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UNIT 6. ECONOMIC
ACTIVITIES
1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: DEFINITION
2. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
3. SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY:
PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY
1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: DEFINITION
⮚Process through which all human material needs are
satisfied through the production of goods and services.
⮚Economic activities can be classified in THREE GROUPS:
• PRODUCTION: CREATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES.
Ex: food produced by a farmer, car made by a manufacturer
or legal services provided by a lawyer.
• DISTRIBUTION: TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS FROM THE
PRODUCER TO THE CONSUMER.
Ex: transportation of food to shops or manufactured cars
from factories to dealers (comerciante: AUTHORISED DEALER
OF BMW).
• CONSUMPTION: USE THE GOODS AND SERVICES
PRODUCED.
BOX ORANGE JUICE!!!!
PRODUCTI
ON
TRANSPORTAT
ION
CONSUMPTIO
N
FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
To produce goods and services we need different resources, called
FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. These are:
⮚ Natural resources: are raw materials, which are provided by nature. They
are used in the manufacture of products and as energy sources. We can
distinguish between:
⮚ Renewable resources: can be consumed without being exhausted (water, wind
or solar power).
⮚ Non-renewable resources: can be exhausted by overconsumption (oil or iron
ore).
⮚ Capital: is made up of the different elements involved in the production
process.
• Human capital: the labour that workers contribute.
• Physical capital: raw materials, facilities, tools and machinery, etc.
• Financial capital: the money needed to acquire physical capital and pay
human capital.
⮚ Labour: the role of labour (both physical and intellectual labour) is to
Difference between salary and wage
• Salary:
• What an employed receives at the end of each month.
• Wage:
• What an employed receives per hours, per day or per
week.
Depending on the amount of salary, it will give
employees more or less capacity to purchase goods.
▪ The purchasing power of a
wage depends on the cost of
living or on how much can be
purchased with it.
▪ If the wage goes up, but the
prices of goods and services
increase, purchasing power
is lost.
▪ If the wage increases and
the prices of goods
decreases, purchasing
power increases..
Purchasing power:
amount of goods or
services you can acquire
with your salary.
ECONOMIC AGENTS
• Households: satisfy their needs by using the goods and services
offered by businesses and the government. They also:
• Supply labour by working and receive wages and salaries.
• Use goods and services
• Supply financing through spending
• Supply financing through taxes
• The government: produces and uses goods and services, such as
healthcare products, to supply public hospitals. It also produces
goods and services that benefit the general public, such as schools
or hospitals. To pay for its activities, the government collects taxes
from households and businesses.
• Uses goods and services.
• Collects taxes.
• Supplies financing through wages, pensions.
• Employs labour
• Businesses: employ labour to produce goods and services.
Businesses are financed by the spending of the other two
agents.
• Produce goods and services.
• Employ labour.
• Provide payment for work.
• Supply financing through taxes.
EXERCISES TO REVIEW THE
THEORY
PAGE 11: 2 and 3
PAGE 18-19: 5, 9, 10
2. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
CONCEPT AND TYPES
The set of structures which allows taking decisions in the economic
activities is called: ECONOMIC SYSTEM.
• Each economic system try to answer these questions:
• WHAT TO PRODUCE?
• HOW TO PRODUCE?
• FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE?
• Depending on the answers to the questions we have different
TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS:
1. Tradition-based economic systems.
2. Capitalism and the free market system.
3. The central planning system: the authority.
4. The mixed economy system.
1. TRADITION-BASED ECONOMIC
SYSTEMS.
• This type of economic system only allow for very limited economic
growth.
• Production is restricted to self-consumption and subsistence.
• Households purchase very few goods and consume what they
produce.
• They generate very little surplus.
• WHAT TO PRODUCE?
Depends on the resources in each region.
• HOW TO PRODUCE?
Production is based on rules supported by very old customs.
• FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE?
To benefit the community.
2. CAPITALISM AND THE FREE MARKET SYSTEM
The decision-making power is the market in which consumers and
producers are and in which prices of all exchanges are established.
• WHAT TO PRODUCE?
Decide by the free market system of supply and demand (law
of supply and demand).
Depends on consumers (their preferences).
• HOW TO PRODUCE?
At the lowest possible cost, because the aim of the
businesses is to obtain profits.
• FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE?
Determine by the market.
LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND
SUPPLY >
DEMAND
DEMAND >
SUPPLY
Surplus of
products
Prices
decrease
Competition to
sell increases
Shortage of
products
Competition to
buy increases
Prices
increase
• Supply: the products available on the market for a specific price and during a certain period.
• Demand: the goods or services that consumers are prepared to buy for a particular price and
under certain conditions.
Advantages: The individual freedom: both consumers and companies freely choose what to consume or
what to produce, depending on their preferences and their budgets.
Disadvantages: The unequal distribution of wealth. The supply side is driven by the desire to obtain the
greatest profit.
https://youtu.be/WRmnj4T6h5w
3. THE CENTRAL PLANNING SYSTEM: THE AUTHORITY.
⮚Main decisions are made by the central economic authority
(State).
⮚ The state sets the prices of production factors and goods and
services, run the functioning of the economy and control the
economic power.
⮚The aim of this system is to achieve greater social equality,
preventing the injustices that are caused by the unequal
distribution of wealth.
• WHAT TO PRODUCE?
Decided by the State, according to the needs of
population.
• HOW TO PRODUCE?
Based on goals set by the State.
4. THE MIXED ECONOMY SYSTEM.
• The free market deals with basic economic problems, but the state
acts as an authority to help guarantee equal opportunities. To this end,
its collect taxes in order to finance what is known as the welfare state
(estado del bienestar), investing in public goods and services, social
security benefits and other kinds of support.
• WHAT TO PRODUCE?
Decided by the free market and the State.
• HOW TO PRODUCE?
By private companies at the lowest possible cots and by the
State, based on its goals
• FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE?
Determined by the market, but the State take action to
guarantee equal opportunities.
3. SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY.
The economy is divided into three sectors:
• Primary sector.
• This sector involves activities related to obtaining natural resources for
manufacturing or food (agriculture, livestock farming, forestry and
fishing).
• Secondary sector.
• This sector involves manufacturing raw materials and producing capital
goods; includes all activities that convert raw materials into finished or
semi-finished products. It is usually associated with industry
(mining…).
• Tertiary or service sector.
• This sector includes all the activities that produce intangible goods and
services. It does not create or manufacture materials (commerce,
tourism…).
3.1. PRIMARY SECTOR
• This sector involves activities related to obtaining natural
resources for manufacturing or food:
A. AGRICULTURE
B. LIVESTOCK FARMING.
C. FORESTRY.
D. FISHING.
A. AGRICULTURE.
Involves farming the land to produce raw materials, such as cereals, cotton
and fruit.
There are many different types of farming techniques. The most important
are (page 25):
• Dry and irrigation farming:
• In dry farming, crops are watered by precipitation;
• In irrigation farming, water is brought from aquifers, rivers and
reservoirs using a costly system of channels. This makes it possible
to obtain higher yields than dry farming.
Dry farming:
Wheat.
Irrigation farming:
Corn.
Intensive and extensive farming:
• In extensive farming,
land is left fallow (it is
left uncultivated for a
year to allow it to
regenerate).
• In intensive farming, the
land produces very high
yields: it is made to produce
several crops a year by
using irrigation,
greenhouses and fertilisers.
Polyculture and monoculture:
• In polyculture, agricultural
areas are divided into a
number of plots. Different
species are cultivated on
these plots. This is the typical
system in low-productivity
traditional agriculture.
• By contrast, monoculture is
highly specialised, with a single
product being planted over a
large area. This method is
commonly used on tropical
plantations of coffee, bananas,
tea…
B. Livestock farming.
Involves raising animals for food or for raw materials, such as leather
and wool.
There are different types of livestock farming (page 27):
A. Extensive livestock farming: the farmer leads the livestock to
meadows and pastureland so the animals can graze freely. We can
distinguish:
• Nomadic farming: livestock move from place to another place looking for
water and pasture.
• Seasonal migratory farming: livestock move around in search of food
based on season; for instance, in summer they remain in cool areas.
• Non-Transhumant farming: livestock do not have to travel long
distances to feed.B. Intensive livestock farming: consists of
stabling the animals on farms, where they
are given feed and the living conditions are
monitored by vets.
C. Forestry.
Consists of exploiting the wood from trees in forests and
plantations, along with other raw materials, such as resin, cork and
rubber.
• Clear-felling (tala): an area of the forest is eliminated. It is then
replanted or left unused to allow it to regenerate.
• Thinning (clareamiento): a limited number of trees in a forest are
cut down. This helps the remaining trees to grow better.
• Pollarding (poda): this involves periodically pruning only the
branches of the trees. The tree survives and continues producing
wood.
Example: Pasture or meadow = DEHESA of Holm oak (encina): area in which
trees have been eliminated, creating a surface of pasture. The pruning of the
trees provides wood.
D. Fishing.
Involves catching or farming fish, molluscs and crustaceans.
There are different types (page 34-35):
• Commercial fishing: the aim of this form of fishing is the large
scale sale of the catch. There are different techniques for catching
the fish:
• COASTAL FISHING = PESCA BAJURA
• DEEP-SEA FISHING = PESCA ALTURA
• Traditional fishing: this type of fishing uses traditional fishing
tackle (aparejos, materials to fish). Its main objective is self-
consumption or to supply local markets.
• HARPOON (arpón)
• HOOK (anzuelo)
• FISH POT
• SHELLFISHING (marisqueo)
• Aquaculture: involves raising fish, crustaceans, molluscs and the
algae on rafts, in pools…
3.2. SECONDARY SECTOR
• This sector involves the economic activities that convert
raw materials (wool, wood..) into finished or semi-finished
products.
• Finished products: suitable for the consumer (final consumer).
• Ex: TABLE or SHOE.
• Semi-finished products: non suitable for the consumer.
• Ex: WOODEN PLANKS (to produce the table) or PIECES
(leather, shoelace, sole) to manufacture the shoe.
Finishe
d
Semi-
finished
• The secondary sector is usually associated with
INDUSTRY, although we have others economic
activities include in this sector:
• Construction: of buildings (homes, factories…) and
infrastructures (roads, ports…).
• Energy production: we are going to use energy to
produce goods.
• Non-renewable energies: coal, petroleum, natural gas or nuclear
energy.
• Renewable energies: hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power,
etc.
• Mining: Consists of removing rocks and minerals from
the subsoil.
INDUSTRY
This economic activity includes all industrial activities which
manufacture raw materials. We can distinguish different types of industry
(p. 51-52):
Heavy industry (Industria pesada): its
aim is to transform raw materials into
semi-finished products that are then
used in other industries.
Ferrous Metallurgy: industria siderúrgica
Light industry (Industria Ligera): makes
products for consumers, using raw materials or
semi finished products. It includes: Textile
industry, Automotive industry, food industry,
etc.
Capital goods industry (Industria bienes
capital): uses products from heavy industry to
make the materials and machinery required by
other industries.
3.3. TERTIARY SECTOR
⮚ This sector includes all the activities that produce intangible goods
and services. It does not create or manufacture materials. ITS AIM IS
TO PROVIDE SERVICES.
⮚ THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS SECTOR = The tertiarisation of the
economy.
⮚ In developed countries this sector has a very important role in the economy,
while in developing countries the number of people who work in the tertiary
sector is less than 30%.
⮚ Service sector is divided into a large number of subsectors:
▪ TOURISM: Relates to the temporary movement of people
from one place to another to enjoy their free time. Tourism is
related to leisure.
▪ TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS: Relate to the
movement of people and goods (by road, rail, rives or sea and air)
and to communicating information (new technologies).
▪ SERVICES: Include essential services (healthcare or
education) and activities such as advertising and legal
services.
Commerce.
Involves the distribution and sale of the products.
• Domestic trade (comercio
interior):
• It takes place within the borders of
a country. Two basic groups:
• wholesale trade (comercio
mayorista), which moves large
quantities of merchandise in
order to sell it to other merchants
or companies.
• retail trade (comercio minorista),
which involves buying from
wholesalers and selling directly to
consumers.
• Foreign trade (comercio
exterior):
• Is the exchange of goods and
services between a country and
the rest of the world. Two types
of exchange:
• exports, which are the goods
and services that are sold to
foreign countries;
• and imports, which are the
goods and services produced
abroad and brought into a
country.
EDUCATION IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR A
SOCIETY, BECAUSE THE RIGHT OF
EDUCATION MEANS THAT WILL MAKE
POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN A JOB AND LIVE
IN GOOD CONDITIONS.
“Education is the passport to the future,
tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it in
today”
[Malcolm X (1925-1965), American political activist].
“Education is the most powerful weapon which
you can use to change the world”
• GLOSSARY OF TERMS.
✔Economic activity.
✔Factors of production.
✔Law of supply and demand.
✔Central planning economic system.
✔Primary sector.
✔Secondary sector.
✔Tertiary sector.
✔Forestry.
✔Extensive livestock farming.
✔Fishing.
✔Commerce.

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Unit 6

  • 1. UNIT 6. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES 1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: DEFINITION 2. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS 3. SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY: PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY
  • 2. 1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: DEFINITION ⮚Process through which all human material needs are satisfied through the production of goods and services. ⮚Economic activities can be classified in THREE GROUPS: • PRODUCTION: CREATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES. Ex: food produced by a farmer, car made by a manufacturer or legal services provided by a lawyer. • DISTRIBUTION: TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS FROM THE PRODUCER TO THE CONSUMER. Ex: transportation of food to shops or manufactured cars from factories to dealers (comerciante: AUTHORISED DEALER OF BMW). • CONSUMPTION: USE THE GOODS AND SERVICES PRODUCED.
  • 4. FACTORS OF PRODUCTION To produce goods and services we need different resources, called FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. These are: ⮚ Natural resources: are raw materials, which are provided by nature. They are used in the manufacture of products and as energy sources. We can distinguish between: ⮚ Renewable resources: can be consumed without being exhausted (water, wind or solar power). ⮚ Non-renewable resources: can be exhausted by overconsumption (oil or iron ore). ⮚ Capital: is made up of the different elements involved in the production process. • Human capital: the labour that workers contribute. • Physical capital: raw materials, facilities, tools and machinery, etc. • Financial capital: the money needed to acquire physical capital and pay human capital. ⮚ Labour: the role of labour (both physical and intellectual labour) is to
  • 5. Difference between salary and wage • Salary: • What an employed receives at the end of each month. • Wage: • What an employed receives per hours, per day or per week.
  • 6. Depending on the amount of salary, it will give employees more or less capacity to purchase goods. ▪ The purchasing power of a wage depends on the cost of living or on how much can be purchased with it. ▪ If the wage goes up, but the prices of goods and services increase, purchasing power is lost. ▪ If the wage increases and the prices of goods decreases, purchasing power increases.. Purchasing power: amount of goods or services you can acquire with your salary.
  • 7. ECONOMIC AGENTS • Households: satisfy their needs by using the goods and services offered by businesses and the government. They also: • Supply labour by working and receive wages and salaries. • Use goods and services • Supply financing through spending • Supply financing through taxes • The government: produces and uses goods and services, such as healthcare products, to supply public hospitals. It also produces goods and services that benefit the general public, such as schools or hospitals. To pay for its activities, the government collects taxes from households and businesses. • Uses goods and services. • Collects taxes. • Supplies financing through wages, pensions. • Employs labour
  • 8. • Businesses: employ labour to produce goods and services. Businesses are financed by the spending of the other two agents. • Produce goods and services. • Employ labour. • Provide payment for work. • Supply financing through taxes. EXERCISES TO REVIEW THE THEORY PAGE 11: 2 and 3 PAGE 18-19: 5, 9, 10
  • 9. 2. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS CONCEPT AND TYPES The set of structures which allows taking decisions in the economic activities is called: ECONOMIC SYSTEM. • Each economic system try to answer these questions: • WHAT TO PRODUCE? • HOW TO PRODUCE? • FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE? • Depending on the answers to the questions we have different TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: 1. Tradition-based economic systems. 2. Capitalism and the free market system. 3. The central planning system: the authority. 4. The mixed economy system.
  • 10. 1. TRADITION-BASED ECONOMIC SYSTEMS. • This type of economic system only allow for very limited economic growth. • Production is restricted to self-consumption and subsistence. • Households purchase very few goods and consume what they produce. • They generate very little surplus. • WHAT TO PRODUCE? Depends on the resources in each region. • HOW TO PRODUCE? Production is based on rules supported by very old customs. • FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE? To benefit the community.
  • 11. 2. CAPITALISM AND THE FREE MARKET SYSTEM The decision-making power is the market in which consumers and producers are and in which prices of all exchanges are established. • WHAT TO PRODUCE? Decide by the free market system of supply and demand (law of supply and demand). Depends on consumers (their preferences). • HOW TO PRODUCE? At the lowest possible cost, because the aim of the businesses is to obtain profits. • FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE? Determine by the market.
  • 12. LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND SUPPLY > DEMAND DEMAND > SUPPLY Surplus of products Prices decrease Competition to sell increases Shortage of products Competition to buy increases Prices increase • Supply: the products available on the market for a specific price and during a certain period. • Demand: the goods or services that consumers are prepared to buy for a particular price and under certain conditions. Advantages: The individual freedom: both consumers and companies freely choose what to consume or what to produce, depending on their preferences and their budgets. Disadvantages: The unequal distribution of wealth. The supply side is driven by the desire to obtain the greatest profit. https://youtu.be/WRmnj4T6h5w
  • 13. 3. THE CENTRAL PLANNING SYSTEM: THE AUTHORITY. ⮚Main decisions are made by the central economic authority (State). ⮚ The state sets the prices of production factors and goods and services, run the functioning of the economy and control the economic power. ⮚The aim of this system is to achieve greater social equality, preventing the injustices that are caused by the unequal distribution of wealth. • WHAT TO PRODUCE? Decided by the State, according to the needs of population. • HOW TO PRODUCE? Based on goals set by the State.
  • 14. 4. THE MIXED ECONOMY SYSTEM. • The free market deals with basic economic problems, but the state acts as an authority to help guarantee equal opportunities. To this end, its collect taxes in order to finance what is known as the welfare state (estado del bienestar), investing in public goods and services, social security benefits and other kinds of support. • WHAT TO PRODUCE? Decided by the free market and the State. • HOW TO PRODUCE? By private companies at the lowest possible cots and by the State, based on its goals • FOR WHOM TO PRODUCE? Determined by the market, but the State take action to guarantee equal opportunities.
  • 15. 3. SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY. The economy is divided into three sectors: • Primary sector. • This sector involves activities related to obtaining natural resources for manufacturing or food (agriculture, livestock farming, forestry and fishing). • Secondary sector. • This sector involves manufacturing raw materials and producing capital goods; includes all activities that convert raw materials into finished or semi-finished products. It is usually associated with industry (mining…). • Tertiary or service sector. • This sector includes all the activities that produce intangible goods and services. It does not create or manufacture materials (commerce, tourism…).
  • 16. 3.1. PRIMARY SECTOR • This sector involves activities related to obtaining natural resources for manufacturing or food: A. AGRICULTURE B. LIVESTOCK FARMING. C. FORESTRY. D. FISHING.
  • 17. A. AGRICULTURE. Involves farming the land to produce raw materials, such as cereals, cotton and fruit. There are many different types of farming techniques. The most important are (page 25): • Dry and irrigation farming: • In dry farming, crops are watered by precipitation; • In irrigation farming, water is brought from aquifers, rivers and reservoirs using a costly system of channels. This makes it possible to obtain higher yields than dry farming. Dry farming: Wheat. Irrigation farming: Corn.
  • 18. Intensive and extensive farming: • In extensive farming, land is left fallow (it is left uncultivated for a year to allow it to regenerate). • In intensive farming, the land produces very high yields: it is made to produce several crops a year by using irrigation, greenhouses and fertilisers.
  • 19. Polyculture and monoculture: • In polyculture, agricultural areas are divided into a number of plots. Different species are cultivated on these plots. This is the typical system in low-productivity traditional agriculture. • By contrast, monoculture is highly specialised, with a single product being planted over a large area. This method is commonly used on tropical plantations of coffee, bananas, tea…
  • 20. B. Livestock farming. Involves raising animals for food or for raw materials, such as leather and wool. There are different types of livestock farming (page 27): A. Extensive livestock farming: the farmer leads the livestock to meadows and pastureland so the animals can graze freely. We can distinguish: • Nomadic farming: livestock move from place to another place looking for water and pasture. • Seasonal migratory farming: livestock move around in search of food based on season; for instance, in summer they remain in cool areas. • Non-Transhumant farming: livestock do not have to travel long distances to feed.B. Intensive livestock farming: consists of stabling the animals on farms, where they are given feed and the living conditions are monitored by vets.
  • 21. C. Forestry. Consists of exploiting the wood from trees in forests and plantations, along with other raw materials, such as resin, cork and rubber. • Clear-felling (tala): an area of the forest is eliminated. It is then replanted or left unused to allow it to regenerate. • Thinning (clareamiento): a limited number of trees in a forest are cut down. This helps the remaining trees to grow better. • Pollarding (poda): this involves periodically pruning only the branches of the trees. The tree survives and continues producing wood. Example: Pasture or meadow = DEHESA of Holm oak (encina): area in which trees have been eliminated, creating a surface of pasture. The pruning of the trees provides wood.
  • 22. D. Fishing. Involves catching or farming fish, molluscs and crustaceans. There are different types (page 34-35): • Commercial fishing: the aim of this form of fishing is the large scale sale of the catch. There are different techniques for catching the fish: • COASTAL FISHING = PESCA BAJURA • DEEP-SEA FISHING = PESCA ALTURA • Traditional fishing: this type of fishing uses traditional fishing tackle (aparejos, materials to fish). Its main objective is self- consumption or to supply local markets. • HARPOON (arpón) • HOOK (anzuelo) • FISH POT • SHELLFISHING (marisqueo) • Aquaculture: involves raising fish, crustaceans, molluscs and the algae on rafts, in pools…
  • 23. 3.2. SECONDARY SECTOR • This sector involves the economic activities that convert raw materials (wool, wood..) into finished or semi-finished products. • Finished products: suitable for the consumer (final consumer). • Ex: TABLE or SHOE. • Semi-finished products: non suitable for the consumer. • Ex: WOODEN PLANKS (to produce the table) or PIECES (leather, shoelace, sole) to manufacture the shoe. Finishe d Semi- finished
  • 24. • The secondary sector is usually associated with INDUSTRY, although we have others economic activities include in this sector: • Construction: of buildings (homes, factories…) and infrastructures (roads, ports…). • Energy production: we are going to use energy to produce goods. • Non-renewable energies: coal, petroleum, natural gas or nuclear energy. • Renewable energies: hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power, etc. • Mining: Consists of removing rocks and minerals from the subsoil.
  • 25. INDUSTRY This economic activity includes all industrial activities which manufacture raw materials. We can distinguish different types of industry (p. 51-52): Heavy industry (Industria pesada): its aim is to transform raw materials into semi-finished products that are then used in other industries. Ferrous Metallurgy: industria siderúrgica Light industry (Industria Ligera): makes products for consumers, using raw materials or semi finished products. It includes: Textile industry, Automotive industry, food industry, etc. Capital goods industry (Industria bienes capital): uses products from heavy industry to make the materials and machinery required by other industries.
  • 26. 3.3. TERTIARY SECTOR ⮚ This sector includes all the activities that produce intangible goods and services. It does not create or manufacture materials. ITS AIM IS TO PROVIDE SERVICES. ⮚ THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS SECTOR = The tertiarisation of the economy. ⮚ In developed countries this sector has a very important role in the economy, while in developing countries the number of people who work in the tertiary sector is less than 30%. ⮚ Service sector is divided into a large number of subsectors: ▪ TOURISM: Relates to the temporary movement of people from one place to another to enjoy their free time. Tourism is related to leisure. ▪ TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS: Relate to the movement of people and goods (by road, rail, rives or sea and air) and to communicating information (new technologies). ▪ SERVICES: Include essential services (healthcare or education) and activities such as advertising and legal services.
  • 27. Commerce. Involves the distribution and sale of the products. • Domestic trade (comercio interior): • It takes place within the borders of a country. Two basic groups: • wholesale trade (comercio mayorista), which moves large quantities of merchandise in order to sell it to other merchants or companies. • retail trade (comercio minorista), which involves buying from wholesalers and selling directly to consumers. • Foreign trade (comercio exterior): • Is the exchange of goods and services between a country and the rest of the world. Two types of exchange: • exports, which are the goods and services that are sold to foreign countries; • and imports, which are the goods and services produced abroad and brought into a country.
  • 28. EDUCATION IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR A SOCIETY, BECAUSE THE RIGHT OF EDUCATION MEANS THAT WILL MAKE POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN A JOB AND LIVE IN GOOD CONDITIONS. “Education is the passport to the future, tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it in today” [Malcolm X (1925-1965), American political activist]. “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”
  • 29. • GLOSSARY OF TERMS. ✔Economic activity. ✔Factors of production. ✔Law of supply and demand. ✔Central planning economic system. ✔Primary sector. ✔Secondary sector. ✔Tertiary sector. ✔Forestry. ✔Extensive livestock farming. ✔Fishing. ✔Commerce.