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The Impact of the Internet of Things on our Lives.
The Challenge of Legacy Assets
Richard Lucas, BSc(Eng) MBA
MD of ASH Wireless
ASH Wireless is an electronics design consultancy
Specialising in wireless and sensors
2
An Ofgem funded Network
Innovation Competition project
3
The problem
Assets have
nominal thermal
rating
Ratings = OC
Ratings K amps
Diverse range of
environments
Small changes in
environmental
factors can result
in very different
actual ratings
HV network
LV network
Assumed thermal
ratings can lead to
capacity being
under-utilised
or
unnecessary risk
Objective is to
maximise power
through
transformer
4
Celsius as part of the smart future
Celsius
monitoring
Smart meter
data
Thermal Ratings Tool
Reinforce
Retrofit
cooling
Extra capacity
Lower bills for customers
5
Step 1: Fit thermal monitoring
Internal
temperature
Asset
Environmental
factors
External
temperature
Thermal
coefficient
Learning
Thermal
Ratings
Tool
Deliverable
More
capacity
Benefit
6
Step 2: Retrofit cooling
Retrofit
cooling
Internal
temperature
Asset
Environmental
factors
External
temperature
Full
capacity
Benefit
Enhanced
Thermal
Ratings
Tool
Deliverable
Retrofit cooling
specifications,
installation
methodologies
and buy order
Learning
7
Partners and roles on project
Facilitate customer
focus groups
Develop customer
communication
materials
Lead the customer
survey engagement
Analyse trial data
Develop
methodologies to
understand
relationship between
asset temperature,
load characteristics
and surrounding
environment
Determine impact of
cooling technologies
Develop tool and
spec for low cost
temperature sensor
Recommendations
for BAU rollout
Supply complete
retrofit monitoring
solution
Provide ongoing
support throughout
installation,
commissioning and
operation of the
retrofit thermal
monitoring
workstream
Peer review of the
analysis
methodology of the
retrofit temperature
sensor part of the
project
An investigative
study on the impact
of Celsius on the
lifetime health of
network assets
Work with ASH,
Ricardo-AEA and
Electricity North
West to develop
retrofit thermal
monitoring solution
Participate in
evaluation and
selection of retrofit
cooling techniques
8
Monitoring site selection and timescales
To enable trials to
take place during
all seasons and to
trial all cooling
techniques
Four year project
Subset of 520
substations –
enough sites to
adequately trial all
techniques
100 cooling
technique sites
Enough
substations to
represent 80% of
GB substation
population
520 substations
9
Celsius
£5.5
million
Investment
Up to £583m
across GB by
2050 Financial
benefits
Awarded: 9th December 2015
Go live
Monitoring
installation
Mar 2017
Monitoring
trial
Mar 2018
Thermal
ratings
tool stage
1
Oct 2018
Retrofit
cooling
installation
Jun 2018
Cooling
trial
Jun 2019
Thermal
ratings
tool stage
2
Jan 2020
Closedown
Mar 2020
So the answer’s simple
1. Gather data on the power throughput &
characteristics, asset temperature,
2. Work out the relationships, and how you can change
these with retrofitted cooling technology
3. Decide how long you can postpone reinforcing or
replacing assets,
4. Save lots of money
But there are some practical problems…………..
11
Legacy Assets
 A significant percentage of
electrical substations are
more than half a century old
 Most are not installed with
measurement equipment for
voltage, current, power,
power quality, temperature
of key assets
 Critical infrastructure – any
work must not intrude on
continued operation.
 Access to the sites is
restricted for safety reasons
12
?How to fit monitoring sensors when…
 No internet connection
available
 No mains power available
 Can’t install wiring, mount
equipment, etc without
intruding on critical
operations
 Challenging RF environment
for radio connections,,
multipath, multiple
monitoring points needed
KeLVN
- Design Requirements
 Monitoring system can be installed
non-invasively;
 All equipment magnetic or cable-tie
mounting;
 All equipment battery powered for
duration of data gathering project
(3.5 years).
 All equipment wireless, only leads are
those required to actually take
measurements.
 Daily reports to back end. 30 minute
measurements of V, I, P, Q, THD,
Temperature
Backhaul Choices
• Clusters of sensors over a
small area
• Spread over a large part of
the country
• Mobile network is clear winner
• LPWAN
• Possible, but patchy network
support
• 2.5G GPRS chosen
• Coverage, component cost
Local Wireless Sensor Network
• Requirement for large substations (30m x 15m), sensors
may be in cabinets
• Path loss at 2.4GHz expected less than 90dB
• Avoid stationary nulls by using antenna diversity
• Energy-efficient 802.15.4 transceivers used, no front-
end-modules
• Operation needs to allow for more than one hub
• Large coverage
• Check installation from outside the substation
Local Wireless Sensor Network
• Simple, non-paired network access, minimised energy
• Sensors transmit the last 6 hours of measurements
(1 packet) every 30s
• Time-jittered to avoid multiple collisions from time-
aligned sensors
• A hub listens for 60s for reports every 6 hours
• Hub transmits a daily report to a back-end database
• Hub operates for 3.5 years on a Lithium D-cell
• Other sensors use AA or D cells for >3.5 year life
TT T
T
Voltage Sensor
Temperature Sensor
GPRS
Backhaul
Mobile
data link
Hub 1
Hub 2
(optional)
Hex 1
PMU
Hex 2
Ind.
V,I,T
Low Power
Radio
Network
Single
Temperature
Sensors
Back
End
KeLVN
- Substation Monitoring
Battery Life
• The Hub is an interesting challenge:
• Lithium D-cell, 10AH
• Over 3.5 years life
• Distribution of where the capacity is used:
KeLVN Hub battery usage
Daily GPRS data transfer
Sensor receiver window
Quiescent: ‘off’
Key learning points
• The installation and environment defines
• Equipment design (e.g. magnetic mounting)
• Protocol (e.g. multiple hubs allowed)
• installation procedure (fast, non-invasive)
• GPRS modem auto-connect modes are not reliable,
process needs detailed design
• Alarms
• Not required in Celsius
• Low latency for alarms is managed with a hub
software extension, and external power to the hub
Example of how legacy assets can
be made to yield valuable data
Retrofitting monitoring equipment to legacy assets:
• Ease of installation is primary consideration
• Use of a local wireless sensor network eases installation
• Optimise air interface to manage trade off between
latency, data rate, battery life
Additional material
22
Site selection map
23
Celsius technology
Hub Wireless sensor
24
Celsius technology – trial fit
LV board with three sensors
25
Celsius technology – trial fit
Transformer
26
Trial site data
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
30/09/2016 00:00 30/09/2016 12:00 01/10/2016 00:00 01/10/2016 12:00 02/10/2016 00:00 02/10/2016 12:00
TemperatureDegreesC
RealPowerkWperPhase
Magda Rd 750kVA Transformer Load and Temperatures
P1 kW P2 kW P3 kW Top Oil oC Inlet oC Outlet oC Bottom Oil oC

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The Challenge of Legacy Assets

  • 1. The Impact of the Internet of Things on our Lives. The Challenge of Legacy Assets Richard Lucas, BSc(Eng) MBA MD of ASH Wireless ASH Wireless is an electronics design consultancy Specialising in wireless and sensors
  • 2. 2 An Ofgem funded Network Innovation Competition project
  • 3. 3 The problem Assets have nominal thermal rating Ratings = OC Ratings K amps Diverse range of environments Small changes in environmental factors can result in very different actual ratings HV network LV network Assumed thermal ratings can lead to capacity being under-utilised or unnecessary risk Objective is to maximise power through transformer
  • 4. 4 Celsius as part of the smart future Celsius monitoring Smart meter data Thermal Ratings Tool Reinforce Retrofit cooling Extra capacity Lower bills for customers
  • 5. 5 Step 1: Fit thermal monitoring Internal temperature Asset Environmental factors External temperature Thermal coefficient Learning Thermal Ratings Tool Deliverable More capacity Benefit
  • 6. 6 Step 2: Retrofit cooling Retrofit cooling Internal temperature Asset Environmental factors External temperature Full capacity Benefit Enhanced Thermal Ratings Tool Deliverable Retrofit cooling specifications, installation methodologies and buy order Learning
  • 7. 7 Partners and roles on project Facilitate customer focus groups Develop customer communication materials Lead the customer survey engagement Analyse trial data Develop methodologies to understand relationship between asset temperature, load characteristics and surrounding environment Determine impact of cooling technologies Develop tool and spec for low cost temperature sensor Recommendations for BAU rollout Supply complete retrofit monitoring solution Provide ongoing support throughout installation, commissioning and operation of the retrofit thermal monitoring workstream Peer review of the analysis methodology of the retrofit temperature sensor part of the project An investigative study on the impact of Celsius on the lifetime health of network assets Work with ASH, Ricardo-AEA and Electricity North West to develop retrofit thermal monitoring solution Participate in evaluation and selection of retrofit cooling techniques
  • 8. 8 Monitoring site selection and timescales To enable trials to take place during all seasons and to trial all cooling techniques Four year project Subset of 520 substations – enough sites to adequately trial all techniques 100 cooling technique sites Enough substations to represent 80% of GB substation population 520 substations
  • 9. 9 Celsius £5.5 million Investment Up to £583m across GB by 2050 Financial benefits Awarded: 9th December 2015 Go live Monitoring installation Mar 2017 Monitoring trial Mar 2018 Thermal ratings tool stage 1 Oct 2018 Retrofit cooling installation Jun 2018 Cooling trial Jun 2019 Thermal ratings tool stage 2 Jan 2020 Closedown Mar 2020
  • 10. So the answer’s simple 1. Gather data on the power throughput & characteristics, asset temperature, 2. Work out the relationships, and how you can change these with retrofitted cooling technology 3. Decide how long you can postpone reinforcing or replacing assets, 4. Save lots of money But there are some practical problems…………..
  • 11. 11 Legacy Assets  A significant percentage of electrical substations are more than half a century old  Most are not installed with measurement equipment for voltage, current, power, power quality, temperature of key assets  Critical infrastructure – any work must not intrude on continued operation.  Access to the sites is restricted for safety reasons
  • 12. 12 ?How to fit monitoring sensors when…  No internet connection available  No mains power available  Can’t install wiring, mount equipment, etc without intruding on critical operations  Challenging RF environment for radio connections,, multipath, multiple monitoring points needed
  • 13. KeLVN - Design Requirements  Monitoring system can be installed non-invasively;  All equipment magnetic or cable-tie mounting;  All equipment battery powered for duration of data gathering project (3.5 years).  All equipment wireless, only leads are those required to actually take measurements.  Daily reports to back end. 30 minute measurements of V, I, P, Q, THD, Temperature
  • 14. Backhaul Choices • Clusters of sensors over a small area • Spread over a large part of the country • Mobile network is clear winner • LPWAN • Possible, but patchy network support • 2.5G GPRS chosen • Coverage, component cost
  • 15. Local Wireless Sensor Network • Requirement for large substations (30m x 15m), sensors may be in cabinets • Path loss at 2.4GHz expected less than 90dB • Avoid stationary nulls by using antenna diversity • Energy-efficient 802.15.4 transceivers used, no front- end-modules • Operation needs to allow for more than one hub • Large coverage • Check installation from outside the substation
  • 16. Local Wireless Sensor Network • Simple, non-paired network access, minimised energy • Sensors transmit the last 6 hours of measurements (1 packet) every 30s • Time-jittered to avoid multiple collisions from time- aligned sensors • A hub listens for 60s for reports every 6 hours • Hub transmits a daily report to a back-end database • Hub operates for 3.5 years on a Lithium D-cell • Other sensors use AA or D cells for >3.5 year life
  • 17. TT T T Voltage Sensor Temperature Sensor GPRS Backhaul Mobile data link Hub 1 Hub 2 (optional) Hex 1 PMU Hex 2 Ind. V,I,T Low Power Radio Network Single Temperature Sensors Back End KeLVN - Substation Monitoring
  • 18. Battery Life • The Hub is an interesting challenge: • Lithium D-cell, 10AH • Over 3.5 years life • Distribution of where the capacity is used: KeLVN Hub battery usage Daily GPRS data transfer Sensor receiver window Quiescent: ‘off’
  • 19. Key learning points • The installation and environment defines • Equipment design (e.g. magnetic mounting) • Protocol (e.g. multiple hubs allowed) • installation procedure (fast, non-invasive) • GPRS modem auto-connect modes are not reliable, process needs detailed design • Alarms • Not required in Celsius • Low latency for alarms is managed with a hub software extension, and external power to the hub
  • 20. Example of how legacy assets can be made to yield valuable data Retrofitting monitoring equipment to legacy assets: • Ease of installation is primary consideration • Use of a local wireless sensor network eases installation • Optimise air interface to manage trade off between latency, data rate, battery life
  • 24. 24 Celsius technology – trial fit LV board with three sensors
  • 25. 25 Celsius technology – trial fit Transformer
  • 26. 26 Trial site data -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 30/09/2016 00:00 30/09/2016 12:00 01/10/2016 00:00 01/10/2016 12:00 02/10/2016 00:00 02/10/2016 12:00 TemperatureDegreesC RealPowerkWperPhase Magda Rd 750kVA Transformer Load and Temperatures P1 kW P2 kW P3 kW Top Oil oC Inlet oC Outlet oC Bottom Oil oC

Editor's Notes

  1. 2 Installation Elements, each followed by an analysis of data. The first being an Installation of retrofit monitoring followed by analysis of data and design of a Thermal ratings tool The second trial will be installation of various different cooling techniques, followed by analysis of benefits and this will feed into developing and refining the thermal ratings tool
  2. Mention Hotstick installation