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TRIGONOMETRY
What is trigonometry?
 Trigonometry is the branch
of
mathematics which deals
with
triangles, particularly
triangles in a plane where
one angle of the triangle is
90 degrees. Trigonometry
is derived from Greek
words
trigonon (three angles) and
metron ( measure).
History of
trigonometry• The origins of trigonometry can be traced to the civilizations of ancient
Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, more than 4000 years ago.
• Some experts believe that trigonometry was originally invented to
calculate sundials, a traditional exercise in the oldest books
• The first recorded use of trigonometry came from the Hellenistic
mathematician Hipparchus circa 150 BC, who compiled a
trigonometric table using the sine for solving triangles.
• The Sulba Sutras written in India, between 800 BC and 500
BC, correctly compute the sine of π/4 (45°) as 1/√2 in a procedure for
circling the square (the opposite of squaring the circle).
• Many ancient mathematicians like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta,Ibn
Yunus and Al-Kashi made significant contributions in this
field(trigonometry).
In a right triangle, the shorter sides are called legs and the longest side (which is the
one opposite the right angle) is called the hypotenuse
First let’s look at the three basic
functions.
SINE
They are abbreviated using their first 3
letters
COSINE
TANGENT
hypotenuse
opposite
sin
hypotenuse
adjacent
cos
adjacent
opposite
tan
Trigonometric Ratios
 Sine(sin) opposite side/hypotenuse
 Cosine(cos) adjacent side/hypotenuse
 Tangent(tan) opposite side/adjacent side
 Cosecant(cosec) hypotenuse/opposite side
 Secant(sec) hypotenuse/adjacent side
 Cotangent(cot) adjacent side/opposite side
Easy way to learn trigonometric
ratios
Values of Trigonometric
function0 30 45 60 90
Sine 0 0.5 1/ 2 3/2 1
Cosine 1 3/2 1/ 2 0.5 0
Tangent 0 1/ 3 1 3 Not defined
Cosecant Not defined 2 2 2/ 3 1
Secant 1 2/ 3 2 2 Not defined
Cotangent Not defined 3 1 1/ 3 0
Trigonometric ratios of
complementary
angles
• Sin(90-A)= cos
A, Cos(90- A)= sin A
• Tan(90-a)= cot
A, Cot(90-A)= tan
A
• Sec(90-A)= cosec
A, cosec(90-A)= sec A
Trigonometric
identities• Identity1- sin2A + cos2A = 1
• PROOF:
• IN TRIANGLE ABC,
• AB2 + BC2 = AC2 ( BY PYTHAGORAS THEOREM) (1)
• DIVIDING EACH TERM OF (1) BY AC
AB2 / AC2 + BC2 / AC2 = AC2 / AC2
(cos A) 2 + (sin A) 2 = 1
→ cos2 A + sin2 A = 1
A
B
C
2
• Identity2 : 1 + tan2A =
sec2A
• Dividing eq (1) by
AB2
(AB/AB) 2 + (BC/AB2
=(AC/AB) 2
=> 1+ Tan2 A = sec2
A
• Identity3: 1 + cot2A =
cosec2A
• Dividing eq (1) by BC2
• (AB/BC) 2 + (BC/BC) 2
= (AC/BC) 2
• => Cot2A + 1 = cosec2
A
Solving a Problem with
the Tangent Ratio
60º
53 ft
h = ?
1
2 3
We know the angle and the
side adjacent to 60º. We want to
know the opposite side. Use the
tangent ratio:
ft92353
531
3
53
60tan
h
h
h
adj
opp
Applications of
Trigonometry • This field of mathematics can be
applied in
astronomy, navigation, music
theory, acoustics, optics, analysis of
financial
markets, electronics, probability
theory, statistics, biology, medical
imaging (CAT scans and
ultrasound), pharmacy, chemistry, num
ber theory (and hence
cryptology), seismology, meteorology,
oceanography, many physical
sciences, land surveying and
geodesy, architecture, phonetics, econ
omics, electrical
engineering, mechanical
engineering, civil
engineering, computer
graphics, cartography, crystallography
Applications of Trigonometry in
Astronomy
Since ancient times trigonometry was
used in astronomy.
The technique of triangulation is used
to measure the distance to nearby
stars.
In 240 B.C., a mathematician named
Eratosthenes discovered the radius of
the Earth using trigonometry and
geometry.
In 2001, a group of European
astronomers did an experiment that
started in 1997 about the distance of
Venus from the Sun. Venus was about
105,000,000 kilometers away from the
Sun .
Application of
Trigonometry in
ArchitectureMany modern buildings have
beautifully curved surfaces.
Making these curves out of steel,
stone, concrete or glass is extremely
difficult, if not impossible.
One way around to address this
problem is to piece the surface
together out of many flat panels,
each sitting at an angle to the one
next to it, so that all together they
create what looks like a curved
surface.
The more regular these shapes, the
easier the building process.
Thank you
Made by-
Divya pandey
X-A

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Trigonometry maths school ppt

  • 2. What is trigonometry?  Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics which deals with triangles, particularly triangles in a plane where one angle of the triangle is 90 degrees. Trigonometry is derived from Greek words trigonon (three angles) and metron ( measure).
  • 3. History of trigonometry• The origins of trigonometry can be traced to the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, more than 4000 years ago. • Some experts believe that trigonometry was originally invented to calculate sundials, a traditional exercise in the oldest books • The first recorded use of trigonometry came from the Hellenistic mathematician Hipparchus circa 150 BC, who compiled a trigonometric table using the sine for solving triangles. • The Sulba Sutras written in India, between 800 BC and 500 BC, correctly compute the sine of π/4 (45°) as 1/√2 in a procedure for circling the square (the opposite of squaring the circle). • Many ancient mathematicians like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta,Ibn Yunus and Al-Kashi made significant contributions in this field(trigonometry).
  • 4. In a right triangle, the shorter sides are called legs and the longest side (which is the one opposite the right angle) is called the hypotenuse First let’s look at the three basic functions. SINE They are abbreviated using their first 3 letters COSINE TANGENT hypotenuse opposite sin hypotenuse adjacent cos adjacent opposite tan
  • 5. Trigonometric Ratios  Sine(sin) opposite side/hypotenuse  Cosine(cos) adjacent side/hypotenuse  Tangent(tan) opposite side/adjacent side  Cosecant(cosec) hypotenuse/opposite side  Secant(sec) hypotenuse/adjacent side  Cotangent(cot) adjacent side/opposite side
  • 6. Easy way to learn trigonometric ratios
  • 7. Values of Trigonometric function0 30 45 60 90 Sine 0 0.5 1/ 2 3/2 1 Cosine 1 3/2 1/ 2 0.5 0 Tangent 0 1/ 3 1 3 Not defined Cosecant Not defined 2 2 2/ 3 1 Secant 1 2/ 3 2 2 Not defined Cotangent Not defined 3 1 1/ 3 0
  • 8. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles • Sin(90-A)= cos A, Cos(90- A)= sin A • Tan(90-a)= cot A, Cot(90-A)= tan A • Sec(90-A)= cosec A, cosec(90-A)= sec A
  • 9. Trigonometric identities• Identity1- sin2A + cos2A = 1 • PROOF: • IN TRIANGLE ABC, • AB2 + BC2 = AC2 ( BY PYTHAGORAS THEOREM) (1) • DIVIDING EACH TERM OF (1) BY AC AB2 / AC2 + BC2 / AC2 = AC2 / AC2 (cos A) 2 + (sin A) 2 = 1 → cos2 A + sin2 A = 1 A B C 2
  • 10. • Identity2 : 1 + tan2A = sec2A • Dividing eq (1) by AB2 (AB/AB) 2 + (BC/AB2 =(AC/AB) 2 => 1+ Tan2 A = sec2 A • Identity3: 1 + cot2A = cosec2A • Dividing eq (1) by BC2 • (AB/BC) 2 + (BC/BC) 2 = (AC/BC) 2 • => Cot2A + 1 = cosec2 A
  • 11. Solving a Problem with the Tangent Ratio 60º 53 ft h = ? 1 2 3 We know the angle and the side adjacent to 60º. We want to know the opposite side. Use the tangent ratio: ft92353 531 3 53 60tan h h h adj opp
  • 12. Applications of Trigonometry • This field of mathematics can be applied in astronomy, navigation, music theory, acoustics, optics, analysis of financial markets, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound), pharmacy, chemistry, num ber theory (and hence cryptology), seismology, meteorology, oceanography, many physical sciences, land surveying and geodesy, architecture, phonetics, econ omics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, computer graphics, cartography, crystallography
  • 13. Applications of Trigonometry in Astronomy Since ancient times trigonometry was used in astronomy. The technique of triangulation is used to measure the distance to nearby stars. In 240 B.C., a mathematician named Eratosthenes discovered the radius of the Earth using trigonometry and geometry. In 2001, a group of European astronomers did an experiment that started in 1997 about the distance of Venus from the Sun. Venus was about 105,000,000 kilometers away from the Sun .
  • 14. Application of Trigonometry in ArchitectureMany modern buildings have beautifully curved surfaces. Making these curves out of steel, stone, concrete or glass is extremely difficult, if not impossible. One way around to address this problem is to piece the surface together out of many flat panels, each sitting at an angle to the one next to it, so that all together they create what looks like a curved surface. The more regular these shapes, the easier the building process.