SlideShare a Scribd company logo
THE FOUR REALMS OF THE
EARTH
 A lithosphere is the rigid , outermost shell of a
rocky planet, and can be identified on the basis of its
mechanical properties. On Earth, it comprises
the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that
behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of
years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky
planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its
chemistry and mineralogy
2
LITHOSPHERE
CONTINENTS
3
There are seven continents.
There are:
• Asia
• Africa
• North America
• South America
• Antarctica
• Europe
• Australia
Structure of the Earth
4
 Earth's lithosphere includes the
crust and the uppermost mantle,
which constitute the hard and rigid
outer layer of the Earth.
Earth's inner core is Earth's
innermost part and is a
primarily solid ball with a radius of
about 1,220 km.
 Earth's outer core is a liquid layer
about 2,266 km thick composed
of iron and nickel that lies above
Earth's solid inner core and below
its mantle. Its outer boundary lies
2,890 km beneath Earth's surface.
CRUST
5
 the crust is the outermost
solid shell of a
rocky planet or natural
satellite, which is chemically
distinct from the
underlying mantle.
 The crust of the Earth is
composed of a great variety
of igneous, metamorphic,
and sedimentary rocks.
MANTLE
6
 Earth's mantle is a silicate
rocky shell about 2,900
kilometres (1,800 mi)
thick[1] that constitutes about
84% of Earth's volume.[2] It is
predominantly solid but in
geological time it behaves like
very viscous liquid. The mantle
encloses the hot core rich in
iron and nickel, which occupies
about 15% of Earth's volume.
CORE
7
 Earth's inner core is Earth's
innermost part and is a
primarily solid ball with
a radius of about 1,220 km. It
is believed to consist
primarily of an iron–
nickel alloy and to be
approximately the same
temperature as the surface
of the Sun: approximately
5430 °C.
ROCKS:IGNEOUS
8
 There are three types of rocks. They
are:
 Igneous rocks:Igneous rock derived
from the Latin word ignis meaning fire.
 Igneous rock is formed through the
cooling and solidification of
magma or lava. Igneous rock may form
with or without crystallization, either
below the surface
as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the
surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks.
This magma can be derived from
partial melts of pre-existing rocks in
either a planet's mantle or crust.
ROCKS:SEDIMENTARY
9
 Sedimentary rocks are types
of rock that are formed by
the deposition of material at
the Earth's surface and within
bodies of water. Particles that form
a sedimentary rock by accumulating
are called sediment. Before being
deposited, sediment was formed
by weathering and erosion in a
source area, and then transported to
the place of deposition
by water, wind, ice, mass
movement or glaciers which are
called agents of denudation.
ROCKS:METAMORPHIC
10
 Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of
the Earth's crust and are classified by texture
and by chemical and mineral assemblage
(metamorphic facies). They may be formed
simply by being deep beneath the Earth's
surface, subjected to high temperatures and the
great pressure of the rock layers above it. They
can form from tectonic processes such as
continental collisions, which cause horizontal
pressure, friction and distortion. They are also
formed when rock is heated up by
the intrusion of hot molten rock
called magma from the Earth's interior. The
study of metamorphic rocks (now exposed at
the Earth's surface following erosion and uplift)
provides information about the temperatures
and pressures that occur at great depths within
the Earth's crust. Some examples of
metamorphic rocks
are gneiss, slate, marble, schist, and quartzite.
ROCK CYCLE
11
 The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that
describes the dynamic transitions
through geologic time among the three
main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic,
and igneous. As the diagram to the right
illustrates, each of the types of rocks is altered
or destroyed when it is forced out of its
equilibrium conditions. An igneous rock such
as basalt may break down and dissolve when
exposed to the atmosphere, or melt as it
is subducted under a continent. Due to the
driving forces of the rock cycle, plate tectonics
and the water cycle, rocks do not remain in
equilibrium and are forced to change as they
encounter new environments. The rock cycle is
an illustration that explains how the three rock
types are related to each other, and how
processes change from one type to another
over time.
SOIL
12
 Soil is the mixture
of minerals, organic matter, gases,
liquids and a myriad of organisms
that can support plant life. It is a
natural body that exists as part of
the pedosphere and it performs four
important functions: it is a medium
for plant growth; it is a means of
water storage, supply and
purification; it is a modifier of
the atmosphere; and it is a habitat
for organisms that take part in
decomposition and creation of a
habitat for other organisms.
HYDROSPHERE
13
 The hydrosphere in physical
geography describes the combined mass
of water found on, under, and over the
surface of a planet. This includes water in
liquid and frozen forms in ground waters,
glaciers, oceans, lakes and streams. Saline
water account for 97.5% of this
amount. Fresh water accounts for only
2.5%. Of this fresh water 68.7% is in the
"form of ice and permanent snow cover
in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and in the
mountainous regions. Next, 29.9% exists
as fresh ground waters. Only 0.26% of the
total amount of fresh waters on the Earth
are concentrated in lakes, reservoirs and
river systems where they are most easily
accessible for our economic needs and
absolutely vital for water ecosystems.
MAJOR WATER BODIES
14
 There are four major
oceans. They are:
 Pacific ocean
 Atlantic ocean
 Indian ocean
 Arctic ocean
WATER CYCLE
15
 The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic
cycle or theH2O cycle, describes the continuous
movement of water on, above and below the
surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth
remains fairly constant over time but the
partitioning of the water into the major
reservoirs of ice,fresh water, saline water
and atmospheric water is variable depending on
a wide range of climatic variables. The water
moves from one reservoir to another, such as
from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the
atmosphere, by the physical processes
of evaporation, condensation, precipitation,
infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow. In so
doing, the water goes through different phases:
liquid, solid (ice), and water vapour.
OCEANS WATERS AND THEIR
CIRCULATION
16
 WAVES: waves are caused when winds
blowing over the surface of water
make the water particles move up and
down alternately. Waves travel In the
direction of the winds.
 Tides:Tides are the rise and fall of sea
levels caused by the combined effects
of the gravitational forces exerted by
the Moon and the Sun and the rotation
of the Earth.
17
 An ocean current is a continuous,
directed movement of
seawater generated by the forces
acting upon this mean flow, such
as breaking waves, wind, Coriolis
effect,cabbeling, temperature and s
alinity differences, with tides caused
by the gravitational pull of
the Moon and the Sun.Depth
contours, shoreline configurations
and interaction with other currents
influence a current's direction and
strength. A deep current is any
ocean current at a depth of greater
than 100m.
ATMOSPHERE
18
 The atmosphere of Earth is a
layer of gases surrounding the
planet Earth that is retained by
Earth's gravity.
The atmosphere protects life on
Earth by absorbing ultraviolet
solar radiation. By volume, dry
air contains 78.09% nitrogen,
20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon,
0.039% carbon dioxide, and small
amounts of other gases. Air also
contains a variable amount
of water vapor, on average
around 1%
STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE
19
 The atmosphere consists of 4 layers: the troposphere,
stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. . The
troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. This
is the layer where we live and where weather happens.
Temperature in this layer generally decreases with
height. The boundary between the stratosphere and the
troposphere is called the tropopause. The jet stream sits
at this level and it marks the highest point that weather
can occur. The height of the troposphere varies with
location, being higher over warmer areas and lower over
colder areas. Above the In this layer the temperature
increases with height. This is because the stratosphere
houses the ozone layer. The ozone layer is warm because
it absorbs ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. The
mesosphere is the layer above the stratosphere. The
temperature decreases with height here just like it does
in the troposphere. This layer also contains ratios of
nitrogen and oxygen similar to the troposphere, except
the concentrations are 1000 times less and there is little
water vapor there, so the air is too thin for weather to
occur. The thermosphere is the uppermost layer of the
atmosphere. In this layer the temperature increases with
height because it is being directly heated by the sun.
TROPOSPHERE
20
 The troposphere is the lowest
portion of Earth's atmosphere.
It contains approximately 80%
of the atmosphere's mass and
99% of its water vapour and
aerosols. The average depth of
the troposphere is
approximately 17 km in the
middle latitudes. It is deeper in
the tropics, up to 20 km and
shallower near the polar
regions, approximately 7 km .
STRATOSPHERE
21
 The stratosphere is the
second major layer of Earth's
atmosphere, just above
the troposphere, and below
the mesosphere. It
is stratified in temperature,
with warmer layers higher up
and cooler layers farther down.
This is in contrast to the
troposphere near the Earth's
surface, which is cooler higher
up and warmer farther down.
MESOSPHERE
22
 The mesosphere the
layer of the Earth's
atmosphere that is
directly above
the stratopause and
directly below
the mesopause. In the
mesosphere temperature
decreases with increasing
height.
THERMOSPHERE
23
 The thermosphere is the
layer of the Earth's
atmosphere directly above
the mesosphere and directly
below the exosphere. the
thermosphere begins about
85 kilometres above the
Earth. This layer contains
electrically charged particles
called ions.
EXOSPHERE
24
 The exosphere is a thin,
atmosphere-like volume
surrounding a planetary
body where molecules are
gravitationally bound to
that body, but where the
density is too low for them
to behave as a gas
by colliding with each
other.
 Air is the Earth's atmosphere. It is the clear gas in which living things live
and breathe. It has an indefinite shape and volume. It has no color or smell.
It has mass and weight. It is a matter as it has mass and weight. Air
creates atmosphere pressure. There is no air in the vacuum and cosmos. Air
is a mixture of 78.03% nitrogen, 20.99% oxygen, 0.94% argon, 0.03% carbon
dioxide, 0.01% hydrogen, 0.00123% Neon, 0.0004%helium,
0.00005% krypton and 0.000006% xenon. There are also small amounts of
other things.
 The degree of hotness or coldness of air surrounding us is called air
temprature.
 Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface by the
weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth .
 Humidity is the amount of water vapour in the air.
25
AIR TEMPRATURE,PRESSURE AND
HUMIDITY
BIOSPHERE
26
The biosphere is the global
sum of all ecosystems. The
biosphere is postulated to
have evolved, beginning with
a process of biopoesis (life
created naturally from non-
living matter such as simple
organic compounds)
or biogenesis (life created
from living matter), at least
some 3.5 billion years ago.
BY SWAROOP RAJ
27

More Related Content

What's hot

Atmosphere ppt
Atmosphere pptAtmosphere ppt
Atmosphere ppt
SWAGATA CHAKRABORTY
 
Our planet, the earth
Our planet, the earthOur planet, the earth
Our planet, the earth
martagar78
 
Earth as a System
Earth as a SystemEarth as a System
Earth as a System
dwinter1
 
shape of earth
shape of earthshape of earth
shape of earth
Hafsa Naeem
 
Weather maps and their symbols
Weather maps and their symbolsWeather maps and their symbols
Weather maps and their symbols
Debbie Miller
 
Introduction to Geomorphology
Introduction to Geomorphology Introduction to Geomorphology
Introduction to Geomorphology
P.K. Mani
 
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclonesTropical cyclones and temperate cyclones
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones
geovino
 
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTH
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTHSTRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTH
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTH
patel sahebb
 
Contributions of greek scholars in geography
Contributions of greek scholars in geographyContributions of greek scholars in geography
Contributions of greek scholars in geography
MuhammadBilawal20
 
Ocean Circulation
Ocean CirculationOcean Circulation
Ocean Circulation
rebelbrindley
 
Origin of the earth
Origin of the earthOrigin of the earth
Temperate Cyclones
Temperate CyclonesTemperate Cyclones
Temperate Cyclones
John Lanser
 
Ocean currents of the world
Ocean currents of the worldOcean currents of the world
Ocean currents of the world
Abhishek Sharma
 
Atmospheric forces and winds-Climatology Chapter
Atmospheric forces and winds-Climatology ChapterAtmospheric forces and winds-Climatology Chapter
Atmospheric forces and winds-Climatology Chapter
Kaium Chowdhury
 
Earth's Spheres
Earth's SpheresEarth's Spheres
Earth's Spheres
Jesus Garrido Vegas
 
Final ppt uniformitarianism
Final ppt uniformitarianism  Final ppt uniformitarianism
Final ppt uniformitarianism
RAJKUMARPOREL
 
3. Atmospheric circulation
3. Atmospheric circulation3. Atmospheric circulation
3. Atmospheric circulation
Mr Blackwell
 
Ocean current
Ocean currentOcean current
Ocean current
University of Kerala
 
The sun
The sun The sun
The sun
Hafsah Khan
 
9 atmosphere
9   atmosphere9   atmosphere
9 atmosphere
SUNY Ulster
 

What's hot (20)

Atmosphere ppt
Atmosphere pptAtmosphere ppt
Atmosphere ppt
 
Our planet, the earth
Our planet, the earthOur planet, the earth
Our planet, the earth
 
Earth as a System
Earth as a SystemEarth as a System
Earth as a System
 
shape of earth
shape of earthshape of earth
shape of earth
 
Weather maps and their symbols
Weather maps and their symbolsWeather maps and their symbols
Weather maps and their symbols
 
Introduction to Geomorphology
Introduction to Geomorphology Introduction to Geomorphology
Introduction to Geomorphology
 
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclonesTropical cyclones and temperate cyclones
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones
 
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTH
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTHSTRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTH
STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF EARTH
 
Contributions of greek scholars in geography
Contributions of greek scholars in geographyContributions of greek scholars in geography
Contributions of greek scholars in geography
 
Ocean Circulation
Ocean CirculationOcean Circulation
Ocean Circulation
 
Origin of the earth
Origin of the earthOrigin of the earth
Origin of the earth
 
Temperate Cyclones
Temperate CyclonesTemperate Cyclones
Temperate Cyclones
 
Ocean currents of the world
Ocean currents of the worldOcean currents of the world
Ocean currents of the world
 
Atmospheric forces and winds-Climatology Chapter
Atmospheric forces and winds-Climatology ChapterAtmospheric forces and winds-Climatology Chapter
Atmospheric forces and winds-Climatology Chapter
 
Earth's Spheres
Earth's SpheresEarth's Spheres
Earth's Spheres
 
Final ppt uniformitarianism
Final ppt uniformitarianism  Final ppt uniformitarianism
Final ppt uniformitarianism
 
3. Atmospheric circulation
3. Atmospheric circulation3. Atmospheric circulation
3. Atmospheric circulation
 
Ocean current
Ocean currentOcean current
Ocean current
 
The sun
The sun The sun
The sun
 
9 atmosphere
9   atmosphere9   atmosphere
9 atmosphere
 

Similar to The Four Realms of the Earth

THE EARTH'S CRUST
THE EARTH'S CRUSTTHE EARTH'S CRUST
THE EARTH'S CRUST
Malhar Jadav
 
Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06
Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06
Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06
Asma Said,PhD
 
Tuesday subsystem objectiv_efinal
Tuesday subsystem objectiv_efinalTuesday subsystem objectiv_efinal
Tuesday subsystem objectiv_efinal
WilmaBendoy
 
Geosphere and domains of the earth
Geosphere and domains of the earthGeosphere and domains of the earth
Geosphere and domains of the earth
Pramoda Raj
 
The Planet Earth
The Planet EarthThe Planet Earth
The Planet Earth
Shann Ashequielle Blasurca
 
Earth
EarthEarth
Our Planet Earth-Realms
Our Planet Earth-RealmsOur Planet Earth-Realms
Our Planet Earth-Realms
Naaz Khan
 
ISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCI
ISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCIISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCI
ISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCI
TONGCUAISAIAHJEREMIA
 
SUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptx
SUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptxSUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptx
SUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptx
KarenGraceAGLANAO
 
Inside the earth
Inside the earthInside the earth
Inside the earth
Ronel Asuncion
 
Earth's Hydrosphere
Earth's HydrosphereEarth's Hydrosphere
Earth's Hydrosphere
asungot
 
Hand outs earth science
Hand outs earth scienceHand outs earth science
Hand outs earth science
CD Balubayan
 
rahul paritosh
 rahul paritosh rahul paritosh
rahul paritosh
rahul.ahiray
 
eARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptx
eARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptxeARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptx
eARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptx
MaricarLeonidaBalbue
 
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
iramann2174
 
World Geography.pdf
World Geography.pdfWorld Geography.pdf
World Geography.pdf
Pankaj Chandel
 
EARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdf
EARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdfEARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdf
EARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdf
LeahDelaCruz20
 
Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...
Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...
Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...
slg1703
 
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
vivialynasis
 
Earth's history
Earth's historyEarth's history
Earth's history
Marilyn Dumaguing
 

Similar to The Four Realms of the Earth (20)

THE EARTH'S CRUST
THE EARTH'S CRUSTTHE EARTH'S CRUST
THE EARTH'S CRUST
 
Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06
Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06
Dtu10e lecture ppt_ch06
 
Tuesday subsystem objectiv_efinal
Tuesday subsystem objectiv_efinalTuesday subsystem objectiv_efinal
Tuesday subsystem objectiv_efinal
 
Geosphere and domains of the earth
Geosphere and domains of the earthGeosphere and domains of the earth
Geosphere and domains of the earth
 
The Planet Earth
The Planet EarthThe Planet Earth
The Planet Earth
 
Earth
EarthEarth
Earth
 
Our Planet Earth-Realms
Our Planet Earth-RealmsOur Planet Earth-Realms
Our Planet Earth-Realms
 
ISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCI
ISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCIISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCI
ISAIAH GWAPO EARTHSCI
 
SUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptx
SUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptxSUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptx
SUBSYSTEMS_OF_EARTH.pptx
 
Inside the earth
Inside the earthInside the earth
Inside the earth
 
Earth's Hydrosphere
Earth's HydrosphereEarth's Hydrosphere
Earth's Hydrosphere
 
Hand outs earth science
Hand outs earth scienceHand outs earth science
Hand outs earth science
 
rahul paritosh
 rahul paritosh rahul paritosh
rahul paritosh
 
eARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptx
eARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptxeARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptx
eARTH'S STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION.pptx
 
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
 
World Geography.pdf
World Geography.pdfWorld Geography.pdf
World Geography.pdf
 
EARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdf
EARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdfEARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdf
EARTH-SUBSYSTEMS.pdf
 
Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...
Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...
Is ground solid enough to stand on. Authors: Virginia Evans, Ksenia Baranova/...
 
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
module-1-characteristics-of-earth-that-are-necessary-to-support-life-presenta...
 
Earth's history
Earth's historyEarth's history
Earth's history
 

More from Swaroop Raj

NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER
NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER
NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER
Swaroop Raj
 
Inside the Earth
Inside the EarthInside the Earth
Inside the Earth
Swaroop Raj
 
The Harappan Civilization
The Harappan CivilizationThe Harappan Civilization
The Harappan Civilization
Swaroop Raj
 
The Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan EmpireThe Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan Empire
Swaroop Raj
 
Aurangzeb
AurangzebAurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Swaroop Raj
 
Pastoral farming
Pastoral farmingPastoral farming
Pastoral farming
Swaroop Raj
 

More from Swaroop Raj (6)

NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER
NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER
NAZISM & RISE OF HITLER
 
Inside the Earth
Inside the EarthInside the Earth
Inside the Earth
 
The Harappan Civilization
The Harappan CivilizationThe Harappan Civilization
The Harappan Civilization
 
The Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan EmpireThe Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan Empire
 
Aurangzeb
AurangzebAurangzeb
Aurangzeb
 
Pastoral farming
Pastoral farmingPastoral farming
Pastoral farming
 

Recently uploaded

How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama UniversityNatural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Akanksha trivedi rama nursing college kanpur.
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
amberjdewit93
 
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptxAssessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Kavitha Krishnan
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
Celine George
 
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdfCACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
camakaiclarkmusic
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Dr. Vinod Kumar Kanvaria
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
IreneSebastianRueco1
 
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
RitikBhardwaj56
 
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICTSmart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
simonomuemu
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama UniversityNatural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
 
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptxAssessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
Assessment and Planning in Educational technology.pptx
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
 
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdfCACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
CACJapan - GROUP Presentation 1- Wk 4.pdf
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
 
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
The simplified electron and muon model, Oscillating Spacetime: The Foundation...
 
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICTSmart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
Smart-Money for SMC traders good time and ICT
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 

The Four Realms of the Earth

  • 1. THE FOUR REALMS OF THE EARTH
  • 2.  A lithosphere is the rigid , outermost shell of a rocky planet, and can be identified on the basis of its mechanical properties. On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy 2 LITHOSPHERE
  • 3. CONTINENTS 3 There are seven continents. There are: • Asia • Africa • North America • South America • Antarctica • Europe • Australia
  • 4. Structure of the Earth 4  Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. Earth's inner core is Earth's innermost part and is a primarily solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 km.  Earth's outer core is a liquid layer about 2,266 km thick composed of iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle. Its outer boundary lies 2,890 km beneath Earth's surface.
  • 5. CRUST 5  the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.  The crust of the Earth is composed of a great variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
  • 6. MANTLE 6  Earth's mantle is a silicate rocky shell about 2,900 kilometres (1,800 mi) thick[1] that constitutes about 84% of Earth's volume.[2] It is predominantly solid but in geological time it behaves like very viscous liquid. The mantle encloses the hot core rich in iron and nickel, which occupies about 15% of Earth's volume.
  • 7. CORE 7  Earth's inner core is Earth's innermost part and is a primarily solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 km. It is believed to consist primarily of an iron– nickel alloy and to be approximately the same temperature as the surface of the Sun: approximately 5430 °C.
  • 8. ROCKS:IGNEOUS 8  There are three types of rocks. They are:  Igneous rocks:Igneous rock derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire.  Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust.
  • 9. ROCKS:SEDIMENTARY 9  Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, sediment was formed by weathering and erosion in a source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers which are called agents of denudation.
  • 10. ROCKS:METAMORPHIC 10  Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage (metamorphic facies). They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure, friction and distortion. They are also formed when rock is heated up by the intrusion of hot molten rock called magma from the Earth's interior. The study of metamorphic rocks (now exposed at the Earth's surface following erosion and uplift) provides information about the temperatures and pressures that occur at great depths within the Earth's crust. Some examples of metamorphic rocks are gneiss, slate, marble, schist, and quartzite.
  • 11. ROCK CYCLE 11  The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the dynamic transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. As the diagram to the right illustrates, each of the types of rocks is altered or destroyed when it is forced out of its equilibrium conditions. An igneous rock such as basalt may break down and dissolve when exposed to the atmosphere, or melt as it is subducted under a continent. Due to the driving forces of the rock cycle, plate tectonics and the water cycle, rocks do not remain in equilibrium and are forced to change as they encounter new environments. The rock cycle is an illustration that explains how the three rock types are related to each other, and how processes change from one type to another over time.
  • 12. SOIL 12  Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids and a myriad of organisms that can support plant life. It is a natural body that exists as part of the pedosphere and it performs four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of the atmosphere; and it is a habitat for organisms that take part in decomposition and creation of a habitat for other organisms.
  • 13. HYDROSPHERE 13  The hydrosphere in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. This includes water in liquid and frozen forms in ground waters, glaciers, oceans, lakes and streams. Saline water account for 97.5% of this amount. Fresh water accounts for only 2.5%. Of this fresh water 68.7% is in the "form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and in the mountainous regions. Next, 29.9% exists as fresh ground waters. Only 0.26% of the total amount of fresh waters on the Earth are concentrated in lakes, reservoirs and river systems where they are most easily accessible for our economic needs and absolutely vital for water ecosystems.
  • 14. MAJOR WATER BODIES 14  There are four major oceans. They are:  Pacific ocean  Atlantic ocean  Indian ocean  Arctic ocean
  • 15. WATER CYCLE 15  The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or theH2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice,fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow. In so doing, the water goes through different phases: liquid, solid (ice), and water vapour.
  • 16. OCEANS WATERS AND THEIR CIRCULATION 16  WAVES: waves are caused when winds blowing over the surface of water make the water particles move up and down alternately. Waves travel In the direction of the winds.  Tides:Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth.
  • 17. 17  An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by the forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, Coriolis effect,cabbeling, temperature and s alinity differences, with tides caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun.Depth contours, shoreline configurations and interaction with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. A deep current is any ocean current at a depth of greater than 100m.
  • 18. ATMOSPHERE 18  The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%
  • 19. STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE 19  The atmosphere consists of 4 layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. . The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. This is the layer where we live and where weather happens. Temperature in this layer generally decreases with height. The boundary between the stratosphere and the troposphere is called the tropopause. The jet stream sits at this level and it marks the highest point that weather can occur. The height of the troposphere varies with location, being higher over warmer areas and lower over colder areas. Above the In this layer the temperature increases with height. This is because the stratosphere houses the ozone layer. The ozone layer is warm because it absorbs ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. The mesosphere is the layer above the stratosphere. The temperature decreases with height here just like it does in the troposphere. This layer also contains ratios of nitrogen and oxygen similar to the troposphere, except the concentrations are 1000 times less and there is little water vapor there, so the air is too thin for weather to occur. The thermosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. In this layer the temperature increases with height because it is being directly heated by the sun.
  • 20. TROPOSPHERE 20  The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapour and aerosols. The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km in the middle latitudes. It is deeper in the tropics, up to 20 km and shallower near the polar regions, approximately 7 km .
  • 21. STRATOSPHERE 21  The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. This is in contrast to the troposphere near the Earth's surface, which is cooler higher up and warmer farther down.
  • 22. MESOSPHERE 22  The mesosphere the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratopause and directly below the mesopause. In the mesosphere temperature decreases with increasing height.
  • 23. THERMOSPHERE 23  The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. the thermosphere begins about 85 kilometres above the Earth. This layer contains electrically charged particles called ions.
  • 24. EXOSPHERE 24  The exosphere is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planetary body where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.
  • 25.  Air is the Earth's atmosphere. It is the clear gas in which living things live and breathe. It has an indefinite shape and volume. It has no color or smell. It has mass and weight. It is a matter as it has mass and weight. Air creates atmosphere pressure. There is no air in the vacuum and cosmos. Air is a mixture of 78.03% nitrogen, 20.99% oxygen, 0.94% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, 0.01% hydrogen, 0.00123% Neon, 0.0004%helium, 0.00005% krypton and 0.000006% xenon. There are also small amounts of other things.  The degree of hotness or coldness of air surrounding us is called air temprature.  Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth .  Humidity is the amount of water vapour in the air. 25 AIR TEMPRATURE,PRESSURE AND HUMIDITY
  • 26. BIOSPHERE 26 The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. The biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning with a process of biopoesis (life created naturally from non- living matter such as simple organic compounds) or biogenesis (life created from living matter), at least some 3.5 billion years ago.