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UNIT 5. ATMOSPHERE:
WEATHER AND
CLIMATE
1. The Earth´s Atmosphere.
2. The properties of air.
3. Atmospheric dynamics: weather and climate.
4. The Earth´s climates.
5. Climates of Spain.
Commentary text
Read the text you have on page 83 and answer the following
questions:
1. What expression is used by English speakers when it is raining a lot?
Translate it into Spanish language.
2. Is there any evidence that shows that the phrase is or can be real?
Justify your answer, copying the part of the text that prove your
answer.
3. There have been reports of animals falling from the sky. Name the two
weather phenomena responsible for this.
4. What is the difference between a tornado and waterspout?
5. What meteorological phenomenon occurs when warm air rises and
cools quickly?
6. Look at the pictures you have on pages 82 and 83 and write the name
and location on the world of the following meteorological
phenomena:
“It is characterized by strong winds that carry out small particles of sand”
� POSSIBLE UNKNOWN WORDS: Heavily (very much), waterspouts (tromba
marina o manga de agua; is like a tornado over the water), vortex
(centre of the waterspout), suck up (succionar), updrafts (corriente de
aire ascendente), pick up (recoger. levantar), debris (restos)
1. THE EARTH´S ATMOSPHERE
� Remember: the Earth´s atmosphere is a gaseous layer that
surrounds the planet, provides oxygen and protects us from solar
radiation.
The atmosphere is divided into
different layers:
1. Troposphere
2. Stratosphere
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere (Ionosphere)
5. Exosphere.
Most meteorological
phenomena, such as cloud
formation, wind and rain
occur in Troposphere.
The layers of the atmosphere
1. Troposphere (0-12 Km)
� The main meteorological phenomena happen here.
� It is the closest layer to Earth's surface.
� It is the layer we live in.
� higher altitude=colder temps (temperatures drop by 0, 65 ºC for every 100 m of
altitude).
2. Stratosphere (12-50 km).
� Ozone layer is here. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
� Higher altitude=warmer temps.
3. Mesosphere (50-100 km)
� Where meteors and comets are destroyed
� higher altitude=colder temps (temperatures sometimes reach -100 ºC).
4. Thermosphere (Ionosphere) (85-600 km)
� Solar radiation produces electrically-charged.
� Borealis auroras are here.
� Higher altitude=warmer temps (reach up to 1500 ºC).
5. Exosphere (600-10.000 km).
� The outermost layer, where satellites orbit Earth.
2. THE PROPERTIES OF AIR
Composition of gases. Air is a mixture of gases: 78% nitrogen, 21%
oxygen and various other components such as water vapour.
Temperature.
Warm air (lower levels) weighs less (became lighter)and rises.
Cool air (higher levels) weighs more (became heavier) and
decreases or fall down.
Atmospheric pressure. Is the term used to describe the pressure
exerted on Earth by the weight of the air. It is measured with a
barometer.
Both altitude and temperature determine atmospheric pressure.
Relatively humidity. It refers to the amount of water vapour that
air contains. When water vapour begins to condense into
droplets, clouds are formed.
� The most important properties of air
3. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS
3.1. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
� The Sun´s rays warm up the atmosphere and our planet´s
surface. The energy from the Sun is responsible for the Earth´s
weather and climate.
� You have to distinguish these two concepts:
� Weather is the state of the lower layers of the atmosphere at
a certain time and place on Earth.
� The science that deals with predicting what the weather will be
like in a certain zone is called Meteorology.
� Climate refers to the state of the weather in a certain region
of the planet over a long period of time. It is necessary to
analyze a region in 30 years intervals to establish the climate
of a region.
� The science that studies different types of climate is referred to
as Climatology.
3.2.FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER
� Weather can be determined by many factors:
A. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.
B. TEMPERATURE.
C. WIND.
D. HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION
▪ https://study.com/academy/lesson/temperature-clouds-wind-
humidity-on-the-atmospheric-cycle.html
A. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
� Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air over a particular Earth´s
surface. It is measured in hectopascals (hPa).
� It varies from one place to another and depends on:
Altitude: atmospheric pressure
is lower at higher altitudes. For
example, the amount of air at
the top of a mountain is less
than at the base.
Temperature: warm air
weighs less than cold air. As
a result:
▪ warm air rises and exerts
less pressure on the Earth´s
surface,
▪ while cold air descends
and exerts more pressure.
Weather maps
� Atmospheric pressure can be represented on a map, where the points
of equal atmospheric pressure are joined through a few lines: isobars.
When isobars are close together, in this area is very windy.
� You can see A (Anticiclón. In English language H: high pressure area)
and B (Borrasca. In English language L: low pressure area or
depressions).
� In Spain there is an area of high pressure (more than 1013 hPa), so the
weather is stable. However, in Northern Europe there is an area of low
pressure (less than 1013 pHa), so the weather is unstable.
Anticyclones (H): are areas of
high pressure (more than 1013
hPa). They produce stable
weather.
Depressions (L): are areas of low
pressure (less than 1013 hPa).
They produce unstable weather.
B. TEMPERATURE
� It is measured in degrees on the Fahrenheit (ºF) or Celsius (ºC) scales by
a thermometer.
� Temperature varies according to:
� Altitude: temperatures decreases with elevation (temperatures
drop by 0, 65 ºC for every 100 m of altitude).
� Latitude: temperatures decrease as you move away from the
equator. Sun rays go directly over the equator areas, so temperatures are
higher. In polar regions are colder because the Sun´s rays are dispersed over
a larger area of land.
� Distance from the sea: water heats and cool more slowly than the land does;
temperature of the land near large bodies of water is often milder, with no
big variations in temperature.
D. PRECIPITATION
� All air masses contain a certain amount of water vapour.
� When the water vapaur falls down to the Earth = Precipitation
(rain, snow, hail).
� There are three main causes or types of precipitation (page 87):
� Frontal rainfall (lluvias de frente). Image 1
� Storms (lluvias de convección). Image 2
� Relief rainfall (lluvias de relieve/orográficas). Image 3
Image 1 Image 2 Image 3
C. WIND
� Wind is the air in movement. There are different types of wind:
� Prevailing winds (vientos predominantes), such as trade winds (vientos alisios)
(Image 2), always blow in the same direction and in the same regions.
� Periodic winds, such as monsoons (Image 1), vary depending on the
season (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76dfOmEr4_s)
� Local winds are found in small areas. For example, Tramontana (Islas
Baleares), Galerna (Mar Cantábrico) and Cierzo (Aragón).
Image 2Image 1
INTERACTIVE EXERCISES
� WEATHER FORESCAST:
http://repositorio.educa.jccm.es/portal/odes/ingles/weat
her/contenido/contenido/oa05.html
� WEATHER AND CLIMATE:
http://repositorio.educa.jccm.es/portal/odes/ingles/weat
her/contenido/contenido/oa01.html
� WEATHER:
http://repositorio.educa.jccm.es/portal/odes/ingles/weat
her/contenido/contenido/oa04.html
4. THE EARTH´S CLIMATES
� Climatologists divide the Earth into different climate zones.
4.1. THE EARTH´S CLIMATES ZONES.
We can identify three major climates zones: cold, hot and temperate.
COLD ZONES
� Very little sunshine and annual average temperatures are below 0 ºC.
� There are two cold climate zones located within the polar circles:
� One in the Northern Hemisphere, made up of the Arctic Ocean,
Greenland and the northern coasts of Asia, Europe and America.
� One in the Southern Hemisphere, made up of the Antarctic.
HOT ZONES
� There is a single hot climate zone, which is known as the
intertropical zone: It is located between the two tropics.
� The intense sunshine in this region produces annual
average temperatures of above 18 ºC.
TEMPERATE ZONES
� There are two temperate zones: are located between the tropics and the
polar circles.
� Annual average temperatures are between 0 ºC and 18 ºC.
� The amount of sunshine varies throughout the year, resulting in four seasons.
In the Northern hemisphere, the hot season coincides with the summer
months. In the Southern hemisphere, it coincides with the winter months.
4.2. THE EARTH´S CLIMATES TYPES
� Within climates zones there are regions with different types of
climates.
� The combination of annual temperature and precipitation
data results in nine different climate types:
MAP OF THE EARTH´S CLIMATES TYPES
WHAT IS A CLIMOGRAPH?
� Temperature and precipitation make it possible to
identify a climate.
Both elements can be shown graphically using a
climograph which allows us to observe the annual
change in temperature and precipitation in a specific
place on the planet.
This information is represented using a combination
chart with two systems of coordinates.
� Activity: How to make a climopraph (page 96-97)

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Unit 5

  • 1. UNIT 5. ATMOSPHERE: WEATHER AND CLIMATE 1. The Earth´s Atmosphere. 2. The properties of air. 3. Atmospheric dynamics: weather and climate. 4. The Earth´s climates. 5. Climates of Spain.
  • 2. Commentary text Read the text you have on page 83 and answer the following questions: 1. What expression is used by English speakers when it is raining a lot? Translate it into Spanish language. 2. Is there any evidence that shows that the phrase is or can be real? Justify your answer, copying the part of the text that prove your answer. 3. There have been reports of animals falling from the sky. Name the two weather phenomena responsible for this. 4. What is the difference between a tornado and waterspout? 5. What meteorological phenomenon occurs when warm air rises and cools quickly? 6. Look at the pictures you have on pages 82 and 83 and write the name and location on the world of the following meteorological phenomena: “It is characterized by strong winds that carry out small particles of sand” � POSSIBLE UNKNOWN WORDS: Heavily (very much), waterspouts (tromba marina o manga de agua; is like a tornado over the water), vortex (centre of the waterspout), suck up (succionar), updrafts (corriente de aire ascendente), pick up (recoger. levantar), debris (restos)
  • 3. 1. THE EARTH´S ATMOSPHERE � Remember: the Earth´s atmosphere is a gaseous layer that surrounds the planet, provides oxygen and protects us from solar radiation. The atmosphere is divided into different layers: 1. Troposphere 2. Stratosphere 3. Mesosphere 4. Thermosphere (Ionosphere) 5. Exosphere. Most meteorological phenomena, such as cloud formation, wind and rain occur in Troposphere.
  • 4. The layers of the atmosphere 1. Troposphere (0-12 Km) � The main meteorological phenomena happen here. � It is the closest layer to Earth's surface. � It is the layer we live in. � higher altitude=colder temps (temperatures drop by 0, 65 ºC for every 100 m of altitude). 2. Stratosphere (12-50 km). � Ozone layer is here. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun. � Higher altitude=warmer temps. 3. Mesosphere (50-100 km) � Where meteors and comets are destroyed � higher altitude=colder temps (temperatures sometimes reach -100 ºC). 4. Thermosphere (Ionosphere) (85-600 km) � Solar radiation produces electrically-charged. � Borealis auroras are here. � Higher altitude=warmer temps (reach up to 1500 ºC). 5. Exosphere (600-10.000 km). � The outermost layer, where satellites orbit Earth.
  • 5. 2. THE PROPERTIES OF AIR Composition of gases. Air is a mixture of gases: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and various other components such as water vapour. Temperature. Warm air (lower levels) weighs less (became lighter)and rises. Cool air (higher levels) weighs more (became heavier) and decreases or fall down. Atmospheric pressure. Is the term used to describe the pressure exerted on Earth by the weight of the air. It is measured with a barometer. Both altitude and temperature determine atmospheric pressure. Relatively humidity. It refers to the amount of water vapour that air contains. When water vapour begins to condense into droplets, clouds are formed.
  • 6. � The most important properties of air
  • 7. 3. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS 3.1. WEATHER AND CLIMATE � The Sun´s rays warm up the atmosphere and our planet´s surface. The energy from the Sun is responsible for the Earth´s weather and climate. � You have to distinguish these two concepts: � Weather is the state of the lower layers of the atmosphere at a certain time and place on Earth. � The science that deals with predicting what the weather will be like in a certain zone is called Meteorology. � Climate refers to the state of the weather in a certain region of the planet over a long period of time. It is necessary to analyze a region in 30 years intervals to establish the climate of a region. � The science that studies different types of climate is referred to as Climatology.
  • 8. 3.2.FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER � Weather can be determined by many factors: A. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. B. TEMPERATURE. C. WIND. D. HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION ▪ https://study.com/academy/lesson/temperature-clouds-wind- humidity-on-the-atmospheric-cycle.html
  • 9. A. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE � Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air over a particular Earth´s surface. It is measured in hectopascals (hPa). � It varies from one place to another and depends on: Altitude: atmospheric pressure is lower at higher altitudes. For example, the amount of air at the top of a mountain is less than at the base. Temperature: warm air weighs less than cold air. As a result: ▪ warm air rises and exerts less pressure on the Earth´s surface, ▪ while cold air descends and exerts more pressure.
  • 10. Weather maps � Atmospheric pressure can be represented on a map, where the points of equal atmospheric pressure are joined through a few lines: isobars. When isobars are close together, in this area is very windy. � You can see A (Anticiclón. In English language H: high pressure area) and B (Borrasca. In English language L: low pressure area or depressions). � In Spain there is an area of high pressure (more than 1013 hPa), so the weather is stable. However, in Northern Europe there is an area of low pressure (less than 1013 pHa), so the weather is unstable. Anticyclones (H): are areas of high pressure (more than 1013 hPa). They produce stable weather. Depressions (L): are areas of low pressure (less than 1013 hPa). They produce unstable weather.
  • 11. B. TEMPERATURE � It is measured in degrees on the Fahrenheit (ºF) or Celsius (ºC) scales by a thermometer. � Temperature varies according to: � Altitude: temperatures decreases with elevation (temperatures drop by 0, 65 ºC for every 100 m of altitude). � Latitude: temperatures decrease as you move away from the equator. Sun rays go directly over the equator areas, so temperatures are higher. In polar regions are colder because the Sun´s rays are dispersed over a larger area of land. � Distance from the sea: water heats and cool more slowly than the land does; temperature of the land near large bodies of water is often milder, with no big variations in temperature.
  • 12. D. PRECIPITATION � All air masses contain a certain amount of water vapour. � When the water vapaur falls down to the Earth = Precipitation (rain, snow, hail). � There are three main causes or types of precipitation (page 87): � Frontal rainfall (lluvias de frente). Image 1 � Storms (lluvias de convección). Image 2 � Relief rainfall (lluvias de relieve/orográficas). Image 3 Image 1 Image 2 Image 3
  • 13. C. WIND � Wind is the air in movement. There are different types of wind: � Prevailing winds (vientos predominantes), such as trade winds (vientos alisios) (Image 2), always blow in the same direction and in the same regions. � Periodic winds, such as monsoons (Image 1), vary depending on the season (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76dfOmEr4_s) � Local winds are found in small areas. For example, Tramontana (Islas Baleares), Galerna (Mar Cantábrico) and Cierzo (Aragón). Image 2Image 1
  • 14. INTERACTIVE EXERCISES � WEATHER FORESCAST: http://repositorio.educa.jccm.es/portal/odes/ingles/weat her/contenido/contenido/oa05.html � WEATHER AND CLIMATE: http://repositorio.educa.jccm.es/portal/odes/ingles/weat her/contenido/contenido/oa01.html � WEATHER: http://repositorio.educa.jccm.es/portal/odes/ingles/weat her/contenido/contenido/oa04.html
  • 15. 4. THE EARTH´S CLIMATES � Climatologists divide the Earth into different climate zones. 4.1. THE EARTH´S CLIMATES ZONES. We can identify three major climates zones: cold, hot and temperate.
  • 16. COLD ZONES � Very little sunshine and annual average temperatures are below 0 ºC. � There are two cold climate zones located within the polar circles: � One in the Northern Hemisphere, made up of the Arctic Ocean, Greenland and the northern coasts of Asia, Europe and America. � One in the Southern Hemisphere, made up of the Antarctic.
  • 17. HOT ZONES � There is a single hot climate zone, which is known as the intertropical zone: It is located between the two tropics. � The intense sunshine in this region produces annual average temperatures of above 18 ºC.
  • 18. TEMPERATE ZONES � There are two temperate zones: are located between the tropics and the polar circles. � Annual average temperatures are between 0 ºC and 18 ºC. � The amount of sunshine varies throughout the year, resulting in four seasons. In the Northern hemisphere, the hot season coincides with the summer months. In the Southern hemisphere, it coincides with the winter months.
  • 19. 4.2. THE EARTH´S CLIMATES TYPES � Within climates zones there are regions with different types of climates. � The combination of annual temperature and precipitation data results in nine different climate types:
  • 20. MAP OF THE EARTH´S CLIMATES TYPES
  • 21. WHAT IS A CLIMOGRAPH? � Temperature and precipitation make it possible to identify a climate. Both elements can be shown graphically using a climograph which allows us to observe the annual change in temperature and precipitation in a specific place on the planet. This information is represented using a combination chart with two systems of coordinates. � Activity: How to make a climopraph (page 96-97)