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1
This project has been made with the aim of providing basic understanding on
the subject – MATHEMATICS , in order to cover a part of NCERT syllabus as
prescribed by CBSE. This presentation is titled as - TRIGONOMETRY. Sincere
efforts have been made to make the presentation a unique experience to the
viewer. Stress has been laid on the appearance, neatness and quality of the
presentation. No effort has been spared to make the reading and understanding
of the presentation complete and interesting. I have tried to do my best and
hope that the project of mine would be appreciated by all.
One fine day I was relaxing on the beach where I saw a light house. I started
wondering, what the height of the light house would be? I asked my
mathematics teacher for suggestions and she taught me about the concept of
trigonometry in finding the heights and distances of distant objects without
actually measuring it. This provoked me to gather more information on this
topic and to make a beautiful presentation on it.
Supervised by – *******
Created by – ********
2
One cannot succeed alone no matter how great one’s abilities are, without the
cooperation of others. This project, too, is a result of efforts of many. I would
like to thank all those who helped me in making this project a success.
I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my Maths Teacher, Mrs.
******* who was taking keen interest in our lab activities and discussed various
methods which could be employed towards this effect, and I really appreciate
and acknowledge her pain taking efforts in this endeavour.
Supervised by – *******
Created by – *******

3
4
Right Triangle Trigonometry

5
Q: What is trigonometry?
A: Trigonometry is the study of how the sides and angles
of a triangle are related to each other.
Q: WHAT? That's all?
A: Yes, that's all. It's all about triangles, and you can't get
much simpler than that.
Q: You mean trigonometry isn't some big, ugly monster
that makes students turn green, scream, and die?

A: No. It's just triangles.
6
Some historians say that trigonometry was invented by
Hipparchus, a Greek mathematician. He also introduced the
division of a circle into 360 degrees into Greece.
Hipparchus is considered the greatest
astronomical observer, and by some the
greatest astronomer of antiquity. He was the
first Greek to develop quantitative and
accurate models for the motion of the Sun and
Moon. With his solar and lunar theories and
his numerical trigonometry, he was probably
the first to develop a reliable method to predict
solar eclipses.

7
Trigonometry is a branch of Mathematics that deals with the distances or
heights of objects which can be found using some mathematical techniques.
The word ‘trigonometry’ is derived from the Greek words ‘tri’ (meaning three) ,
‘gon’ (meaning sides) and ‘metron’ (meaning measure).

Historically, it was developed for astronomy and geography, but scientists
have been using it for centuries for other purposes, too. Besides other fields
of mathematics, trigonometry is used in physics, engineering, and chemistry.
Within mathematics, trigonometry is used primarily in calculus (which is
perhaps its greatest application), linear algebra, and statistics. Since these
fields are used throughout the natural and social sciences, trigonometry is a
very useful subject to know.
8
C

PERPENDICULAR (P)

B

Sin /
Cosec

Cos /
Sec

Tan /
Cot

P
(pandit)

B
(badri)

P
(prasad)

H
(har)

H
(har)

A

BASE (B)

B
(bole)

This is
pretty
easy!

9
A

0

30

45

60

90

Sin A

0

1

Cos A

1

0

Tan A

0

Cosec A

Not
Defined

Sec A

Not
Defined

Not
Defined

2

1

1

Cot A

1

2
1

Not
Defined
0

10
Sin2

+ Cos2

=1

• 1 – Cos2 = Sin2
• 1 – Sin2 = Cos2

Tan2

+ 1 = Sec2

• Sec2
• Sec2

- Tan2 = 1
- 1 = Tan2

Cot2

+ 1 = Cosec2

• Cosec2
• Cosec2

- Cot2 = 1
- 1 = Cot2
11
Applications
 Measuring inaccessible lengths
 Height of a building (tree, tower, etc.)
 Width of a river (canyon, etc.)

12
 Angle of Elevation –
It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is
above the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we raise our head to look
at the object.

A



ANGLE OF ELEVATION

HORIZONTAL LEVEL

13
 Angle of Depression –
It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is
below the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we lower our head to
look at the object.
HORIZONTAL LEVEL



A
ANGLE OF DEPRESSION

14
Example 1 of 4

Application: Height
 To establish the height of a

building, a person walks 120 ft
away from the building.
 At that point an angle of
elevation of 32 is formed when
looking at the top of the
building.

h=?



32

120 ft
H = 74.98 ft

15
Example 2 of 4

Application: Height

68

 An observer on top of a hill

measures an angle of depression of
68 when looking at a truck
parked in the valley below.
 If the truck is 55 ft from the base
of the hill, how high is the hill?

h=?

55 ft
H = 136.1 ft

16
17
Example 3 of 4

?

37

70 ft

D = 52.7 ft

18
Example 4 of 4

 Road has a grade of 5.5%.
 Convert this to an angle expressed in degrees.

5.5 ft
?

100 ft
A = 3.1

19
It is an instrument which is used to measure the
height of distant objects using trigonometric
concepts.
Here, the height of the tree using T. concepts,
h = tan *(x)

h=?

HORIZONTAL LEVEL

‘x’ units
20
Trigonometry begins in the right triangle, but it doesn’t have to be restricted
to triangles. The trigonometric functions carry the ideas of triangle
trigonometry into a broader world of real-valued functions and wave forms.
Trig functions are the relationships amongst various sides in right triangles.
The enormous number of applications of trigonometry include astronomy,
geography, optics, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical
imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, seismology, land surveying,
architecture.

I get it!

21
THANK YOU !
Name

: ********

22
Jason Yu – 6th Period – 12/02/2011
What is
Trigonometry?
And how is it used?



Trigonometry is the
branch of mathematics
that studies triangles and
their relationships.
The Pyramids of
Giza
Primitive forms of
trigonometry were used in
the construction of these
wonders of the world.
Architecture
 In architecture, trigonometry plays a massive role in the

compilation of building plans.

 For example, architects would have to calculate exact angles of

intersection for components of their structure to ensure stability
and safety.

 Some instances of trigonometric use in architecture include

arches, domes, support beams, and suspension bridges.

 Architecture remains one of the most important sectors of our

society as they plan the design of buildings and ensure that they
are able to withstand pressures from inside.
How do I get involved in
Architecture?
Classes to TAke

Salary and Benefits









Physics
Geometry
Trigonometry
Pre-Calculus and Calculus
Engineering
3-D Design
Drawing

 Most architects start out with a salary of



* Art classes will assist you in
being able to conceptualize
objects!

$50,000+, and through experience, may
earn up to $140,000+
 Becoming an architect will open you to

many more careers, including interior
design and building design!
Jantar Mantar
observatory
For millenia, trigonometry
has played a major role in
calculating distances
between stellar objects and
their paths.
Astronomy
 Astronomy has been studied for millennia by civilizations in all

regions of the world.

 In our modern age, being able to apply Astronomy helps us to

calculate distances between stars and learn more about the
universe.

 Astronomers use the method of parallax, or the movement of the

star against the background as we orbit the sun, to discover new
information about galaxies.

 Menelaus’ Theorem helps astronomers gather information by

providing a backdrop in spherical triangle calculation.
How do I get involved in
Astronomy?
Classes to take

Salary and Benefits

 Physics

 The median salary for Astronomers is

 Electronics
 Advanced Math
 Geometry
 Precalculus and Calculus
 Astrophysics

$97,270 a year, with most entry level jobs
amounting to around $50,000 a year.
 As an aside to being an astronomer, one can

also acquire a teaching position at a
research university!
Grand Canyon
Skywalk
Geologists had to measure
the amount of pressure that
surrounding rocks could
withstand before
constructing the skywalk.
Geology
Trigonometry is used in geology to estimate the true

dip of bedding angles. Calculating the true dip allows
geologists to determine the slope stability.
Although not often regarded as an integral profession,

geologists contribute to the safety of many building
foundations.
Any adverse bedding conditions can result in slope

failure and the entire collapse of a structure.
How do I get involved in Geology?
Classes to take

Salary and Benefits

 Physics

 Median wages for Geologists are around

 Chemistry
 Precalculus and Calculus
 Geometry
 Geochemistry
 Seismology

$70,000. However, if involved in oil
extraction, earnings could increase to over
$130,000 a year.
 Geologists can be very flexible in what they

decide to do. There are a multitude of job
options ranging from agriculture to tourism
that require the work of a geologist.
Applications
 Measuring inaccessible lengths
 Height of a building (tree, tower, etc.)
 Width of a river (canyon, etc.)

34
 Angle of Elevation –
It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is
above the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we raise our head to look
at the object.

A



ANGLE OF ELEVATION

HORIZONTAL LEVEL

35
 Angle of Depression –
It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is
below the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we lower our head to
look at the object.
HORIZONTAL LEVEL



A
ANGLE OF DEPRESSION

36
Example 1 of 4

Application: Height
 To establish the height of a

building, a person walks 120 ft
away from the building.
 At that point an angle of
elevation of 32 is formed when
looking at the top of the
building.

h=?



32

120 ft
H = 74.98 ft

37
Example 2 of 4

Application: Height

68

 An observer on top of a hill

measures an angle of depression of
68 when looking at a truck
parked in the valley below.
 If the truck is 55 ft from the base
of the hill, how high is the hill?

h=?

55 ft
H = 136.1 ft

38
39
Example 3 of 4

?

37

70 ft

D = 52.7 ft

40
Example 4 of 4

 Road has a grade of 5.5%.
 Convert this to an angle expressed in degrees.

5.5 ft
?

100 ft
A = 3.1

41
It is an instrument which is used to measure the
height of distant objects using trigonometric
concepts.
Here, the height of the tree using T. concepts,
h = tan *(x)

h=?

HORIZONTAL LEVEL

‘x’ units
42
Trigonometry begins in the right triangle, but it doesn’t have to be restricted
to triangles. The trigonometric functions carry the ideas of triangle
trigonometry into a broader world of real-valued functions and wave forms.
Trig functions are the relationships amongst various sides in right triangles.
The enormous number of applications of trigonometry include astronomy,
geography, optics, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical
imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, seismology, land surveying,
architecture.

I get it!

43
Jantar Mantar
observatory
For millenia, trigonometry
has played a major role in
calculating distances
between stellar objects and
their paths.
This is a combination of five trigonometry slides fom different authors.

 Trig. In the Real World. Jason Yu – 6th Period –






12/02/2011
What is Trigonometry? Basic Concepts that will give
you a better idea of Trigonometry. What can you do
with Trigonometry. by pete013
Cosine Rule by westley
TRIGONOMETRY done by Sahana And Priya
Maths ppt on some applications of trigonometry by
Harsh Mahajan
45

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Trigonometry presentation

  • 1. 1
  • 2. This project has been made with the aim of providing basic understanding on the subject – MATHEMATICS , in order to cover a part of NCERT syllabus as prescribed by CBSE. This presentation is titled as - TRIGONOMETRY. Sincere efforts have been made to make the presentation a unique experience to the viewer. Stress has been laid on the appearance, neatness and quality of the presentation. No effort has been spared to make the reading and understanding of the presentation complete and interesting. I have tried to do my best and hope that the project of mine would be appreciated by all. One fine day I was relaxing on the beach where I saw a light house. I started wondering, what the height of the light house would be? I asked my mathematics teacher for suggestions and she taught me about the concept of trigonometry in finding the heights and distances of distant objects without actually measuring it. This provoked me to gather more information on this topic and to make a beautiful presentation on it. Supervised by – ******* Created by – ******** 2
  • 3. One cannot succeed alone no matter how great one’s abilities are, without the cooperation of others. This project, too, is a result of efforts of many. I would like to thank all those who helped me in making this project a success. I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my Maths Teacher, Mrs. ******* who was taking keen interest in our lab activities and discussed various methods which could be employed towards this effect, and I really appreciate and acknowledge her pain taking efforts in this endeavour. Supervised by – ******* Created by – ******* 3
  • 4. 4
  • 6. Q: What is trigonometry? A: Trigonometry is the study of how the sides and angles of a triangle are related to each other. Q: WHAT? That's all? A: Yes, that's all. It's all about triangles, and you can't get much simpler than that. Q: You mean trigonometry isn't some big, ugly monster that makes students turn green, scream, and die? A: No. It's just triangles. 6
  • 7. Some historians say that trigonometry was invented by Hipparchus, a Greek mathematician. He also introduced the division of a circle into 360 degrees into Greece. Hipparchus is considered the greatest astronomical observer, and by some the greatest astronomer of antiquity. He was the first Greek to develop quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon. With his solar and lunar theories and his numerical trigonometry, he was probably the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses. 7
  • 8. Trigonometry is a branch of Mathematics that deals with the distances or heights of objects which can be found using some mathematical techniques. The word ‘trigonometry’ is derived from the Greek words ‘tri’ (meaning three) , ‘gon’ (meaning sides) and ‘metron’ (meaning measure). Historically, it was developed for astronomy and geography, but scientists have been using it for centuries for other purposes, too. Besides other fields of mathematics, trigonometry is used in physics, engineering, and chemistry. Within mathematics, trigonometry is used primarily in calculus (which is perhaps its greatest application), linear algebra, and statistics. Since these fields are used throughout the natural and social sciences, trigonometry is a very useful subject to know. 8
  • 9. C PERPENDICULAR (P) B Sin / Cosec Cos / Sec Tan / Cot P (pandit) B (badri) P (prasad) H (har) H (har) A BASE (B) B (bole) This is pretty easy! 9
  • 10. A 0 30 45 60 90 Sin A 0 1 Cos A 1 0 Tan A 0 Cosec A Not Defined Sec A Not Defined Not Defined 2 1 1 Cot A 1 2 1 Not Defined 0 10
  • 11. Sin2 + Cos2 =1 • 1 – Cos2 = Sin2 • 1 – Sin2 = Cos2 Tan2 + 1 = Sec2 • Sec2 • Sec2 - Tan2 = 1 - 1 = Tan2 Cot2 + 1 = Cosec2 • Cosec2 • Cosec2 - Cot2 = 1 - 1 = Cot2 11
  • 12. Applications  Measuring inaccessible lengths  Height of a building (tree, tower, etc.)  Width of a river (canyon, etc.) 12
  • 13.  Angle of Elevation – It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is above the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we raise our head to look at the object. A  ANGLE OF ELEVATION HORIZONTAL LEVEL 13
  • 14.  Angle of Depression – It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is below the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we lower our head to look at the object. HORIZONTAL LEVEL  A ANGLE OF DEPRESSION 14
  • 15. Example 1 of 4 Application: Height  To establish the height of a building, a person walks 120 ft away from the building.  At that point an angle of elevation of 32 is formed when looking at the top of the building. h=?  32 120 ft H = 74.98 ft 15
  • 16. Example 2 of 4 Application: Height  68  An observer on top of a hill measures an angle of depression of 68 when looking at a truck parked in the valley below.  If the truck is 55 ft from the base of the hill, how high is the hill? h=? 55 ft H = 136.1 ft 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. Example 3 of 4 ? 37 70 ft D = 52.7 ft 18
  • 19. Example 4 of 4  Road has a grade of 5.5%.  Convert this to an angle expressed in degrees. 5.5 ft ? 100 ft A = 3.1 19
  • 20. It is an instrument which is used to measure the height of distant objects using trigonometric concepts. Here, the height of the tree using T. concepts, h = tan *(x) h=? HORIZONTAL LEVEL ‘x’ units 20
  • 21. Trigonometry begins in the right triangle, but it doesn’t have to be restricted to triangles. The trigonometric functions carry the ideas of triangle trigonometry into a broader world of real-valued functions and wave forms. Trig functions are the relationships amongst various sides in right triangles. The enormous number of applications of trigonometry include astronomy, geography, optics, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, seismology, land surveying, architecture. I get it! 21
  • 22. THANK YOU ! Name : ******** 22
  • 23. Jason Yu – 6th Period – 12/02/2011
  • 24. What is Trigonometry? And how is it used?  Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics that studies triangles and their relationships.
  • 25. The Pyramids of Giza Primitive forms of trigonometry were used in the construction of these wonders of the world.
  • 26. Architecture  In architecture, trigonometry plays a massive role in the compilation of building plans.  For example, architects would have to calculate exact angles of intersection for components of their structure to ensure stability and safety.  Some instances of trigonometric use in architecture include arches, domes, support beams, and suspension bridges.  Architecture remains one of the most important sectors of our society as they plan the design of buildings and ensure that they are able to withstand pressures from inside.
  • 27. How do I get involved in Architecture? Classes to TAke Salary and Benefits        Physics Geometry Trigonometry Pre-Calculus and Calculus Engineering 3-D Design Drawing  Most architects start out with a salary of  * Art classes will assist you in being able to conceptualize objects! $50,000+, and through experience, may earn up to $140,000+  Becoming an architect will open you to many more careers, including interior design and building design!
  • 28. Jantar Mantar observatory For millenia, trigonometry has played a major role in calculating distances between stellar objects and their paths.
  • 29. Astronomy  Astronomy has been studied for millennia by civilizations in all regions of the world.  In our modern age, being able to apply Astronomy helps us to calculate distances between stars and learn more about the universe.  Astronomers use the method of parallax, or the movement of the star against the background as we orbit the sun, to discover new information about galaxies.  Menelaus’ Theorem helps astronomers gather information by providing a backdrop in spherical triangle calculation.
  • 30. How do I get involved in Astronomy? Classes to take Salary and Benefits  Physics  The median salary for Astronomers is  Electronics  Advanced Math  Geometry  Precalculus and Calculus  Astrophysics $97,270 a year, with most entry level jobs amounting to around $50,000 a year.  As an aside to being an astronomer, one can also acquire a teaching position at a research university!
  • 31. Grand Canyon Skywalk Geologists had to measure the amount of pressure that surrounding rocks could withstand before constructing the skywalk.
  • 32. Geology Trigonometry is used in geology to estimate the true dip of bedding angles. Calculating the true dip allows geologists to determine the slope stability. Although not often regarded as an integral profession, geologists contribute to the safety of many building foundations. Any adverse bedding conditions can result in slope failure and the entire collapse of a structure.
  • 33. How do I get involved in Geology? Classes to take Salary and Benefits  Physics  Median wages for Geologists are around  Chemistry  Precalculus and Calculus  Geometry  Geochemistry  Seismology $70,000. However, if involved in oil extraction, earnings could increase to over $130,000 a year.  Geologists can be very flexible in what they decide to do. There are a multitude of job options ranging from agriculture to tourism that require the work of a geologist.
  • 34. Applications  Measuring inaccessible lengths  Height of a building (tree, tower, etc.)  Width of a river (canyon, etc.) 34
  • 35.  Angle of Elevation – It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is above the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we raise our head to look at the object. A  ANGLE OF ELEVATION HORIZONTAL LEVEL 35
  • 36.  Angle of Depression – It is the angle formed by the line of sight with the horizontal when it is below the horizontal level, i.e., the case when we lower our head to look at the object. HORIZONTAL LEVEL  A ANGLE OF DEPRESSION 36
  • 37. Example 1 of 4 Application: Height  To establish the height of a building, a person walks 120 ft away from the building.  At that point an angle of elevation of 32 is formed when looking at the top of the building. h=?  32 120 ft H = 74.98 ft 37
  • 38. Example 2 of 4 Application: Height  68  An observer on top of a hill measures an angle of depression of 68 when looking at a truck parked in the valley below.  If the truck is 55 ft from the base of the hill, how high is the hill? h=? 55 ft H = 136.1 ft 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. Example 3 of 4 ? 37 70 ft D = 52.7 ft 40
  • 41. Example 4 of 4  Road has a grade of 5.5%.  Convert this to an angle expressed in degrees. 5.5 ft ? 100 ft A = 3.1 41
  • 42. It is an instrument which is used to measure the height of distant objects using trigonometric concepts. Here, the height of the tree using T. concepts, h = tan *(x) h=? HORIZONTAL LEVEL ‘x’ units 42
  • 43. Trigonometry begins in the right triangle, but it doesn’t have to be restricted to triangles. The trigonometric functions carry the ideas of triangle trigonometry into a broader world of real-valued functions and wave forms. Trig functions are the relationships amongst various sides in right triangles. The enormous number of applications of trigonometry include astronomy, geography, optics, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, seismology, land surveying, architecture. I get it! 43
  • 44. Jantar Mantar observatory For millenia, trigonometry has played a major role in calculating distances between stellar objects and their paths.
  • 45. This is a combination of five trigonometry slides fom different authors.  Trig. In the Real World. Jason Yu – 6th Period –     12/02/2011 What is Trigonometry? Basic Concepts that will give you a better idea of Trigonometry. What can you do with Trigonometry. by pete013 Cosine Rule by westley TRIGONOMETRY done by Sahana And Priya Maths ppt on some applications of trigonometry by Harsh Mahajan 45