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Manufacturing Process of molasses
based distillery
BY
DR. SEEMA PAROHA
Manufacturing Process of molasses
based distillery
Production of alcohol comprises broadly 3 sections, viz.
(i) Fermentation
(ii) Distillation and
(iii) Effluent treatment and disposal.
The fermentation consists of following steps;
1. Molasses weighing -Weighment of molasses will be carried
out either through a load cell based system or through a direct
flow meter system both with totalizing provisions.
2. Dilution
3. Yeast Propagation
4. Pre fermentation and
5. Fermentation
DILUTION
The first operation, which is carried out on molasses is dilution. In
dilution operation molasses, from the storage tank is diluted with
raw water. The diluted molasses is used for subsequent unit
operations i.e. yeast propagation & fermentation. The dilution ratios
required for yeast propagation and fermentation are different. For
requirement of yeast propagation, molasses is diluted to keep the
sugar percentage of 8 – 9% while for fermentation molasses is
diluted to keep the sugar 16-18%.
Sacchromyce ceriviseae sp is the yeast used for molasses fermentation.
Yeast is unicellular living organism. The growth of yeast takes place by
division of one cell into two, two cells into four and so on, if sugar solution
is provided for its growth. Two types of fermentation process are generally
observed during fermentation.
Aerobic Fermentation:
Aerobic fermentation takes place in presence of excess oxygen and in this
process, the yeast growth remains optimum. Ethyl Alcohol production is
less, because most of the sugar gets converted into water, carbon dioxide
and yeast during fermentation. Aerobic fermentation is suitable for yeast
propagation, with the main objective to achieve the growth of yeast cells.
Anaerobic fermentation
Anaerobic fermentation occurs in absence of Oxygen. Under anaerobic
condition the sugar gets converted into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Yeast growth is less in the anaerobic process. Hence, this process is
suitable for ethyl alcohol production, but not yeast propagation.
Yeast Propagation
Yeast Propagation
Yeast propagation is being done in aerobic condition and it is slated in the laboratory
strictly under hygienic conditions. To start with, a few yeast cells are added to the
sterilized diluted molasses the entire sugar contain in solution is exhausted. The contents
of test tube are then transferred to a volumetric flask and made up to 250 ml with
sterilized diluted molasses. The solution is left for further growth of yeast. After yeast
growth is achieved in 250 ml solution, it is further made upto 1 liter with sterilized diluted
molasses. The process is repeated till 20 liters of solution containing yeast biomass is
obtained.
Further, yeast propagation is carried out in the yeast vessel in the fermenter house. The
20 liter of yeast solution obtained from laboratory is propagated to required volume
through various stages in yeast vessels of capacities 100 l, 500 l, 2000 l and 5000 l from
the yeast vessels the yeast biomass is fed to the pre-fermenters, in which diluted
molasses is added in the pre-fermenters, aerobic conditions are maintained by means of
submerged aeration to maximize yeast production. The capacity of Pre-fementer vessels
ranges from 15000 L to 18000 L.
15-
18000L
2000 l 5000 l
Fermentation
Fermentation is carried out in the fermentation vessels under controlled conditions of
temperature and pH. The propagated yeast biomass is transferred to the main
fermenters keeping volume at 10 to 15% of the total fermenter volume. The rest is
filled with diluted molasses. After filling the fermenter, it is left for fermentation. This
process occurs under anaerobic condition. Under these conditions, the glucose
molecule breaks down to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. The time required
for completion of the fermentation process is 15 – 20 hours. The fermentation process
is understood to be completed when the effervescence stops. Other measurement
like specific gravity etc., are also taken to assess the completion of fermentation
process.
Fermentation is an exothermic reaction. Hence, the temperature rises during the
fermentation process. To maintain the temperature at 36 degree C., the fermenter
vessels are required to be cooled with fresh water, through plate type heat exchanger.
The yeast sludge along with solids present in molasses is collected at the bottom of
the fermenter vessels. These solids need to be removed to make the fermenter
vessels ready for another batch of fermentation process. The sludge is washed off by
water. The washed sludge called fermenter washing constitutes a waste along with
some alcohol.
The fermenter washing is centrifuged in a high speed centrifuge machine, which
separates solid and liquid the liquid containing some alcohol is sent for distillation
while the solid contained biomass and other solid is sent for bio-composting.
Fed-batch
Fermentation
Continuous
Batch
1) Alcon and Tate & Lyle
2) Melle Bionet
3) Semi-continuous
4) Biostil
5) Cascade
6) Encillium
Batch fermentation
o All necessary medium components and the inoculum are added at the beginning.
o The products of fermentation, whether intracellular or extracellular, are harvested
only at the end of the run.
o The concentration of medium components are not controlled during the process.
o As the living cells consume nutrients and yield product(s), their concentrations in
the medium vary along the process.
o The affecting factors, such as pH and temperature, are normally kept constant
during the process.
o The optimum concentration of raw materials can be decided only according to the
initial concentration.
Continuous fermentation
• One or more feed streams containing the necessary nutrients are fed continuously.
• The output stream containing the cells, products and residues is continuously
withdrawn.
• A steady state is established for the process.
• The culture volume is kept continuous by maintaining an equal volumetric flow rate
of feed and output.
• Need for cleaning is minimized as a continuous culture concentration is maintained
in the fermenter.
• Continuous fermentation systems require good quality of molasses and are
susceptible to contamination.
Fed-batch fermentation
 Nutrient or raw material is fed intermittently.
 After the first filling, the inoculum is added.
 After a small retention time, filling is continued.
 Fermentation starts right after the first filling and continues along
the process.
 At the end of the process, fermenter is emptied and the product is
obtained.
 It is currently the most popular mode of fermentation amongst the
distilleries in India.
Distillation
1. Analyzer Column
2. Degasifying Column
3. Pre Rectification cum stripper column
4. Extractive distillation column
5. Recovery Column
6. Rectifier cum Exhaust Column
7. Simmering Column
8. MSDH column
Analyzer Column
•In this column preheated fermented wash is stripped
off from all volatile components, including ethyl alcohol.
•From bottom, spent wash is drained and sent to ETP.
•This column generally has a degasser section on the
top, which removes all dissolved gases in the fermented
wash.
•This column is generally operated under vacuum to
eliminate the chance of scaling and reduce energy
requirement.
•The vapors (45% to 55% ethanol vapors) of this column
are condensed and fed to prerectifier column.
Wash
Spent wash
Alcohol – water vapour
Pre-rectifier Column
•In this column the heavier alcohols (fusel oil) are
separated and collected from top middle draw.
•It is operated under vacuum.
•The main product is drawn off from the top side of
the column.
•Bottom product of the column is called spent lees.
Feed
Vapour
FO
Spent lees
Rectifier Column
•This column operates under elevated pressure.
•Rectified spirit, the first alcoholic product, is drawn
from this column.
•The bottom product, spent lees, is used in the process
of fermentation.
•Fusel oil and technical alcohol are also drawn from
this column.
Feed
Vapour
FO
Spent lees
RS
Extractive Distillation Column
•In this column DM water is used as an extractant to
dilute the rectified spirit.
•Water is added to change the relative volatility of the
undesirable components to obtain a product clear of
smell.
•Water is added in the ratio of 1:9.
•It is operated at atmospheric pressure.
•Bottom product is fed to the simmering column for
further concentration.
RS
Water
Dilute alcohol
Vapour
Simmering Column
•This column is operated under high reflux and vaccum
•Methanol, diacetyl and mercaptans are separated from
the top of the column.
•The final product, i.e., extraneutral alcohol (ENA) is
obtained as bottom product.
Feed
Vapour
ENA
Recovery Column
•Fusel oils along with the condensates of analyzer and
ED column are fed to this column for concentration.
•A technical alcohol is taken out from the top of the
column.
•Fusel oils are drawn off from upper trays
•Bottom lees is drained off.
•It is operated at atmospheric pressure.
Feed
FO
TA
Spent lees
Molecular Sieve Dehydration System
• Molecular sieve technology works on the principle of pressure swing adsorption.
• Molecular Sieve is nothing but synthetic Zeolites typically 3 Angstrom Zeolites. This material
has strong affinity for water.
•They adsorb water in cold condition and desorbs water when heated. This principle is used to
dehydrate ethanol.
•The crystalline structure of zeolites is complex and gives this material the ability to adsorb or
reject material based on molecular sizes.
•The molecular sieve adsorbents developed for vapour phase, Ethanol dehydration are metal
alumino-silicate with effective pores size opening of 3 Angstrom.
•During dehydration of ethanol, the water of hydrolysis fills the cavities or pores in the
molecular sieve. The potassium form of molecular sieve has pore size of 3 Angstrom, the critical
diameter of water molecules is 3.2A and Ethanol is 4.4 A.
Contd…
• In vapor phase, the gaseous water molecules are strong dipoles.
They are drawn in to the pores and condense at the wall of pores,
while ethanol being bigger in size passes through the bed without
getting in to pores of molecular sieve.
• The life of molecular sieve is 5 to 7 years.
• RS is fed to the column for concentration and heating.
• The superheated vapour is fed to one of the sieve columns for
adsorption of moisture.
• When the first sieve column gets saturated, the second is under
operation.
• The first sieve column is cleared of the accumulated moisture by
vacuum.
• Ethanol (99. 6 %) is obtained from the sieve column and is
cooled.
Molasses from sugar section
Molasses pit
Molasses Bulk Storage Molasses day tank
Process water
wort
Laboratory yeast culture
Yeast vessel series
Pre-fermentors
Air sparging system
Fermentors
Fermented wash tank
CO2 Scrubber
Yeast sludge CO2
Fermented wash
Sludge settling tank
To distillation section Recycled or sent to poultry feed/bio-
compost
Compressed/solidified for sale
or released into the atmosphere
Air
Fermented wash Analyser
Spent wash
Pre-rectifier
Fusel oil
Aldehyde column
Extractive distillationcolumn
Soft water
Rectifier
Spent lees
Steam through re-boiler
Fusel oil column
Impure spirit vapours*
Simmeringcolumn
Vapours
Rectified spirit vapours
Extra neutral alcohol
vapours
Vapours
Steam through re-boiler
Soft water
Vapours
Spent lees
Steam through re-boiler
Spent lees
Impure spirit vapours*
Condensers
Impure spirit
Rectified spirit
Extra neutral alcohol
Impure spirit tank
ENA receivers
RS receivers
Rectified spirit re-drawn To Ethanol section
Fusel oil tank
To evaporator section
Fusel oil
Rectified spirit
Weak spirit
Evaporator
column
Steam through re-boiler
RegenerationDrum
Super-heater
Vacuum pump
Molecular Sieve bed 1
Molecular Sieve bed 2
Condenser
Rectified spirit vapours
Steam through re-boiler
Ethanol vapour
Super-heated vapours
Condenser
Ethanol
Ethanol receivers
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx

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Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx

  • 1. Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery BY DR. SEEMA PAROHA
  • 2. Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery Production of alcohol comprises broadly 3 sections, viz. (i) Fermentation (ii) Distillation and (iii) Effluent treatment and disposal.
  • 3. The fermentation consists of following steps; 1. Molasses weighing -Weighment of molasses will be carried out either through a load cell based system or through a direct flow meter system both with totalizing provisions. 2. Dilution 3. Yeast Propagation 4. Pre fermentation and 5. Fermentation
  • 4. DILUTION The first operation, which is carried out on molasses is dilution. In dilution operation molasses, from the storage tank is diluted with raw water. The diluted molasses is used for subsequent unit operations i.e. yeast propagation & fermentation. The dilution ratios required for yeast propagation and fermentation are different. For requirement of yeast propagation, molasses is diluted to keep the sugar percentage of 8 – 9% while for fermentation molasses is diluted to keep the sugar 16-18%.
  • 5. Sacchromyce ceriviseae sp is the yeast used for molasses fermentation. Yeast is unicellular living organism. The growth of yeast takes place by division of one cell into two, two cells into four and so on, if sugar solution is provided for its growth. Two types of fermentation process are generally observed during fermentation. Aerobic Fermentation: Aerobic fermentation takes place in presence of excess oxygen and in this process, the yeast growth remains optimum. Ethyl Alcohol production is less, because most of the sugar gets converted into water, carbon dioxide and yeast during fermentation. Aerobic fermentation is suitable for yeast propagation, with the main objective to achieve the growth of yeast cells. Anaerobic fermentation Anaerobic fermentation occurs in absence of Oxygen. Under anaerobic condition the sugar gets converted into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Yeast growth is less in the anaerobic process. Hence, this process is suitable for ethyl alcohol production, but not yeast propagation. Yeast Propagation
  • 6. Yeast Propagation Yeast propagation is being done in aerobic condition and it is slated in the laboratory strictly under hygienic conditions. To start with, a few yeast cells are added to the sterilized diluted molasses the entire sugar contain in solution is exhausted. The contents of test tube are then transferred to a volumetric flask and made up to 250 ml with sterilized diluted molasses. The solution is left for further growth of yeast. After yeast growth is achieved in 250 ml solution, it is further made upto 1 liter with sterilized diluted molasses. The process is repeated till 20 liters of solution containing yeast biomass is obtained. Further, yeast propagation is carried out in the yeast vessel in the fermenter house. The 20 liter of yeast solution obtained from laboratory is propagated to required volume through various stages in yeast vessels of capacities 100 l, 500 l, 2000 l and 5000 l from the yeast vessels the yeast biomass is fed to the pre-fermenters, in which diluted molasses is added in the pre-fermenters, aerobic conditions are maintained by means of submerged aeration to maximize yeast production. The capacity of Pre-fementer vessels ranges from 15000 L to 18000 L. 15- 18000L 2000 l 5000 l
  • 7. Fermentation Fermentation is carried out in the fermentation vessels under controlled conditions of temperature and pH. The propagated yeast biomass is transferred to the main fermenters keeping volume at 10 to 15% of the total fermenter volume. The rest is filled with diluted molasses. After filling the fermenter, it is left for fermentation. This process occurs under anaerobic condition. Under these conditions, the glucose molecule breaks down to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. The time required for completion of the fermentation process is 15 – 20 hours. The fermentation process is understood to be completed when the effervescence stops. Other measurement like specific gravity etc., are also taken to assess the completion of fermentation process. Fermentation is an exothermic reaction. Hence, the temperature rises during the fermentation process. To maintain the temperature at 36 degree C., the fermenter vessels are required to be cooled with fresh water, through plate type heat exchanger. The yeast sludge along with solids present in molasses is collected at the bottom of the fermenter vessels. These solids need to be removed to make the fermenter vessels ready for another batch of fermentation process. The sludge is washed off by water. The washed sludge called fermenter washing constitutes a waste along with some alcohol. The fermenter washing is centrifuged in a high speed centrifuge machine, which separates solid and liquid the liquid containing some alcohol is sent for distillation while the solid contained biomass and other solid is sent for bio-composting.
  • 8. Fed-batch Fermentation Continuous Batch 1) Alcon and Tate & Lyle 2) Melle Bionet 3) Semi-continuous 4) Biostil 5) Cascade 6) Encillium
  • 9. Batch fermentation o All necessary medium components and the inoculum are added at the beginning. o The products of fermentation, whether intracellular or extracellular, are harvested only at the end of the run. o The concentration of medium components are not controlled during the process. o As the living cells consume nutrients and yield product(s), their concentrations in the medium vary along the process. o The affecting factors, such as pH and temperature, are normally kept constant during the process. o The optimum concentration of raw materials can be decided only according to the initial concentration.
  • 10. Continuous fermentation • One or more feed streams containing the necessary nutrients are fed continuously. • The output stream containing the cells, products and residues is continuously withdrawn. • A steady state is established for the process. • The culture volume is kept continuous by maintaining an equal volumetric flow rate of feed and output. • Need for cleaning is minimized as a continuous culture concentration is maintained in the fermenter. • Continuous fermentation systems require good quality of molasses and are susceptible to contamination.
  • 11. Fed-batch fermentation  Nutrient or raw material is fed intermittently.  After the first filling, the inoculum is added.  After a small retention time, filling is continued.  Fermentation starts right after the first filling and continues along the process.  At the end of the process, fermenter is emptied and the product is obtained.  It is currently the most popular mode of fermentation amongst the distilleries in India.
  • 12. Distillation 1. Analyzer Column 2. Degasifying Column 3. Pre Rectification cum stripper column 4. Extractive distillation column 5. Recovery Column 6. Rectifier cum Exhaust Column 7. Simmering Column 8. MSDH column
  • 13. Analyzer Column •In this column preheated fermented wash is stripped off from all volatile components, including ethyl alcohol. •From bottom, spent wash is drained and sent to ETP. •This column generally has a degasser section on the top, which removes all dissolved gases in the fermented wash. •This column is generally operated under vacuum to eliminate the chance of scaling and reduce energy requirement. •The vapors (45% to 55% ethanol vapors) of this column are condensed and fed to prerectifier column. Wash Spent wash Alcohol – water vapour
  • 14. Pre-rectifier Column •In this column the heavier alcohols (fusel oil) are separated and collected from top middle draw. •It is operated under vacuum. •The main product is drawn off from the top side of the column. •Bottom product of the column is called spent lees. Feed Vapour FO Spent lees
  • 15. Rectifier Column •This column operates under elevated pressure. •Rectified spirit, the first alcoholic product, is drawn from this column. •The bottom product, spent lees, is used in the process of fermentation. •Fusel oil and technical alcohol are also drawn from this column. Feed Vapour FO Spent lees RS
  • 16. Extractive Distillation Column •In this column DM water is used as an extractant to dilute the rectified spirit. •Water is added to change the relative volatility of the undesirable components to obtain a product clear of smell. •Water is added in the ratio of 1:9. •It is operated at atmospheric pressure. •Bottom product is fed to the simmering column for further concentration. RS Water Dilute alcohol Vapour
  • 17. Simmering Column •This column is operated under high reflux and vaccum •Methanol, diacetyl and mercaptans are separated from the top of the column. •The final product, i.e., extraneutral alcohol (ENA) is obtained as bottom product. Feed Vapour ENA
  • 18. Recovery Column •Fusel oils along with the condensates of analyzer and ED column are fed to this column for concentration. •A technical alcohol is taken out from the top of the column. •Fusel oils are drawn off from upper trays •Bottom lees is drained off. •It is operated at atmospheric pressure. Feed FO TA Spent lees
  • 19. Molecular Sieve Dehydration System • Molecular sieve technology works on the principle of pressure swing adsorption. • Molecular Sieve is nothing but synthetic Zeolites typically 3 Angstrom Zeolites. This material has strong affinity for water. •They adsorb water in cold condition and desorbs water when heated. This principle is used to dehydrate ethanol. •The crystalline structure of zeolites is complex and gives this material the ability to adsorb or reject material based on molecular sizes. •The molecular sieve adsorbents developed for vapour phase, Ethanol dehydration are metal alumino-silicate with effective pores size opening of 3 Angstrom. •During dehydration of ethanol, the water of hydrolysis fills the cavities or pores in the molecular sieve. The potassium form of molecular sieve has pore size of 3 Angstrom, the critical diameter of water molecules is 3.2A and Ethanol is 4.4 A.
  • 20. Contd… • In vapor phase, the gaseous water molecules are strong dipoles. They are drawn in to the pores and condense at the wall of pores, while ethanol being bigger in size passes through the bed without getting in to pores of molecular sieve. • The life of molecular sieve is 5 to 7 years. • RS is fed to the column for concentration and heating. • The superheated vapour is fed to one of the sieve columns for adsorption of moisture. • When the first sieve column gets saturated, the second is under operation. • The first sieve column is cleared of the accumulated moisture by vacuum. • Ethanol (99. 6 %) is obtained from the sieve column and is cooled.
  • 21. Molasses from sugar section Molasses pit Molasses Bulk Storage Molasses day tank Process water wort Laboratory yeast culture Yeast vessel series Pre-fermentors Air sparging system Fermentors Fermented wash tank CO2 Scrubber Yeast sludge CO2 Fermented wash Sludge settling tank To distillation section Recycled or sent to poultry feed/bio- compost Compressed/solidified for sale or released into the atmosphere Air
  • 22. Fermented wash Analyser Spent wash Pre-rectifier Fusel oil Aldehyde column Extractive distillationcolumn Soft water Rectifier Spent lees Steam through re-boiler Fusel oil column Impure spirit vapours* Simmeringcolumn Vapours Rectified spirit vapours Extra neutral alcohol vapours Vapours Steam through re-boiler Soft water Vapours Spent lees Steam through re-boiler Spent lees Impure spirit vapours* Condensers Impure spirit Rectified spirit Extra neutral alcohol Impure spirit tank ENA receivers RS receivers Rectified spirit re-drawn To Ethanol section Fusel oil tank To evaporator section Fusel oil
  • 23. Rectified spirit Weak spirit Evaporator column Steam through re-boiler RegenerationDrum Super-heater Vacuum pump Molecular Sieve bed 1 Molecular Sieve bed 2 Condenser Rectified spirit vapours Steam through re-boiler Ethanol vapour Super-heated vapours Condenser Ethanol Ethanol receivers