Systems (SISoS), look to where that effort can produce the highest return for the investment. The 2016 IT budget for Federal Agencies is ‒ $81,600,000,000.00
  2. 2. + Learning Objectives for Tonight n What do we mean when we say Agile on Government programs? n It may not mean what you think it does. n The many myths of Government IT Acquisition n Waterfall has been dead for 20 years. n Using Earned Value on Agile programs n FAR 34.2/DFARS 234.2 ‒ is standard acquisition policy for programs greater than $20M. n Connecting the Dots between Agile and Government Acquisition of IT products and services is now appearing in contracting language. n Risk Management is How Adults Manage Projects ‒ Tim Lister n Agile alone is NOT Risk Management Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 2
  3. 3. 3 Individuals and Interactions OVER Processes and Tools Working Software OVER Comprehensive Documentation Customer Collaboration OVER Contract Negotiation Responding to Change OVER Following the Plan The BIG Question for Government ‒ can we have?
  4. 4. + Department of Defense Systems are Characterized by … n MILLIONS TO 10’S OF MILLIONS OF LINES OF CODE n My current client has a code base of 2,000,000 lines of National Asset n INTEGRATION WITH LEGACY SYSTEMS IN LEGACY SOFTWARE LANGUAGES n Fortran 77 since basis of Missile Defense Systems n REAL-TIME DATA AND CONTROL n High integrity systems are the norm,not the exception n STANDARDS-BASED n Architecture,data protocols,hardware interfaces,data structures n FORMAL REVIEW PROCESSES n IndependentVerification &Validation n Cyber security n COMPLEX “REQUIREMENTS” FROM MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDERS n Systems Modeling Languages,formal requirements management tools Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 4
  5. 5. + What Do We Mean By Agile Software Development in the Government? † Dr. Ashton Carter, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, Sep/Oct, 2010 Defense AT&L PembrokeWelsh Corgi in a goat herding competition, Boulder County Fair, Longmont Colorado. Chubby body, short legs, not “lean,”but able to turn“inside the loop”of the sheep =“agile” Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 5
  6. 6. + Agile in the Federal Government 6 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 In 2016, more and more government agencies will need to address the demand for speed, innovation, and cost containment.The pressure put on organizations to do this effectively yields the need for scalability of lean Agile development efforts broadly programs and portfolios. Taking components of successful Agile development processes completed by smaller teams, such as continuous feedback loops, prioritization for value, more frequent development cycles, and increased collaboration, and replicating that on a larger scale will be vital for government agencies in 2016. Emerging models, such as Scaled Agile Framework, which has been shown to return 30 to 50 percent improvements in productivity and quality, as well as a 200 to 300 percent improvement in time to market versus traditional delivery methods, will gain even more traction inWashington as agencies look to expand efficiencies, both vertically and horizontally. ‒ http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20151214005838/en/Booz-Allen-Experts-Predict-Trends-Impact-Government
  7. 7. Do these sound familiar? Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 7 A Closer Look at 804: A Summary of Considerations for DoD Program Managers, Stephany Bellomo, CMU/SEI-2011-SR-015
  8. 8. + Large Government Projects Have Unique Needs† n Owning the Technical Baseline n Controlling software and hardware that evolve over time requires Program Management and technologist to maintain a deep understanding of the system and its implementation – defined capabilities are established on contract n This can be done with Open Systems Architecture (MOSA), technical reference frameworks, standards based development and other architecture frameworks ‒ emergent architectures are not allowed n Incremental, Iterative, or Agile? n Iterative and Incremental have been in place since the early days of software development. n 1980 TRW had iterative and incremental development for programs n Challenges and Successes n Fast Feedback ‒ many processes require longer periods of work. n Slicing ACAT-I programs into several releases ‒ based on operational architecture n To deliver frequent releases ‒ Development Test (DT) and Operational Test (OT) organization must adapt to agile processes. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 8 † Helping Large Government programs Adopt and Adapt to Agile Methods, Harry Levison, SEI, 13 June 2016
  9. 9. + Agile at Scale, means having a Roadmap toward the destination† † “Parallel Worlds: Agile and Waterfall Differences and Similarities,” Carnegie Mellon University, http://goo.gl/c9O2Id 4. Framing Assumptions Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 9
  10. 10. + How Agile Benefits Government Programs† n First ask How Long AreWe Willing ToWait BeforeYou Find OutWe Are Late? n The answer needs to be Short Enough To Take Corrective Actions To Stay On Plan. n Agile forces the answer to that question to be produced every four weeks. n With Agile’s working software Physical Percent Complete can be used to calculate EV every four weeks. † “Adapting Agile to the Defense Acquisition Framework,” Mary Ann Lapham, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 10
  11. 11. + What Type of Program Are We Working?† n Without establishing the baseline of what kind of Agile program we’re working, we can’t determine what processes will be appropriate for integrating Agile with Government procurement. † “Context–Adaptive Agility: Managing Complexity and Uncertainty,” Todd Little, IEEE Software, May/June, 2005 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 11
  12. 12. + Capabilities Based Planning is a Common Language Between Agile and Government Development Processes 12 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 Material converted end–to–end Pilot Data Enrollment Integrators Quality Monitor Internal Router Data Store Lookup Data Warehouse Data Marts Data Marts Portals and others Billing Demo conversion process, member reconciliation Shared group matrix reports and interfaces Shared member crosswalk and members to ERP Integrators in ERP converted to inventory Status and trigger conversions Data in Marts for ERP Material Master Converted from legacy External Interfaces External Vendors converted to ERP Finance Loss TBD Resale's Vendors from legacy Emulations
  13. 13. + n Efficacy of the Budget (PV) ‒ is a dollar spent is a dollar earned? n Release date based on EVM’s risk adjusted Estimate to Complete and Estimates At Completion ‒ not just Story Point Burndown charts. n Baseline cost per Story point to convert agile estimating into EVM estimating. n Project progress visibility in units of cost and schedule compared to the planned measures of progress. n Mandatory production of working product every 4 weeks. n Measures of Physical Percent Complete supported by Definition of Done, mandatory rather than optional. n Measures of productivity, quality, and responsive to end user Features and Capabilities, not just cost and schedule. Value of EVM for Agile Value of Agile for EVM Value Proposition for Integrating Earned Value Management with Agile† † “AgileEVM – Earned Value Management in Agile Projects,” Tamara Sulaiman, Brent Barton, and Thomas Blackburn, Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 13
  14. 14. + Integration Across a Bright Line Between Agile and Government Processes Provides Actionable Information to all Decision Makers Performance Reporting from Work Package Performance Performance • Budget – from WBS Basis of Estimate • Cost – from time cards • Value – from completed Story Points n Starting with Releases, Capabilities are flowed to the PMB n Capabilities produce the value from each Release n Control Accounts and Work Packages are on baseline in the PMB n Work Packages contain Features produced in each Release by Sprints n Release Planning baseline for period of performance and PV Cadence Release 1 Cadence Release n Feature 1,2,3 Feature 4, .. ,8 Feature 9, …,12 Release 2 PP’s WP PP SLPP in IMS CA Sprints Time Now Performance Measurement Baseline Agile Software Development Lifecycle Feature n’s The Bright Line Milestones Data Items Releases Capabilities in a Release Agile Development Control Account Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task … n Feature ACP % = Completed / Planned n Feature hours = Bottom Up from Task Estimate n Feature remaining hours = TO DO hours in agile tool for Tasks, to Stories, to Features Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 14
  15. 15. + Process Flow on Government Agile Projects 15 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 ❶ Starting with the Rough Order of Magnitude from the customers needed Features elicited from the Capabilities, layout out the Features in the logical sequence in the Product Roadmap. This estimate includes the hours needed to implement the Feature and the sequence of the Features to produce the Capabilities for the customer’s business needs. ❷ With the sequence of Feature, the contents of the Product Roadmap update and the Release Plan for those Features built. This shows what Features will be produced in each Release to match the Product Roadmap. ❸ With the Product Roadmap and Release, place the Features on the Product Backlog with estimates from the ROM and Story Points ‒ if they are used to prioritize the Features. This is an option, but provides an easy way to assess prioritizes of business value independent of the cost or duration of the effort to produce the Features. ❹ From the Features in Rally, update the IMS with which Features belongs in each Sprint. This has been defined in the ROM, for a time phased Planned Value. ❺ During the Sprint, update the TO DO field in Rally. This results in the calculation of Physical Percent Complete for the Story in the Sprint, and the Feature from the Stories.
  16. 16. + Connecting the Dots between all the moving parts 16 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  17. 17. + Setting Up for Earned Value in an Agile Development Tool 17 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  18. 18. + Measuring Physical Percent Complete at Feature and Story 18 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016
  19. 19. + A Critical Understanding about Planning in Agile and Government In Government Planning In Agile Planning Work Duration is estimated for the deliverables in the Work Breakdown Structure. Work placed in fixed time boxes inside Sprints on fixed boundaries – Time Boxed Scheduling. Sequence of work defined during planning process.The result is delivery dates defined by the network of activities in the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS). Sequence driven by priority of work defined by the customer, selected from the Product Backlog. Work efforts continue in sequenced Work Packages until planned outcomes are delivered. Work effort fixed inside the Sprint with a fixed team. At end of Sprint work stops. Unfinished work returned to Product Backlog “Programs may have a relatively clear mission, but the specific requirements can be volatile and evolving as customers and development teams alike explore the unknown.” – Jim Highsmith,“What is Agile Software Development?” Cross Talk,The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, October 2002, pp. 4–9 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 19
  20. 20. + The Agile Manifesto and Government Contracts 20 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Agile Manifesto Government Contracting Individuals and Interactions Over Process and Tools Processes are the basis of Program Planning and Controls.The funding comes from a sovereign and mandates governance processes be in place. Working Software Over Comprehensive Documentation The ability of the government to accept working software on 2 week boundaries must be carefully assessed Customer Collaboration Over Contract Negotiation The Federal Acquisition Regulation trumps all naïve approaches to spending the government’s money Responding to Change Over Following a Plan Change control is applied at the Contract End Item Deliverables
  21. 21. + 12 Principles of Agile and Government Procurement 21 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 ❶ Early and Continuous Delivery of Valuable Software ❼ A Working System is the Primary Measure of Progress ❷ Welcome Changing Requirements ❸ Frequent Delivery of the Working Software from few weeks to a few months ❹ Business People and Developers Work Together Daily ❺ Individuals are Motivated and Empowered ❽ Conversations are Face-to-Face ❻ Sustainable Development is Promoted by Leadership ❾ Continuous Attention to Technical Excellence ❿ Simplicity in All Things ⓫ Architecture, Requirements, and Designs Emerge from Self- Organizing Teams ⓬ Teams Regularly Reflect on How to Be More Effective
  22. 22. The Big Question How Does Agile Development Fit Into An Overall Process Needed to Improve the Probability of Program Success? Systems Engineering Risk Management Lifecycle LogisticsTest & Evaluation Affordability and Lifecycle Resources Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 22
  23. 23. + Government Program’s Start with Systems Engineering Measures n Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) ‒ Operational measures of success that are closely related to the achievements of the mission or operational objectives evaluated in the operational environment, under a specific set of conditions. n Measures of Performance (MOP) ‒ characterize physical or functional attributes relating to the system operation, measured or estimated under specific conditions. n Technical Performance Measures (TPM) ‒ represent the capabilities and characteristics so significant that failure to meet them can be cause for reevaluation, reassessing, or termination of the program. n Key Performance Parameters (KPP) ‒ determine how well a system or system element is satisfying or expected to satisfy a technical requirement or goal. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 23
  24. 24. + SISoS Development Is About Systems Engineering 24 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Assembly, Test, and Delivery System Architecture & Capabilities § Iterative Agile Development § Emergent Design within the Architecture § Requirements Derivation from the Capabilities KPP Operational MOP Functional TPM MOE Operational Delivery & Acceptance Integration Verification Validation Agile Development within Framework
  25. 25. + n Forecasting Estimate to Complete (ETC) and Estimate At Completion (EAC) in units of measure meaningful to the decision makers n Risk adjusted Dollars and Time for the delivery of project Value n Using Physical Percent Complete from the Agile Task level that implements each Story ‒ to roll this measure to the Feature in the Product Backlog n Agile measures Story Points completed, but those Story Points are not connected to Physical Percent Complete of the delivered Value n Using Planned Value (BCWS) and Earned Value (EV) shows actual progress to plan not possible by just measuring burn down of Story Points n Story Points have no meaning to Program Management on government programs ‒ nor commercial program either. Increasing the Probability of Program Success (PoPS) must be the goal of any program management process What are the Unassailable Beneficial Outcomes of Applying EVM to Agile? 5. Foundations of EVM Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 25
  26. 26. + Connecting the Dots 26 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Agile Government Incremental and Iterative Development Short duration deliverables, 44 Day rule. Rolling wave planning for future work Features derived from Capabilities Working Software Physical Percent Complete using Measures of Effectiveness, Measures of Performance,Technical Performance Measures, and Key Performance Parameters Emergent Requirements Stable Capabilities in support of Mission and Vision, Emergent Requirements to fulfill those Capabilities Capabilities Based Planning
  27. 27. + Risk Management is How Adults Manage Projects ‒ Tim Lister 27 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Uncertainty Irreducible (Aleatory) Reducible (Epistemic) Natural Variability Ambiguity Ontological Uncertainty Probabilistic Events Probabilistic Impacts Periods of Exposure
  28. 28. + Project Success Depends on Many Things … n When driving the project in the absence of desired outcomes – the project goal – without units of measure meaningful to the decisions makers … … Some technical, some managerial, some political, some economic. But they’re all connected in a closed loop system. n It’s like driving in the rear view mirror. ‒ It can be done, but you don’t know you ran over anything until you it’s too late. n Close Loop Control provides the headlights to see where you’re going and what’s in the way of your progress n Open Loop Control has no desired outcome in terms of delivery date, cost, and needed capabilities, defined before you start and during you trip, so you’ll only know where you’re going when you arrive. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 28
  29. 29. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 29 Backup Slides
  30. 30. + GREEN Connections 30 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 ❶ Early and Continuous Delivery of Valuable Software ❼ A Working System is the Primary Measure of Progress ❸ Frequent Delivery of the Working Software from few weeks to a few months Frequent delivery provides several advantages. Customers get to see what they’ve asked for to confirm it’s still what they need. Closed loop control must sample for the error single fast enough to take correction action.The value of Value evolves, frequent confirmation needed. Any good project management system bases its performance assessment on working product, never on the passage of time and consumption of money. Agile forces this paradigm. The best measure of progress to plan is the assessment of a working product against the planned Effectiveness and Performance. Working system means every single component of the outcomes of the project.
  31. 31. + GREEN Connections 31 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 A sustainable pace starts with the plan for the needed capacity for work, the needed capabilities of that team, and the leadership to assure those resources have all they need to sustain that capacity and possess those capabilities. All project success depends on the right people, following the right processes, using the right procedures, to produce the right outcomes, at the right time, for the right cost. ❺ Individuals are Motivated and Empowered ❻ Sustainable Development is Promoted by Leadership It’s illogical to not focus on technical excellence. Do this by defining what technical excellence is up front is mandatory.This means Measures of Effectiveness (MOE), Measures of Performance (MOP),Technical Performance (TPM), and Key Performance Parameter (KPP). ❾ Continuous Attention to Technical Excellence
  32. 32. + Almost GREEN Connections 32 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 Feedback is core to the closed loop control system needed to keep the project on plan. Continuous delivery of planned value for planned cost, at planned time requires this closed loop control.The communication is nosier on Government Programs. ⓬ Teams Regularly Reflect on How to Be More Effective Systems engineering seeks a technical and programmatic architecture that maximize the probability of success. This success starts with a simple and effective solutions that scale and respond to emerging requirements as complexity grows. ❿ Simplicity in All Things In most instances, government buyers of software products or services are not co-located with development teams. This puts a burden on the Product Owner to have much greater visibility to customer needs. ❹ Business People and Developers Work Together Daily
  33. 33. + Moving from GREEN Connections 33 Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 The procurement of software and services by the Government restricts the interaction between the two parties. Agile contracting must be improved to address this gap ❽ Conversations are Face-to-Face Requirements change, but Capabilities are stable. Changing requirements must to be tested against capabilities for confirm the need for change. While welcome is an agile term, on government contracts, changing requirements requires change control. ❷ Changing Requirements are Welcome In government system, architecture is many times defined externally ‒ DoDAF, MOSA, JFMIP,ToGAF, Financial Management Systems Architecture are examples. Emergent architectures are possible in domains where Enterprise interoperability is mandatory. ⓫ Architecture, Requirements, and Designs Emerge from Self- Organizing Teams
  34. 34. + Resources This briefing is not from Whole Cloth. Many have come before and many will come afterward. The resources listed here are the starting point for anyone interested in applying the principles developed in this briefing for integrating Agile with Earned Value Management projects Knowledge is of two kinds.We know a subject ourselves,or we know where we can find information upon it – Samuel Johnson Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 34
  35. 35. + Resources (A Very Small Sample) n http://www.afei.org/WorkingGroups/ADAPT/Documents/Forms/AllItems.aspx ‒ program management with Agile in the Federal Government n http://www.sei.cmu.edu/reports/10tn002.pdf ‒ Considerations for Using Agile in DoD Acquisition n https://www.mitre.org/sites/default/files/publications/MITRE-Defense-Agile- Acquisition-Guide.pdf ‒ Defense Agile Acquisition Guide n https://www.mitre.org/sites/default/files/pdf/11_0401.pdf ‒ Handbook for Implementing Agile in Department of Defense Information Technology Acquisition n http://www.dau.mil/pubscats/ATL%20Docs/Jan_Feb_2013/Broadus.pdf ‒ The Challenges of Being Agile in DoD n http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20120013429.pdf ‒ Agile Development Methods in Space Operations n http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.473.6590&rep=rep1&typ e=pdf ‒ Should NASA Embrace Agile Processes? n http://www4.ncsu.edu/~scarpen/Research_files/Agile_Suitability_to_Space_Based_S E_FINAL.pdf ‒ Is Agile too Fragile for Space-Based Systems Engineering? Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 35
  36. 36. + Resources (A Very Small Sample) n http://www.acq.osd.mil/evm/resources/Agile_EVM_Home.shtml ‒ March 2016 meeting at PARCA (Performance Assessment and Root Cause Analysis) for Agile and EVM:A Program Managers Desk Guide n http://www.acq.osd.mil/evm/resources/DoDAgileSep2015.html ‒ DoD Agile Meeting” Enhancing Adoption Agile Software Development in DOD ‒ September 2015. n http://www.acq.osd.mil/evm/resources/EVM-Agile%20Meeting.html ‒ EVM and Agile Software Development Open Meeting – February 2015. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 - 2016 36
  37. 37. Performance–Based Project Management®, Copyright © Glen B. Alleman, 2002 ― 2016 37

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