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ADS605 - CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO URBAN SOCIOLOGY.ppt

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ADS605 - CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO URBAN SOCIOLOGY.ppt

  1. 1. Introduction to Urban Sociology urban sociology (ADS605) 1
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes By the end of this chapter a student should be able to : i. Explain the brief history of urban sociology. ii. Define the urban sociology terms and concepts. iii. Identify the significance of urban sociology. iv. Elaborate on the socio-spatial perspective and sociological theories in urban studies. urban sociology (ADS605) 2
  3. 3. • slumdog: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwiU94p9XPA •Urbanized: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHWwxBEfikw urban sociology (ADS605) 3
  4. 4. urban sociology (ADS605) 4 Ancient Urbanization
  5. 5. urban sociology (ADS605) 5 Ancient Urbanization V.Gordon Childe( 1950,1954)”The emergence of urban life as a critical evolutionary phase in the rise of modern civilisation”. once urbanization began, civilisation progressed and evolved to more complex forms of social life”. • The origin of cities started due to the process of early urbanization and the social structure that help to understand the complex social relations and strong bonds among the residents who were often unrelated.
  6. 6. urban sociology (ADS605) 6 Characteristics of ancient urbanization and urban revolution by V.Gordon Childe: i. Increased population size and density ii. Specialization of labor iii. Concentration of agricultural surplus iv. Social Stratification v. Public work and monuments
  7. 7. urban sociology (ADS605) 7 Characteristics of ancient urbanization and urban revolution by V.Gordon Childe: v. Invention of writing vi. Development of the arts vii. Development of Science viii.Membership ix. Long-distance trade
  8. 8. urban sociology (ADS605) 8 Classical Cities • Mesopotamia and China were built according to complex belief systems and simbolic codes (city gates devoted (devoted to specific deities that were oriented to the cardinal points of compass), and street layout(prevent spirits from moving directly to the center of the city)). • Ancient Greece constructed by cosmological code (sacred spaces and religious symbols linked to the phanteon of Greek gods). • City of Athens developed to honour the goddess Athena and all buildings followed by geometrical design principles such as ‘agora and hestia koine’ (the marketplace and the public hearth).
  9. 9. urban sociology (ADS605) 9 Classical Cities • Classical Rome was constructed on the military power of state and ambitions of the emporors. • Refer table the history of urban civilizations (Growth and Decline) ROME – AD 100 – 650,000 BAGHDAD – AD 765 – 480,000 EGYPT -3200 BC CHINA- 1600BC MEXICO-200BC
  10. 10. urban sociology (ADS605) 10 History of urban civilizations (Growth and Decline) Location Population Notes AD 100 600-800 1000 1300 1500 1600 Mexico City 1500 1524 1600 Baghdad 765 900 1400 1650 Peking 1200 1300 1500 1800 London 1700 1800 1900 New York 1800 1900 1950 650,000 50,000 35,000 15,000 35,000 120,000 80,000 30,000 75,000 480,000 1,100,000 125,000 30,000 150,000 400,000 670,000 1,100,000 350,000 1,100,000 6,480,000 80,000 4,240,000 19,800,000 World’s larges city Invansion by Germanic Tribes Exile of Popes to Avignon Pope Sixtus and Rebirth of Rome Capital of Aztec Empire Destruction by Spanish conquistadors Colonial center of Spanish Empire Following establishment of Caliphate in 750 Largest city in the world; first city of 1,000,000 Sacked by Tamerlane in 1401 Capital of China World’s largest city World’s largest city Second largest city in the world Largest city in the world Largest city in United State World’s largest city Source: Ivan Light, Cities in World Perspective (New York: Macmillan, 1983), Population estimates rounded to nearest 10,000
  11. 11. urban sociology (ADS605) 11 THE MEDIEVAL ORDER AND THE RENAISSANCE CITY • Provide an important symbolic space in the center of city (represent the dominants social, economic, and political interest) • Competition among medieval cities on political, economic and war safety. • The redevelopment of Rome served as model for urban planning during the Renaissance.
  12. 12. urban sociology (ADS605) 12 CAPITALISM AND THE RISE OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY • The economy of the feudal manor (simple commodity production) • Activities regulated by by local government allowed the people with capital to hire both labor and resources to produce goods • Commercial relations supported the accumalation of capital and cities.
  13. 13. urban sociology (ADS605) 13 THE EVOLUTION OF CITIES  THE FIRST CITIES 1. Hunting and gathering society 2. Egyption cites, China in 2000B.C.E  Preindustrial European Cities 1. Greeks/Romans/Vienna/Paris/London  Industrial European cities ( 1750s) Urban revolution in Europe and North America. London was the largest city with 550,000 people.
  14. 14. urban sociology (ADS605) 14 METROPOLITAN GROWTH IN US:  Large population= 50,000 pop  Population of the suburban larger than older central city  The growth of new metropolitan areas. eg. Gigantic/mega cities and regional urbanization  Urbanized development that contains: Buildings Industrial park Residential areas Recreational areas business district/Shopping malls/offices etc Better public services eg: water, electricity,sewerage, road,comm. etc
  15. 15. urban sociology (ADS605) 15 WORLD’S URBAN POPULATION FROM 1 BILLION IN 60’S TO 3 BILLIONS IN 2003. IN 2030, 61% OF WORLD’S POP WILL LIVE IN URBAN AREAS. AD 2003  TOKYO – 35 MIL.  MEXICO CITY – 18.7 MIL.  NEW YORK – 18.3 MIL.  MUMBAI – 17.4 MIL.  SHANGHAI – 12.8 MIL.  JAKARTA – 12.3 MIL.  METRO MANILA – 10.4 MIL
  16. 16. urban sociology (ADS605) 16 Urban sociology is the sociological study of social life and human interaction in metropolitants. Urban sociologists use statistical analysis, observation, social theory, interviews, and other methods to study a range of topics, including migration and demographic trends, economics, poverty, race relations, economic trends, and etc. During theindustrial revolution, sociologists such as Max Weber and Emile Durkheim focused on the increasing urbanization of social life and the effects it had on people's feelings of alienation and anonymity. The Chicago School is a major influence in the study of urban sociology. Many of their findings have been refined or rejected, but the lasting impact of the Chicago School can still be found in today's teachings.
  17. 17. urban sociology (ADS605) 17 Definition of City: Lewis Mumford( 1961) Cities served as both huge magnets and containers that concentrated people and economic activities or wealth within well defined bounded spaces. Cities are the center of economic, political, culture, and artistic events.eg the rise of nazism in germany WW1- Berlin Cities contains large population that ranks in millions. People work, live and play in the cities. Today, city has exploded=the growth of metropolitan region.
  18. 18. i. Cities are homes for people- human history/civilisation. ii. To study a form of human settlement. iii. To understand the modern existence. iv. To understand the connection between the city and culture = to examine the society. urban sociology (ADS605) 18
  19. 19. The Sociospatial Perspective i. The urban and suburban settlement spaces have developed within larger metropolitan region- multicentered metropolitan region. ii. Settlement spaces are linked to global system of capitalism. iii. Settlement spaces are affected by government policies, developers, financiers and others real estate industry. urban sociology (ADS605) 19
  20. 20. The Sociospatial Perspective iv. Built environment consists of symbols, objects, (urban semiotics) designed by people and have meanings to them. v. Social class groups differ from one another ( lifestyles, attitudes, beliefs etc). vi. It emphasizes the interaction between the society and space. Spatial arrangements influence human behavior. urban sociology (ADS605) 20
  21. 21. urban sociology (ADS605) 21 Ferdinand Toennies, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft GEMEINSCHAFT GESELLSCHAFT- COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP SECONDARY RELATIONSHIP UNITED IN DIVERSITY URBAN LIFESTYLE SENSE OF WE-NESS OR OUR-NESS SEPARATED IN UNION HUMANE SELFISHNESS-LITTLE SENSE OF COMMUNITY STRONG BOND URBANIZATION=WEAK SOCIAL RELATIONS
  22. 22. urban sociology (ADS605) 22 Emile Durkheim, Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity (The Division of Labour) Urbanites do not lack social bond but they organise life differently from villagers.  Rural life is a mechanical solidarity and same as Tonnies’s Gemeinschaft ( belief, custom, symbol) -automatic relation - village Organic solidarity is bond by specialization and interdependence (impersonality, alienation) - joined by difference Urban society: individual choice, moral tolerance and personal privacy
  23. 23. urban sociology (ADS605) 23 Friedrich Engels, The working class in England 1844 Observed several aspects of capitalism at work within the urban space. He noted: • Capitalism has double tendency of concentration of investment, money and workers. • Investment would move away from the old center to the periphery. • Unregulated capitalism produced a spatial chaos due to a multiplication of centers. • Engel's focused on the social problems created by the breakdown of traditional society and the operation of capitalism. • Neighborhood or living-space relations and the quality of daily life are important for the survival of capitalism. • Capitalism produces the spatial isolation of the social classes= known as uneven development.
  24. 24. urban sociology (ADS605) 24 George Simmel On The City Offers a microanalysis of cities He studied how the urban life shapes individual experience. Individuals perceive the city as a crush of people, objects and events.  Urbanites developed a blasé attitude (Detachment)- for survival Sense of individuality- keep a distance as a survival strategy.
  25. 25. urban sociology (ADS605) 25 Robert Park and Human Ecology Us sociologist. Leader of the first us sociology at Uni of Chicago Adopted a conceptual position known as human ecology. He is the study of the process of human group adjustment to the environment. Park “ the social organization of the city resulted from the struggle for survival and then produced a distinct and highly complex division of labour”. Urban life is divided into 2: the biotics level (competition) and the cultural level ( cooperation). Biotics level -social organization produced by people competition over scarce resources. Cultural level= cooperatives ties/values shared among people of similar backgrounds.
  26. 26. Summary Urban sociology is the sociological study of social life and human interaction in metropolitants. The term urbanization is related in explaining the city growth. Urbanization is a transition process from rural to urban life and influence the population pattern based on size, density and heterogeneity. Sociospatial perspective links the dual relationship between people and space with the social factors that are the bases of individual behaviour and society. A group of theories will help to understand the life and challenges of urban and the residents. The urban sociology is a tool to understand the urban society and factors that influence all aspects of urban lifestyle. urban sociology (ADS605) 26
  27. 27. Reference Gottdiener, M. , Hutchison, R. and Ryan, M. T. (2014) The New Urban Sociology, 5rd edition, Colorado: Westview Press. Gottdiener, M. , Budd, L. and Lehtovuori, P. (2016) Key Concepts in Urban Studies, 2nd edition, London: Sage Publications Ltd. urban sociology (ADS605) 27
  28. 28. Quiz urban sociology (ADS605) 28 Fill in the blanks the different between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft GEMEINSCHAFT GESELLSCHAFT- COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP SECONDARY RELATIONSHIP UNITED IN DIVERSITY URBAN LIFESTYLE SENSE OF WE-NESS OR OUR-NESS SEPARATED IN UNION HUMANE SELFISHNESS-LITTLE SENSE OF COMMUNITY STRONG BOND URBANIZATION=WEAK SOCIAL RELATIONS
  29. 29. Quiz urban sociology (ADS605) 29 True False Questions Statement True False Urban sociology is the sociological study of social life and human interaction in metropolitants x City of Athens constructed by cosmological code (sacred spaces and religious symbols linked to the phanteon of Greek gods). x Urbanization redisributes and concentrates population within a society and protect different pattern of social life. x Cities served as both huge magnets and containers that concentrated people and economic activities or wealth within well defined bounded spaces. x Urbanism is the study of cities x
  30. 30. Author Dr. Nor Hafizah Binti Mohamed Harith norha561@salam.uitm.edu. my urban sociology (ADS605) 30 Author Muhamad Fuad Bin Abdul Karim fuad645@ns.uitm.edu.my

Editor's Notes

  • Slide 1: gambar 1 fly in dan gambar 2 shade kemudian Introduction…. Wave. Semasa ini berlaku audio akan dimainkan dari https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGvvDo36DOk selama 15 ke 25 saat ikut kesesuaian. Setelah itu mainkan vedio ini lengkap https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFNLInlL_fY

    Kesemua slides font, saiz fon, warna slide background menggunakan karektor yang ceria dan moden.
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  • Slide 3: Mainkan video slumdog bermula saat ke-7 sehingga tamat kemudian mainkan video urbanized.
  • Slide 4: muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
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  • Slide 12: Baca keseluruhan slide beserta gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
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  • Slide 15: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 18: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 20: tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulisdan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 21: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulisdan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 22: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulisdan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 23: tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 24: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 25: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 26: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 27: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis, gambar dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 28: Baca slide , tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 29: tulisan keluar seoalah-olah ditulis dan muzik latar www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnd3tW4Pzm4&index=27&list=PLuGekArC1mILyt9VK2r7t6pUbQB8sP3Zq
  • Slide 30: Baca arahan. Setiap bahagian gemeinschaft dan gesellschaft diberikan pilihan untuk memilih kesemua 12 points
  • Slide 30: Baca arahan. Buat pilihan jawapan sama ada true atau false

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