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UNIT 5. CITIES
1.1. THE CONCEPT OF A CITY
▪ Definitions of what a city is vary around the world. There
is no single factor that explains whether a place is a city
or not (number inhabitants, functions…)
▪ However, it is possible to tell if we are living in a rural or
urban settlements by looking at a number of aspects.
1. URBAN AREAS
Rural settlement: village or hamlet.
Village (pueblo): small town
Hamlet (aldea): small village
� Lower number of inhabitants
and a low concentration of
people.
� Its structure: low buildings.
� Economic activities: primary
sector (to obtained natural
resources): agriculture and
livestock farming.
� The way of life of its
inhabitants is characterized by
close and family-orientated
social behavior, with a strong
sense of belonging to a
community.
Urban settlement: city
� Large number of
inhabitants.
� Structure: tall buildings
that are very close
together.
� Main economic activities
of cities are related to
secondary (transform raw
materials) and services
sector (commerce,
education, banking…).
� The way of life is
characterized by less
intense relationships.
Town: small city
City: large town
The most important elements that define a place as a city:
� Quantitative:
◦ Number of inhabitants. In Spain urban areas with more
than 10.000 people are classified as cities.
◦ However, there is no universal number. For example, in Japan
settlements with more than 30.000 inhabitants are cities but in
Netherlands the figure is 200, in France 2.000...
� Qualitative:
◦ Main economic activities. Cities are identified by
secondary (industry) and tertiary sector (commerce, health,
education…).
◦ Concentration of tall buildings.
◦ Many activities or functions (residential, commercial, political…).
◦ Less intense relationship. Cities are identified with a way of life that is
fast, intense, cosmopolitan, tolerant…
THE CONCEPT OF A CITY
o Many activities, known as functions, take place in urban areas. Cities are,
in general, multifunctional spaces and many of these activities are
interrelated.
o The main functions of the city are:
▪ Residential.
▪ Commercial.
▪ Industrial.
▪ Tourist.
▪ Political and administrative.
▪ Cultural and religious.
1.2. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CITY
� Residential. Is common to all cities.
◦ It is the predominant function in some urban settlement,
such as satellite cities or dormitory towns:
● These are urban settlement on the periphery of major cities,
inhabited by people who travel to work in the city every day.
● Dormitory towns rely on transport networks that communicate
them with a major city.
� Commercial.
◦ Commercial cities are also centers of exchange for all
types of products and services.
◦ Transports networks (land, air and sea) and the flow of
money from banks and multinational companies converge
in these cities.
◦ Example: the city of Shanghai (China), whose port is the
most important one in the world.
� Industrial.
◦ This function is helped by the availability of labour and
the communication network. Nowadays, the industrial
areas are being moved to industrial estates on the
outskirts of the city.
� Tourist. This function is related:
◦ To a rich historical or artistic heritage (Rome or Athens).
◦ To natural attractions (Cancun).
◦ To leisure (Las Vegas or Monaco).
� Political and administrative. This function exists in
cities where political power is concentrated.
◦ Some cities are home to the headquarters (sede central) of
the main political bodies (Madrid, Brussels…).
◦ They are usually the state capitals, carrying out
administrative functions that affect the entire country.
� Cultural and religious (tourist).
◦ This function takes place in most cities, as they have
museums (Venice…), universities (Salamanca, Oxford…)
or are religious pilgrimage cities, such as Rome, Mecca
and Jerusalem.
RURAL SETTLEMENT URBAN SETTLEMENT
Low number of inhabitants
…
▪ Activities:
Page 46 (1, 2)
Page 47 (3, 4)
EXTRA ACTIVITY: Copy and complete the following table in your
notebook according to the main characteristics of the two types of
settlements.
City-town-village: http://mansioningles.com.es/errores-gramaticales-ingles/diferencia-uso-city-town-village.htm
1.3. THE MORPHOLOGY OF CITIES
The morphology of a city refers to the factors that influence its
external form. The distribution of urban elements (streets, buildings
and green spaces) generates an urban plan, which is the graphical
representation of the structure of a city. We can distingue different
types of urban plans:
Grid, Linear, Radial, Irregular
GRID (also known as chequerboard or
orthogonal plan): in this type of urban
planning, the streets intersect at right
angles and the space is divided into blocks.
For example: New York, Madrid (barrio de
Salamanca) Turin, Lima, Montevideo and
Barcelona.
Linear: the city is organised according to a
main road, and the buildings and public
spaces are distributed around it.
For example, Castrillo de los Polvazares
(León) or Burgo de Ranero.
Radial: in a radial plan, we can distinguish
the central core form which several roads
branch out. These roads are intersected by
others streets that form concentric rings.
For example, Palmanova (Italy) or
Camberra.
Irregular: this type of plan is caused by a
lack of planning. It is characteristic by a
very complex and disorderly network of
streets. For example, Venecia or Toledo.
1.4. URBAN STRUCTURE
It refers to the internal organization of space in a city.
We can differentiate:
� The city centre: the main business, financial and commercial
areas are found.
◦ In older cities, it usually coincides with the old town, where most of
the historic monuments are located.
◦ The residential function is also important.
� Peri-urban areas: areas around the centre.
◦ It is mainly characterised by its residential function. In
many cities, this area has many streets, parks and
squares.
� Outskirts (afueras): is the outer area of the city.
◦ It emerged more recently as a result of the city´s
expansion. The majority of the population lives on the
outskirts.
◦ Industrial areas and commercial areas have also
appeared over recent years.
To work this section, YOU WILL HAVE TO DO in class a TEXT
COMMENTARY (no part of the exam).
� Read the information you have in your book (p.50-51) and
answer the following questions:
◦ 1. What are the differences between the cities of Ancient China and
Ancient Rome?
◦ 2. What were the most important parts of the cities during the Greek
civilisation?
◦ 3. Why were cities in the Middle Ages walled?
◦ 4. Name the most important characteristics of cities in the Modern
Age.
◦ 5. What were the ensanches? What type of urban plan was used to
build them?
◦ 6. A lot of problems with pollution, traffic and housing have been
generated in cities during the Industrial Revolution.
■ True
■ False
2. URBANISATION
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EdUs8jA7AHk
3. LIFE IN URBAN AREAS
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
A lot of educational and cultural
activities
Problems with traffic and parking
Centres of trade In poor countries, many inhabitants do
not have a guaranteed supply of drinking
water and energy
Healthcare is more accessible Large amounts of solid waste and
wastewater
More extensive labour market Pollution
Wide range of leisure options Live in depressed areas or build slums
Different backgrounds and cultures
come together
Problems with integration different social
classes
Unit 5.cities

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Unit 5.cities

  • 2. 1.1. THE CONCEPT OF A CITY ▪ Definitions of what a city is vary around the world. There is no single factor that explains whether a place is a city or not (number inhabitants, functions…) ▪ However, it is possible to tell if we are living in a rural or urban settlements by looking at a number of aspects. 1. URBAN AREAS
  • 3. Rural settlement: village or hamlet. Village (pueblo): small town Hamlet (aldea): small village � Lower number of inhabitants and a low concentration of people. � Its structure: low buildings. � Economic activities: primary sector (to obtained natural resources): agriculture and livestock farming. � The way of life of its inhabitants is characterized by close and family-orientated social behavior, with a strong sense of belonging to a community.
  • 4. Urban settlement: city � Large number of inhabitants. � Structure: tall buildings that are very close together. � Main economic activities of cities are related to secondary (transform raw materials) and services sector (commerce, education, banking…). � The way of life is characterized by less intense relationships. Town: small city City: large town
  • 5. The most important elements that define a place as a city: � Quantitative: ◦ Number of inhabitants. In Spain urban areas with more than 10.000 people are classified as cities. ◦ However, there is no universal number. For example, in Japan settlements with more than 30.000 inhabitants are cities but in Netherlands the figure is 200, in France 2.000... � Qualitative: ◦ Main economic activities. Cities are identified by secondary (industry) and tertiary sector (commerce, health, education…). ◦ Concentration of tall buildings. ◦ Many activities or functions (residential, commercial, political…). ◦ Less intense relationship. Cities are identified with a way of life that is fast, intense, cosmopolitan, tolerant… THE CONCEPT OF A CITY
  • 6. o Many activities, known as functions, take place in urban areas. Cities are, in general, multifunctional spaces and many of these activities are interrelated. o The main functions of the city are: ▪ Residential. ▪ Commercial. ▪ Industrial. ▪ Tourist. ▪ Political and administrative. ▪ Cultural and religious. 1.2. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CITY
  • 7. � Residential. Is common to all cities. ◦ It is the predominant function in some urban settlement, such as satellite cities or dormitory towns: ● These are urban settlement on the periphery of major cities, inhabited by people who travel to work in the city every day. ● Dormitory towns rely on transport networks that communicate them with a major city. � Commercial. ◦ Commercial cities are also centers of exchange for all types of products and services. ◦ Transports networks (land, air and sea) and the flow of money from banks and multinational companies converge in these cities. ◦ Example: the city of Shanghai (China), whose port is the most important one in the world.
  • 8. � Industrial. ◦ This function is helped by the availability of labour and the communication network. Nowadays, the industrial areas are being moved to industrial estates on the outskirts of the city. � Tourist. This function is related: ◦ To a rich historical or artistic heritage (Rome or Athens). ◦ To natural attractions (Cancun). ◦ To leisure (Las Vegas or Monaco).
  • 9. � Political and administrative. This function exists in cities where political power is concentrated. ◦ Some cities are home to the headquarters (sede central) of the main political bodies (Madrid, Brussels…). ◦ They are usually the state capitals, carrying out administrative functions that affect the entire country. � Cultural and religious (tourist). ◦ This function takes place in most cities, as they have museums (Venice…), universities (Salamanca, Oxford…) or are religious pilgrimage cities, such as Rome, Mecca and Jerusalem.
  • 10. RURAL SETTLEMENT URBAN SETTLEMENT Low number of inhabitants … ▪ Activities: Page 46 (1, 2) Page 47 (3, 4) EXTRA ACTIVITY: Copy and complete the following table in your notebook according to the main characteristics of the two types of settlements. City-town-village: http://mansioningles.com.es/errores-gramaticales-ingles/diferencia-uso-city-town-village.htm
  • 11. 1.3. THE MORPHOLOGY OF CITIES The morphology of a city refers to the factors that influence its external form. The distribution of urban elements (streets, buildings and green spaces) generates an urban plan, which is the graphical representation of the structure of a city. We can distingue different types of urban plans: Grid, Linear, Radial, Irregular GRID (also known as chequerboard or orthogonal plan): in this type of urban planning, the streets intersect at right angles and the space is divided into blocks. For example: New York, Madrid (barrio de Salamanca) Turin, Lima, Montevideo and Barcelona.
  • 12. Linear: the city is organised according to a main road, and the buildings and public spaces are distributed around it. For example, Castrillo de los Polvazares (León) or Burgo de Ranero. Radial: in a radial plan, we can distinguish the central core form which several roads branch out. These roads are intersected by others streets that form concentric rings. For example, Palmanova (Italy) or Camberra. Irregular: this type of plan is caused by a lack of planning. It is characteristic by a very complex and disorderly network of streets. For example, Venecia or Toledo.
  • 13. 1.4. URBAN STRUCTURE It refers to the internal organization of space in a city. We can differentiate: � The city centre: the main business, financial and commercial areas are found. ◦ In older cities, it usually coincides with the old town, where most of the historic monuments are located. ◦ The residential function is also important.
  • 14. � Peri-urban areas: areas around the centre. ◦ It is mainly characterised by its residential function. In many cities, this area has many streets, parks and squares. � Outskirts (afueras): is the outer area of the city. ◦ It emerged more recently as a result of the city´s expansion. The majority of the population lives on the outskirts. ◦ Industrial areas and commercial areas have also appeared over recent years.
  • 15. To work this section, YOU WILL HAVE TO DO in class a TEXT COMMENTARY (no part of the exam). � Read the information you have in your book (p.50-51) and answer the following questions: ◦ 1. What are the differences between the cities of Ancient China and Ancient Rome? ◦ 2. What were the most important parts of the cities during the Greek civilisation? ◦ 3. Why were cities in the Middle Ages walled? ◦ 4. Name the most important characteristics of cities in the Modern Age. ◦ 5. What were the ensanches? What type of urban plan was used to build them? ◦ 6. A lot of problems with pollution, traffic and housing have been generated in cities during the Industrial Revolution. ■ True ■ False 2. URBANISATION
  • 16. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EdUs8jA7AHk 3. LIFE IN URBAN AREAS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES A lot of educational and cultural activities Problems with traffic and parking Centres of trade In poor countries, many inhabitants do not have a guaranteed supply of drinking water and energy Healthcare is more accessible Large amounts of solid waste and wastewater More extensive labour market Pollution Wide range of leisure options Live in depressed areas or build slums Different backgrounds and cultures come together Problems with integration different social classes