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The job description for a manager also changes 
depending on what industry they are in, what type of 
“organizational culture” they are part of and whether 
they are junior or senior in the organization. 
It can also depend on factors including how the 
manager gets rewarded, their own personality and 
whether they work in a for-profit or not-for-profit 
organization. 
The term “manager” can be used in relation to all the 
various levels of management in the company. 
Most of the time, the term “manager” is used to 
describe someone who supervises others.
Some examples of manager job titles are: 
Team or area leader 
Front-line supervisor 
Mid-level manager 
Department head 
Vice-President 
President 
Officer, Chief Officer 
Managing Director 
Deputy Officer
Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform 
their responsibilities. 
Good managers discover how to master five basic 
functions: 
-planning 
-organizing 
- staffing 
- leading and 
-controlling
Planning 
This step involves mapping out exactly how to 
achieve a particular goal. 
Say, for example, that the organization's goal is to 
improve company sales. 
The manager first needs to decide which steps are 
necessary to accomplish that goal. 
These steps may include increasing advertising, 
inventory, and sales staff. These necessary steps are 
developed into a plan. 
When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it 
to accomplish the goal of improving company sales.
Organizing 
After a plan is in place, a manager needs to organize 
his team and materials according to her plan. 
Assigning work and granting authority are two 
important elements of organizing.
Staffing 
After a manager discerns his area's needs, he may 
decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, 
training, and developing employees. 
A manager in a large organization often works with 
the company's human resources department to 
accomplish this goal.
Leading 
A manager needs to do more than just plan, organize, 
and staff his team to achieve a goal. 
He must also lead. 
Leading involves motivating, communicating, 
guiding, and encouraging. 
It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem 
solve with employees.
Controlling 
After the other elements are in place, a manager's job 
is not finished. 
He needs to continuously check results against goals 
and take any corrective actions necessary to make 
sure that his area's plans remain on track. 
All managers at all levels of every organization perform 
these functions, but the amount of time a manager spends 
on each one depends on both the level of management 
and the specific organization.
A manager wears many hats. 
Not only is a manager a team leader, but he or she is 
also a planner, organizer, coach, problem solver, and 
decision maker — all rolled into one. 
And these are just a few of a manager's roles. 
In addition, managers' schedules are usually 
jam‐packed. 
Whether they're busy with employee meetings, 
unexpected problems, or strategy sessions, managers 
often find little spare time on their calendars.
Henry Mintzberg describes a set of ten roles that a 
manager fills. 
These roles fall into three categories: 
· Interpersonal: This role involves human 
interaction. 
· Informational: This role involves the sharing 
and analyzing of information. 
· Decisional: This role involves decision making.
Catego 
ry 
Role Activity 
Informational 
Monitor Look for and receive information, 
review papers and reports, 
maintain interpersonal contacts 
and networks. 
Disseminator Pass information on to others by 
phone, in meetings, memos. 
Spokesperson Represent the area or organization 
to people outside the area or 
organization in speeches and 
reports. Deal with the media.
Categ 
ory 
Role Activity 
Interpersonal 
Figurehead Perform ceremonial and symbolic 
duties inside the organization, receive 
visitors. Make presentations at 
professional or community events. 
Give presentations/awards to 
employees. 
Leader Supervise direct subordinates, 
including recruiting, selecting, 
motivating, training and leading them. 
Liaison Be the conduit (the in-between 
person) for information flowing in and 
out of the organization.
Cate 
gory 
Role Activity 
Decisional 
Entrepreneur Initiate change. Plan new projects, 
spot opportunities, identify areas of 
business development. 
Disturbance 
handler 
Take corrective action during crises 
or operational breakdowns, resolve 
conflicts amongst staff, adapt to 
external changes. 
Resource 
allocator 
Decide who gets resources, sets the 
schedule, budget, set priorities 
Negotiator Represent department during 
negotiations with unions, suppliers, 
and generally defend interests.
Not everyone can be a manager. 
Certain skills, or abilities to translate knowledge into 
action that results in desired performance, are 
required to help other employees become more 
productive. 
These skills fall under the following categories: 
•Technical 
•Human 
•Conceptual
Technical 
This skill requires the ability to use a special 
proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. 
Accountants, engineers, market researchers, and 
computer scientists, as examples, possess technical 
skills. 
Managers acquire these skills initially through formal 
education and then further develop them through 
training and job experience. 
Technical skills are most important at lower levels of 
management.
Human 
This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in 
cooperation with others. Human skills emerge in the 
workplace as a spirit of trust, enthusiasm, and genuine 
involvement in interpersonal relationships. 
A manager with good human skills has a high degree of 
self‐awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize 
with the feelings of others. Some managers are naturally 
born with great human skills, while others improve their 
skills through classes or experience. 
No matter how human skills are acquired, they're critical 
for all managers because of the highly interpersonal 
nature of managerial work.
Human 
This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in 
cooperation with others. 
Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust, 
enthusiasm, and genuine involvement in interpersonal 
relationships. 
A manager with good human skills has a high degree of 
self‐awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize 
with the feelings of others. Some managers are naturally 
born with great human skills, while others improve their 
skills through classes or experience. 
No matter how human skills are acquired, they're critical 
for all managers because of the highly interpersonal 
nature of managerial work.
Although all three categories contain skills essential for 
managers, their relative importance tends to vary by level 
of managerial responsibility. 
There are some of the skills and personal characteristics: 
Leadership — ability to influence others to perform 
tasks 
Self‐objectivity — ability to evaluate yourself 
realistically 
Analytic thinking — ability to interpret and explain 
patterns in information 
Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal 
behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to 
accomplish organizational goals
Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal 
behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to 
accomplish organizational goals 
Oral communication — ability to express ideas clearly 
in words 
Written communication — ability to express ideas 
clearly in writing 
Personal impact — ability to create a good impression 
and instill confidence 
Resistance to stress — ability to perform under stressful 
conditions 
Tolerance for uncertainty — ability to perform in 
ambiguous situations

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Topic 1

  • 1.
  • 2. The job description for a manager also changes depending on what industry they are in, what type of “organizational culture” they are part of and whether they are junior or senior in the organization. It can also depend on factors including how the manager gets rewarded, their own personality and whether they work in a for-profit or not-for-profit organization. The term “manager” can be used in relation to all the various levels of management in the company. Most of the time, the term “manager” is used to describe someone who supervises others.
  • 3. Some examples of manager job titles are: Team or area leader Front-line supervisor Mid-level manager Department head Vice-President President Officer, Chief Officer Managing Director Deputy Officer
  • 4. Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform their responsibilities. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: -planning -organizing - staffing - leading and -controlling
  • 5. Planning This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. Say, for example, that the organization's goal is to improve company sales. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. These steps may include increasing advertising, inventory, and sales staff. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales.
  • 6. Organizing After a plan is in place, a manager needs to organize his team and materials according to her plan. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing.
  • 7. Staffing After a manager discerns his area's needs, he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees. A manager in a large organization often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal.
  • 8. Leading A manager needs to do more than just plan, organize, and staff his team to achieve a goal. He must also lead. Leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging. It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees.
  • 9. Controlling After the other elements are in place, a manager's job is not finished. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's plans remain on track. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions, but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization.
  • 10. A manager wears many hats. Not only is a manager a team leader, but he or she is also a planner, organizer, coach, problem solver, and decision maker — all rolled into one. And these are just a few of a manager's roles. In addition, managers' schedules are usually jam‐packed. Whether they're busy with employee meetings, unexpected problems, or strategy sessions, managers often find little spare time on their calendars.
  • 11. Henry Mintzberg describes a set of ten roles that a manager fills. These roles fall into three categories: · Interpersonal: This role involves human interaction. · Informational: This role involves the sharing and analyzing of information. · Decisional: This role involves decision making.
  • 12. Catego ry Role Activity Informational Monitor Look for and receive information, review papers and reports, maintain interpersonal contacts and networks. Disseminator Pass information on to others by phone, in meetings, memos. Spokesperson Represent the area or organization to people outside the area or organization in speeches and reports. Deal with the media.
  • 13. Categ ory Role Activity Interpersonal Figurehead Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties inside the organization, receive visitors. Make presentations at professional or community events. Give presentations/awards to employees. Leader Supervise direct subordinates, including recruiting, selecting, motivating, training and leading them. Liaison Be the conduit (the in-between person) for information flowing in and out of the organization.
  • 14. Cate gory Role Activity Decisional Entrepreneur Initiate change. Plan new projects, spot opportunities, identify areas of business development. Disturbance handler Take corrective action during crises or operational breakdowns, resolve conflicts amongst staff, adapt to external changes. Resource allocator Decide who gets resources, sets the schedule, budget, set priorities Negotiator Represent department during negotiations with unions, suppliers, and generally defend interests.
  • 15. Not everyone can be a manager. Certain skills, or abilities to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance, are required to help other employees become more productive. These skills fall under the following categories: •Technical •Human •Conceptual
  • 16. Technical This skill requires the ability to use a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. Accountants, engineers, market researchers, and computer scientists, as examples, possess technical skills. Managers acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them through training and job experience. Technical skills are most important at lower levels of management.
  • 17. Human This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in cooperation with others. Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust, enthusiasm, and genuine involvement in interpersonal relationships. A manager with good human skills has a high degree of self‐awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize with the feelings of others. Some managers are naturally born with great human skills, while others improve their skills through classes or experience. No matter how human skills are acquired, they're critical for all managers because of the highly interpersonal nature of managerial work.
  • 18. Human This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in cooperation with others. Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust, enthusiasm, and genuine involvement in interpersonal relationships. A manager with good human skills has a high degree of self‐awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize with the feelings of others. Some managers are naturally born with great human skills, while others improve their skills through classes or experience. No matter how human skills are acquired, they're critical for all managers because of the highly interpersonal nature of managerial work.
  • 19. Although all three categories contain skills essential for managers, their relative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility. There are some of the skills and personal characteristics: Leadership — ability to influence others to perform tasks Self‐objectivity — ability to evaluate yourself realistically Analytic thinking — ability to interpret and explain patterns in information Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals
  • 20. Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals Oral communication — ability to express ideas clearly in words Written communication — ability to express ideas clearly in writing Personal impact — ability to create a good impression and instill confidence Resistance to stress — ability to perform under stressful conditions Tolerance for uncertainty — ability to perform in ambiguous situations