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INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE
UNIT-5
Internet Infrastructure
⚫ Internet Infrastructure are the frameworks or
architecture that the internet system are made of.
⚫ Various Internet Infrastructure are:
⚫ TCP/IP
⚫ DNS
⚫ BGP
⚫ TCP/IP Reference Model is a four-layered suite of
communication protocols.
⚫ It was developed by the DoD (Department of
Defence) in the 1960s.
⚫ It is named after the two main protocols that are
used in the model, namely, TCP and IP.
⚫ TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and
IP stands for Internet Protocol.
The four layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite are
⚫ Host-to- Network Layer −It is the lowest layer
that is concerned with the physical transmission of
data. TCP/IP does not specifically define any
protocol here but supports all the standard protocols.
⚫ Internet Layer −It defines the protocols for logical
transmission of data over the network. The main
protocol in this layer is Internet Protocol (IP) and it
is supported by the protocols ICMP, IGMP, RARP,
and ARP.
The four layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite are
⚫ Transport Layer − It is responsible for error-free
end-to-end delivery of data. The protocols defined
here are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
⚫ Application Layer − This is the topmost layer and
defines the interface of host programs with the
transport layer services. This layer includes all
high-level protocols like Telnet, DNS, HTTP, FTP,
SMTP, etc.
Application layer
⚫ The application layer is the highest abstraction layer
of the TCP/IP model that provides the interfaces and
protocols needed by the users.
⚫ It combines the functionalities of the session layer,
the presentation layer and the application layer of
the OSI model.
Functions of the application layer are
⚫ It facilitates the user to use the services of the
network.
⚫ It is used to develop network-based applications.
⚫ It provides user services like user login, naming
network devices, formatting messages, and e-mails,
transfer of files etc.
⚫ It is also concerned with error handling and recovery
of the message as a whole.
This layer uses a number of protocols, the main among
which are as follows −
⚫ Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, HTTP − It is the
underlying protocol for world wide web. It defines how
hypermedia messages are formatted and transmitted.
⚫ File Transfer Protocol, FTP − It is a client-server based
protocol for transfer of files between client and server
over the network.
⚫ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, SMTP − It lays down the
rules and semantics for sending and receiving electronic
mails (e-mails).
⚫ Domain Name System, DNS − It is a naming system
for devices in networks. It provides services for
translating domain names to IP addresses.
⚫ TELNET − It provides bi-directional text-oriented
services for remote login to the hosts over the
network.
⚫ Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP − It
is for managing, monitoring the network and for
organizing information about the networked devices.
The Host-to-Network Layer in TCP/IP Model
⚫ The host-to-network layer is the lowest layer of the
TCP/IP model and is concerned with the physical
transmission of data.
⚫ is also called a network interface layer or link layer.
It can be considered as the combination of physical
layer and data link layer of the OSI model.
The functions of this layer are −
⚫ It defines how bits are to be encoded into optical or
electrical pulses.
⚫ It accepts IP packets from the network layer and
encapsulates them into frames. It synchronizes the
transmission of the frames as well as the bits making up
the frames, between the sender and the receiver.
⚫ It states the transmission mode, i.e. simplex, half duplex
or full duplex
⚫ It states the topology of the network, i.e. bus, star, ring
etc.
The protocols that this layer supports are −
⚫ Ethernet
⚫ Frame Relay
⚫ Token Ring
⚫ ATM
The Transport Layer in TCP/IP Model
⚫ The transport layer is responsible for error-free,
end-to-end delivery of data from the source host to
the destination host.
⚫ It corresponds to the transport layer of the OSI
model.
The functions of the transport layer are −
⚫ It facilitates the communicating hosts to carry on a
conversation.
⚫ It provides an interface for the users to the
underlying network.
⚫ It can provide for a reliable connection. It can also
carry out error checking, flow control, and
verification.
The protocols used in this layer are −
⚫ Transmission Control Protocol, TCP − It is a reliable
connection-oriented protocol that transmits data from
the source to the destination machine without any error.
⚫ A connection is established between the peer entities
prior to transmission. At the sending host, TCP divides
an incoming byte stream into segments and assigns a
separate sequence number to each segment.
⚫ At the receiving host, TCP reorders the segments and
sends an acknowledgment to the sender for correct
receipt of segments. TCP also manages flow control so
that a fast sender does not overwhelm a slow receiver.
⚫ User Datagram Protocol, UDP − It is a
message-oriented protocol that provides a simple
unreliable, connectionless, unacknowledged service.
⚫ It is suitable for applications that do not require
TCP’s sequencing, error control or flow control.
⚫ It is used for transmitting a small amount of data
where the speed of delivery is more important than
the accuracy of delivery.
⚫ Stream Control Transmission Protocol, SCTP
⚫ It combines the features of both TCP and UDP. It is
message oriented like the UDP, which providing the
reliable, connection-oriented service like TCP.
⚫ It is used for telephony over the Internet.
⚫ https://youtu.be/oDFDS49JADM

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U5CSS3 (1).pdf

  • 2. Internet Infrastructure ⚫ Internet Infrastructure are the frameworks or architecture that the internet system are made of. ⚫ Various Internet Infrastructure are: ⚫ TCP/IP ⚫ DNS ⚫ BGP
  • 3. ⚫ TCP/IP Reference Model is a four-layered suite of communication protocols. ⚫ It was developed by the DoD (Department of Defence) in the 1960s. ⚫ It is named after the two main protocols that are used in the model, namely, TCP and IP. ⚫ TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol.
  • 4. The four layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite are ⚫ Host-to- Network Layer −It is the lowest layer that is concerned with the physical transmission of data. TCP/IP does not specifically define any protocol here but supports all the standard protocols. ⚫ Internet Layer −It defines the protocols for logical transmission of data over the network. The main protocol in this layer is Internet Protocol (IP) and it is supported by the protocols ICMP, IGMP, RARP, and ARP.
  • 5. The four layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite are ⚫ Transport Layer − It is responsible for error-free end-to-end delivery of data. The protocols defined here are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). ⚫ Application Layer − This is the topmost layer and defines the interface of host programs with the transport layer services. This layer includes all high-level protocols like Telnet, DNS, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.
  • 6.
  • 7. Application layer ⚫ The application layer is the highest abstraction layer of the TCP/IP model that provides the interfaces and protocols needed by the users. ⚫ It combines the functionalities of the session layer, the presentation layer and the application layer of the OSI model.
  • 8. Functions of the application layer are ⚫ It facilitates the user to use the services of the network. ⚫ It is used to develop network-based applications. ⚫ It provides user services like user login, naming network devices, formatting messages, and e-mails, transfer of files etc. ⚫ It is also concerned with error handling and recovery of the message as a whole.
  • 9. This layer uses a number of protocols, the main among which are as follows − ⚫ Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, HTTP − It is the underlying protocol for world wide web. It defines how hypermedia messages are formatted and transmitted. ⚫ File Transfer Protocol, FTP − It is a client-server based protocol for transfer of files between client and server over the network. ⚫ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, SMTP − It lays down the rules and semantics for sending and receiving electronic mails (e-mails).
  • 10. ⚫ Domain Name System, DNS − It is a naming system for devices in networks. It provides services for translating domain names to IP addresses. ⚫ TELNET − It provides bi-directional text-oriented services for remote login to the hosts over the network. ⚫ Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP − It is for managing, monitoring the network and for organizing information about the networked devices.
  • 11.
  • 12. The Host-to-Network Layer in TCP/IP Model ⚫ The host-to-network layer is the lowest layer of the TCP/IP model and is concerned with the physical transmission of data. ⚫ is also called a network interface layer or link layer. It can be considered as the combination of physical layer and data link layer of the OSI model.
  • 13. The functions of this layer are − ⚫ It defines how bits are to be encoded into optical or electrical pulses. ⚫ It accepts IP packets from the network layer and encapsulates them into frames. It synchronizes the transmission of the frames as well as the bits making up the frames, between the sender and the receiver. ⚫ It states the transmission mode, i.e. simplex, half duplex or full duplex ⚫ It states the topology of the network, i.e. bus, star, ring etc.
  • 14. The protocols that this layer supports are − ⚫ Ethernet ⚫ Frame Relay ⚫ Token Ring ⚫ ATM
  • 15.
  • 16. The Transport Layer in TCP/IP Model ⚫ The transport layer is responsible for error-free, end-to-end delivery of data from the source host to the destination host. ⚫ It corresponds to the transport layer of the OSI model.
  • 17. The functions of the transport layer are − ⚫ It facilitates the communicating hosts to carry on a conversation. ⚫ It provides an interface for the users to the underlying network. ⚫ It can provide for a reliable connection. It can also carry out error checking, flow control, and verification.
  • 18. The protocols used in this layer are − ⚫ Transmission Control Protocol, TCP − It is a reliable connection-oriented protocol that transmits data from the source to the destination machine without any error. ⚫ A connection is established between the peer entities prior to transmission. At the sending host, TCP divides an incoming byte stream into segments and assigns a separate sequence number to each segment. ⚫ At the receiving host, TCP reorders the segments and sends an acknowledgment to the sender for correct receipt of segments. TCP also manages flow control so that a fast sender does not overwhelm a slow receiver.
  • 19. ⚫ User Datagram Protocol, UDP − It is a message-oriented protocol that provides a simple unreliable, connectionless, unacknowledged service. ⚫ It is suitable for applications that do not require TCP’s sequencing, error control or flow control. ⚫ It is used for transmitting a small amount of data where the speed of delivery is more important than the accuracy of delivery.
  • 20. ⚫ Stream Control Transmission Protocol, SCTP ⚫ It combines the features of both TCP and UDP. It is message oriented like the UDP, which providing the reliable, connection-oriented service like TCP. ⚫ It is used for telephony over the Internet.