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Television History
Television History
Television History
MMeecchhaanniiccaall aanndd 
EElleeccttrroonniicc 
In the early days of 
television there were 
two experimental 
paths: Mechanical and 
Electronic. 
Inventors were either 
experimenting with 
mechanical disks or 
cathode ray tubes. 
4
5 
KKeeyy FFiigguurreess//EEvveennttss:: 
Mechanical Scanning 
Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 
Charles Jenkins, Radiovision: 
1923; 1925 
First TV Station, 1928 
John Logie Baird, British,1925 
Electronic Scanning 
Philo T Farnsworth, 1922 
Allen Dumont CRT, 1930s 
RCA and David Sarnoff, 1932 
German Olympics, 1936 
New York World's Fair, 1939 John Logie Baird
MMeecchhaanniiccaall SSccaannnniinngg 
The beginnings of mechanical television can be traced to the invention 
of a scanning disk patented by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1884 
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 
The device consisted of a disc with a spiral of holes. 
As the disc spins, the eye of the viewer blurs the 
points together to re-create a full picture. 
Paul Nipkow and his Mechanical Scanning Device7
Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 
Although it’s not known if he ever built the device, 
the idea became the basis for many early television 
systems. 
8
Charles 
Jenkins 
Both Charles Jenkins and John Logie Baird 
demonstrated the mechanical transmission of 
images over wire circuits
CChhaarrlleess JJeennkkiinnss MMeecchhaanniiccaall SSccaannnniinngg 
Charles Francis Jenkins claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving 
images in 1923 using what he called Radiovision. In 1925 he publicly 
demonstrated synchronized transmission of pictures and sound.
First Television SSttaattiioonn:: JJeennkkiinn’’ss WW33XXKK 11992288
Television History
Ad for Jenkin’s 
Radiovisor and 
Television Receiver 
kits. 
Equipment based on 
Nipkow’s mechanical 
disc principle.
John Logie Baird – Mechanical Scanning 
John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor, first transmissions of simple face 
shapes in 1924 using mechanical television. March 25, 1925, Baird 
demonstrated "television" at London department store Selfridges. 
Only silhouettes were visible.
Group gathered to watch the first broadcast.
John Logie Baird wwiitthh hhiiss TTeelleevviissoorr 11992255
The Baird tin box televisor, 1930.
From 1929 to 1935, the BBC used Baird’s 
system until it was replaced by electronic 
systems. 
Although mechanical scanning was not the 
winning system, Baird continued to make 
developments in the field demonstrating 
colour television in 1939 using a cathode ray 
tube.
Philo T Farnsworth 
EElleeccttrroonniicc SSccaannnniinngg
Electronic Scanning 
Philo Farnsworth, 
20 
1927 
Television was first 
successfully demonstrated 
in San Francisco in 1927 by 
Philo Farnsworth, a 21- 
year-old inventor using 
Allen Dumont's cathode 
ray tube
PPhhiilloo TT FFaarrnnsswwoorrtthh 
As a young boy, living on a farm, Philo 
came up with the idea of electronically 
scanning images for transmission. He 
shared the idea with his high school 
teacher at Rigby High. 
Farnsworth’s conceptual sketch, 1922. 
Rigby High School, Rigby, Idaho Philo T. Farnsworth Archives.
Farnsworth moved to California to work 
on an electronic television system and in 
1927 his "Image Dissector" transmitted 
the first electronic television image to a 
screen. 
He spent years arguing over patent rights 
with David Sarnoff and engineer Vladimir 
Zworykin of RCA but In 1934 the U.S. 
Patent Office sided with him. In 1939 
Farnsworth sold his patents to RCA.
San Francisco, California
Long Distance TV Transmission 
Audio: “Today we have, in a sense, the 
transmission of sight for the first time in the 
world’s history,” Hoover said. “Human genius 
has now destroyed the impediment of distance 
in a new respect, and in a manner hitherto 
unknown.” 
Transmission of image and audio of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce
1927 AT&T introduced 
long distance TV with an 
image of Herbert Hoover, 
US Secretary of Commerce 
Image was sent from 
Washington to New York 
25
Electronic Scanning: Iconoscope 
In 1928 RCA and Westinghouse merged 
research operations and invented the 
iconoscope electronic scanning tube: 
The first practical video camera tube used in 
early TV cameras. 
26 
Electrical engineer 
Vladimir Zworykin holding 
his iconoscope television 
camera tube
27 
Electronic Scanning: 
NBC: Felix the Cat 
The first transmission on NBC 
was a cartoon drawing (60 line) 
of Felix the Cat 
Felix the Cat first NBC transmission
Everyday Science and 
Mechanics 1932 
On the Cathode Ray Tube 
“Television receivers of tomorrow 
will employ this newest scanning 
device, which “paints” the image on 
a fluorescent screen with a beam of 
electrons moving at incredible 
speed.”
Electronic Scanning 
RCA and David Sarnoff, 
1932 
David Sarnoff, president of 
RCA, decided to invest more 
in the new medium that he 
called "television” 
1930 resolution was 60 lines 
29
Television Camera Used During 1936 German Olympics 30
31 
Television introduced to world at New York World’s Fair 1939
W2XBS NBC, 1939 
Experimental NBC station, 
W2XBS aired first televised 
major league baseball game 
Aug 26, 1939 
Only 400 sets could receive 
signal 
Commercial operations 
withheld until standards 
developed. The FCC allowed 
full commercial telecasting to 
begin on July 1, 1941 
32 
Ist Broadcast 
Major League Baseball Game, 1939
Ad for the first televised Major League Baseball Game
Photo -Museum of City of New York 
Camera broadcasting the game between the Cincinnati Reds and Brooklyn Dodgers, 1939
First commercial was for Bulova watches and ran during a baseball game in 1941
36 
Historical Perspective: 1940s 
After the FCC Regulation’s in 1941, the 
television stations broadcast for only a few 
hours in the evening 
Basically they recreated radio shows, news, 
and sports. 
6 months after commercial broadcasting 
began, the US entered World War II and 
production of television equipment stopped 
and most TV stations were shut down. 
Only a few experimental stations stayed on 
the air during the war with only a few hours of 
broadcasting. 
In 1946 after the war the three networks-CBS, 
NBC, ABC began serious broadcasting.
Historical Perspective 
1950s 
37 
"Golden Age" 
Network service in 1948 
was to midwest and east 
coast and then to west 
coast in 1951 
Dominance of Medium 
Comedies, Game Show 
Scandals and Blacklisting 
Radio and Movies were 
threatened by TV 
Advertisers sponsored 
programs and controlled 
how their ads were 
inserted 
"Golden Age"
50s Family Values 
The I Love Lucy Show mirrored the stereotypical view of women in the 50s. 
In the show Ricky was the breadwinner, and Lucy the housewife. 
In real life Lucille Ball was a full partner in the writing and production.
I Love Lucy was the first scripted television program to be shot on 
35 mm film in front of a live studio audience. The show changed TV 
forever when they began videotaping bringing a world of re-runs!
Philip Morris and I Love Lucy 
Advertisers sponsored 
programs and controlled 
how their ads were 
inserted. 
Smoking was normal
11995500ss 
HHeeyy KKiiddss,, WWhhaatt TTiimmee iiss 
iitt?? 
HHoowwddyy DDooooddyy TTiimmee 
Between 1947-1960 Howdy Doody 
Time ruled on NBC for kids running 
5 days a week. 
A 1955 catalogue had 24 pages of 
products licensed by the show 
including the puppet, toys and 
clothing, plus tie-ins with cereals 
and other food products.
News was sponsored! 
John Cameron Swayze 
Camel News Caravan 
Swayze's contract required that a 
cigarette always be burning on 
camera, whether Swayze was 
42 
1950s 
1950s 
News was sponsored! 
John Cameron Swayze 
anchored 15 minute 
anchored 15 minute 
Camel News Caravan 
Swayze's contract required that a 
cigarette always be burning on 
camera, whether Swayze was 
smoking it or not 
smoking it or not
The era of HUAC: The House 
Committee on Un-American 
Activities and Hollywood 
Blacklisting
Joseph McCarthy HUAC 
44 
Edward R Murrow 
1950s: The Newsman vs. the Commie Hunter
45 
1950s 
Edward R Murrow, News 
Anchor 
Murrow’s show See it Now 
focused on controversial issues. 
He took on Senator Joseph 
McCarthy leading to a public 
backlash against McCarthy 
resulting in the senator’s 
censure. 
Lobby of CBS building has plaque 
"He set standards of excellence that 
remain unsurpassed." 
25-year career,+ 5000 broadcasts; 
invented the traditions of television 
news. 
Edward R Murrow
In the 1950s there were over 22 Game Shows on the Air 
46
1950s Game Shows Scandals 
Twenty One a Quiz show based 
on the blackjack made a pop 
phenomenon of professor 
47 
Charles Van Doren. 
Charles Van Doren
48 
Twenty One and Game Show Scandals 
The trouble was that the game show had made the handsome Van Doren a 
winner. In 1958 disgruntled former contestants reported that the games were 
rigged and contestants coached. Winners had been supplied answers in advance 
and the high-drama match-ups were choreographed. 
Congressional hearings followed but there had been no laws; laws were created 
to prohibit fixing games. Networks and sponsors acknowledged the public's 
distaste and kept game shows off the air for a period of time. The quiz show 
scandals made the networks forever leery of "single sponsorship."
49 
1950s Game Shows 
Queen For A Day 
How weird could this be? 
Hosted by Jack Bailey from 
1956-1962 on NBC, 
Queen For a Day saw poor 
bedraggled women telling 
their tales of woe. 
The winner - the most 
pathetic - got prizes. Just what 
some woman who had lost 
everything needed- a 
refrigerator.
50 
1960s 
90% of North Americans had television 
Defining moments captured on TV: 
Kennedy Nixon Debate 
Martin Luther King –I have a Dream 
Assassination of JFK 
Oswald shot by Jack Ruby 
The Beatles on Ed Sullivan 
Colour Television 
Counter Culture- Smothers Brothers 
Vietnam war on the living room TV 
US lands on Moon 
Cable and Video Introduced 
Violence and Inanity Criticized 
News Coverage Praised 
Satellites Employed
1960s Changing Politics 
1960 in Kennedy –Nixon Debate 
51 
First televised debate 
Those listening on radio preferred Nixon, 
but those watching on television 
preferred the young attractive Kennedy 
compared to the sweaty, pale looking 
Nixon. 
Recognition of the Importance of TV and 
“image”
52 
Rod Serling always smoking 1960s Science Fiction on Television
53 
1960s Comedy 
Laugh in 
"One ringy-dingy..."Sock it to me!" two ringy-dingies..." 
Popular Culture 
Memes 
“You bet your sweet 
bippy!” 
"Here come de judge!"
1964 Political Ad Controversy 
Lyndon Johnson runs Daisy ad in 
1964 striking fears in minds of voters. 
A little girl picks the petals of a daisy 
counting each petal. When she 
reaches "nine", a male voice counts 
down a missile launch. On reaching 
zero blackness is by replaced by a 
nuclear mushroom explosion. 
followed by the words, 
"These are the stakes. To make a 
world in which all of God's children 
can live, or to go into the dark. We 
must either love each other, or we 
must die” Vote Lyndon Johnson on 
November 3rd. 
The ad ran once during a Monday 
Night Movie. 
54 
Johnson won with a landslide.
55 
Late 1960s 
Smothers Brothers 
By the late 60’s political 
comment was being 
suppressed and caused 
cancellations of shows 
like Smothers Brothers 
which targeted racism, 
Vietnam war and Nixon.
56 
1970s 
Colour TV outselling Black & White 
FCC becomes more Aggressive 
Spin-Offs shows are Popular 
Decline of the Western and Soap Opera Boom 
War and protest still televised 
1970 brought Sesame Street and the Kent State Massacre 
TV content criticism continues 
More Government regulations 
Cigarette commercials were banned 
A "Family Hour" established before 9 pm- it was repealed 
1977 videotaped movies appear for home viewing 
Personal video taping Beta vs VHS 
Satellite and Cable
57 
1980s 
VCR allowed viewers to manage, organize 
and control the programs available to them. 
Remote controls- Zipping and Zapping 
"independent” TV and cable TV captured 
40% of market 
Sitcoms: The Cosby Show, Cheers, Family 
Ties, Roseanne, Alf, Married with Children 
The infomercial became a popular ad 
medium 
Energizer Bunny, 1984 Apple Ad, Where’s 
the Beef Wendy’s ad, California Raisins 
Claymation AD 
TV ads for political campaigns 
24 Hour Cable News
58 
1980s --- CABLE! 
CNN 24-hour cable news founded 
1980 
80s cost cutting in networks led to 
fewer journalists allowing Ted Turner's 
Cable News Network CCN to become 
a prominent source for worldwide 
news 
1985 Rupert Murdock bought half of 
20th Century Fox and two years later 
started Fox
Popular 1990 Shows
60 
1990s 
Video REVOLUTION 
Citizen Journalism 
March 3 1991 
Rodney King Beating 
Captured on Tape 
Average citizen, George 
Holliday has captured 
the news and 
influenced events 
Rodney King George Holliday
1990s Video REVOLUTION 
Citizen Journalism 
61 
March 3 1991 
Rodney King Beating 
Captured on Tape 
After the Trial - LA RIOTS
1990s/2000s 
CABLE REVOLUTION 
War is Sanitized 
CNN brought the first Gulf War 
(1990-1991) live to the living 
rooms the world over. 
During the Gulf War (Desert 
Storm) Allied headquarters 
released videogame-like 
pictures of "smart bombs" 
destroying military installations 
Sometimes broadcasts showed 
reporters live in their gas masks 
during a suspected chemical 
weapons attack (there were 
none) Arthur Kent became 
known as the Stud Scud 
SMART BOMBS? 
NO BLOOD shown 
Peter Arnett of CNN 
The Stud Scud - Arthur Kent 
The CNN effect” 
It's usually thought of as the effect that continuous 
and instantaneous television may have on foreign 
policy
1990s/2000s 
CABLE REVOLUTION 
CNN Gulf War live to the living 
rooms the world over. 
videogame-like pictures of "smart 
bombs” 
“The CNN effect” 
SSMMAARRTT BBOOMMBBSS?? 
NNOO BBLLOOOODD sshhoowwnn
World news events changed the way 
stories were covered- 2000 US election 
and Sept 11,2001 
Reporters concerned with scooping others 
and reported events prematurely-networks 
depended on exit polls and all 
called Gore the winner, then the 
recanting began and called for Bush, 
then declared indecision weeks of 
confusion followed. 
After 9/11 people were afraid to criticize 
government 
22000000ss
22000044 
Janet Jackson's "wardrobe 
malfunction" during the 2004 
Superbowl led to the incident being 
used as a wedge to try to enact 
further speech restrictions by 
congress and FCC creating a "chilling 
effect" on what the media was 
allowed to show 
Conservative backlash
With 24- hour news networks, 
sensationalism reigns. 
The sky is falling! Again and again.
Popular Shows in the 2000s- Rise of Cable Network Drama Series and Reality
Change: Multiple Screens-It’s not just cable and satellite anymore
Is it the ? 
69 
22001100ss aanndd bbeeyyoonndd 
WWhheerree iiss tthhee eemmpphhaassiiss?? 
WWhhaatt iiss nneewwss?? IInnffoottaaiinnmmeenntt?? 
IIss tthheerree aa ffuuttuurree ffoorr tteelleevviissiioonn aass wwee kknnooww iitt?? 
Image Source: Business Insider

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Television History

  • 4. MMeecchhaanniiccaall aanndd EElleeccttrroonniicc In the early days of television there were two experimental paths: Mechanical and Electronic. Inventors were either experimenting with mechanical disks or cathode ray tubes. 4
  • 5. 5 KKeeyy FFiigguurreess//EEvveennttss:: Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 Charles Jenkins, Radiovision: 1923; 1925 First TV Station, 1928 John Logie Baird, British,1925 Electronic Scanning Philo T Farnsworth, 1922 Allen Dumont CRT, 1930s RCA and David Sarnoff, 1932 German Olympics, 1936 New York World's Fair, 1939 John Logie Baird
  • 6. MMeecchhaanniiccaall SSccaannnniinngg The beginnings of mechanical television can be traced to the invention of a scanning disk patented by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1884 Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
  • 7. Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 The device consisted of a disc with a spiral of holes. As the disc spins, the eye of the viewer blurs the points together to re-create a full picture. Paul Nipkow and his Mechanical Scanning Device7
  • 8. Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 Although it’s not known if he ever built the device, the idea became the basis for many early television systems. 8
  • 9. Charles Jenkins Both Charles Jenkins and John Logie Baird demonstrated the mechanical transmission of images over wire circuits
  • 10. CChhaarrlleess JJeennkkiinnss MMeecchhaanniiccaall SSccaannnniinngg Charles Francis Jenkins claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving images in 1923 using what he called Radiovision. In 1925 he publicly demonstrated synchronized transmission of pictures and sound.
  • 11. First Television SSttaattiioonn:: JJeennkkiinn’’ss WW33XXKK 11992288
  • 13. Ad for Jenkin’s Radiovisor and Television Receiver kits. Equipment based on Nipkow’s mechanical disc principle.
  • 14. John Logie Baird – Mechanical Scanning John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor, first transmissions of simple face shapes in 1924 using mechanical television. March 25, 1925, Baird demonstrated "television" at London department store Selfridges. Only silhouettes were visible.
  • 15. Group gathered to watch the first broadcast.
  • 16. John Logie Baird wwiitthh hhiiss TTeelleevviissoorr 11992255
  • 17. The Baird tin box televisor, 1930.
  • 18. From 1929 to 1935, the BBC used Baird’s system until it was replaced by electronic systems. Although mechanical scanning was not the winning system, Baird continued to make developments in the field demonstrating colour television in 1939 using a cathode ray tube.
  • 19. Philo T Farnsworth EElleeccttrroonniicc SSccaannnniinngg
  • 20. Electronic Scanning Philo Farnsworth, 20 1927 Television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco in 1927 by Philo Farnsworth, a 21- year-old inventor using Allen Dumont's cathode ray tube
  • 21. PPhhiilloo TT FFaarrnnsswwoorrtthh As a young boy, living on a farm, Philo came up with the idea of electronically scanning images for transmission. He shared the idea with his high school teacher at Rigby High. Farnsworth’s conceptual sketch, 1922. Rigby High School, Rigby, Idaho Philo T. Farnsworth Archives.
  • 22. Farnsworth moved to California to work on an electronic television system and in 1927 his "Image Dissector" transmitted the first electronic television image to a screen. He spent years arguing over patent rights with David Sarnoff and engineer Vladimir Zworykin of RCA but In 1934 the U.S. Patent Office sided with him. In 1939 Farnsworth sold his patents to RCA.
  • 24. Long Distance TV Transmission Audio: “Today we have, in a sense, the transmission of sight for the first time in the world’s history,” Hoover said. “Human genius has now destroyed the impediment of distance in a new respect, and in a manner hitherto unknown.” Transmission of image and audio of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce
  • 25. 1927 AT&T introduced long distance TV with an image of Herbert Hoover, US Secretary of Commerce Image was sent from Washington to New York 25
  • 26. Electronic Scanning: Iconoscope In 1928 RCA and Westinghouse merged research operations and invented the iconoscope electronic scanning tube: The first practical video camera tube used in early TV cameras. 26 Electrical engineer Vladimir Zworykin holding his iconoscope television camera tube
  • 27. 27 Electronic Scanning: NBC: Felix the Cat The first transmission on NBC was a cartoon drawing (60 line) of Felix the Cat Felix the Cat first NBC transmission
  • 28. Everyday Science and Mechanics 1932 On the Cathode Ray Tube “Television receivers of tomorrow will employ this newest scanning device, which “paints” the image on a fluorescent screen with a beam of electrons moving at incredible speed.”
  • 29. Electronic Scanning RCA and David Sarnoff, 1932 David Sarnoff, president of RCA, decided to invest more in the new medium that he called "television” 1930 resolution was 60 lines 29
  • 30. Television Camera Used During 1936 German Olympics 30
  • 31. 31 Television introduced to world at New York World’s Fair 1939
  • 32. W2XBS NBC, 1939 Experimental NBC station, W2XBS aired first televised major league baseball game Aug 26, 1939 Only 400 sets could receive signal Commercial operations withheld until standards developed. The FCC allowed full commercial telecasting to begin on July 1, 1941 32 Ist Broadcast Major League Baseball Game, 1939
  • 33. Ad for the first televised Major League Baseball Game
  • 34. Photo -Museum of City of New York Camera broadcasting the game between the Cincinnati Reds and Brooklyn Dodgers, 1939
  • 35. First commercial was for Bulova watches and ran during a baseball game in 1941
  • 36. 36 Historical Perspective: 1940s After the FCC Regulation’s in 1941, the television stations broadcast for only a few hours in the evening Basically they recreated radio shows, news, and sports. 6 months after commercial broadcasting began, the US entered World War II and production of television equipment stopped and most TV stations were shut down. Only a few experimental stations stayed on the air during the war with only a few hours of broadcasting. In 1946 after the war the three networks-CBS, NBC, ABC began serious broadcasting.
  • 37. Historical Perspective 1950s 37 "Golden Age" Network service in 1948 was to midwest and east coast and then to west coast in 1951 Dominance of Medium Comedies, Game Show Scandals and Blacklisting Radio and Movies were threatened by TV Advertisers sponsored programs and controlled how their ads were inserted "Golden Age"
  • 38. 50s Family Values The I Love Lucy Show mirrored the stereotypical view of women in the 50s. In the show Ricky was the breadwinner, and Lucy the housewife. In real life Lucille Ball was a full partner in the writing and production.
  • 39. I Love Lucy was the first scripted television program to be shot on 35 mm film in front of a live studio audience. The show changed TV forever when they began videotaping bringing a world of re-runs!
  • 40. Philip Morris and I Love Lucy Advertisers sponsored programs and controlled how their ads were inserted. Smoking was normal
  • 41. 11995500ss HHeeyy KKiiddss,, WWhhaatt TTiimmee iiss iitt?? HHoowwddyy DDooooddyy TTiimmee Between 1947-1960 Howdy Doody Time ruled on NBC for kids running 5 days a week. A 1955 catalogue had 24 pages of products licensed by the show including the puppet, toys and clothing, plus tie-ins with cereals and other food products.
  • 42. News was sponsored! John Cameron Swayze Camel News Caravan Swayze's contract required that a cigarette always be burning on camera, whether Swayze was 42 1950s 1950s News was sponsored! John Cameron Swayze anchored 15 minute anchored 15 minute Camel News Caravan Swayze's contract required that a cigarette always be burning on camera, whether Swayze was smoking it or not smoking it or not
  • 43. The era of HUAC: The House Committee on Un-American Activities and Hollywood Blacklisting
  • 44. Joseph McCarthy HUAC 44 Edward R Murrow 1950s: The Newsman vs. the Commie Hunter
  • 45. 45 1950s Edward R Murrow, News Anchor Murrow’s show See it Now focused on controversial issues. He took on Senator Joseph McCarthy leading to a public backlash against McCarthy resulting in the senator’s censure. Lobby of CBS building has plaque "He set standards of excellence that remain unsurpassed." 25-year career,+ 5000 broadcasts; invented the traditions of television news. Edward R Murrow
  • 46. In the 1950s there were over 22 Game Shows on the Air 46
  • 47. 1950s Game Shows Scandals Twenty One a Quiz show based on the blackjack made a pop phenomenon of professor 47 Charles Van Doren. Charles Van Doren
  • 48. 48 Twenty One and Game Show Scandals The trouble was that the game show had made the handsome Van Doren a winner. In 1958 disgruntled former contestants reported that the games were rigged and contestants coached. Winners had been supplied answers in advance and the high-drama match-ups were choreographed. Congressional hearings followed but there had been no laws; laws were created to prohibit fixing games. Networks and sponsors acknowledged the public's distaste and kept game shows off the air for a period of time. The quiz show scandals made the networks forever leery of "single sponsorship."
  • 49. 49 1950s Game Shows Queen For A Day How weird could this be? Hosted by Jack Bailey from 1956-1962 on NBC, Queen For a Day saw poor bedraggled women telling their tales of woe. The winner - the most pathetic - got prizes. Just what some woman who had lost everything needed- a refrigerator.
  • 50. 50 1960s 90% of North Americans had television Defining moments captured on TV: Kennedy Nixon Debate Martin Luther King –I have a Dream Assassination of JFK Oswald shot by Jack Ruby The Beatles on Ed Sullivan Colour Television Counter Culture- Smothers Brothers Vietnam war on the living room TV US lands on Moon Cable and Video Introduced Violence and Inanity Criticized News Coverage Praised Satellites Employed
  • 51. 1960s Changing Politics 1960 in Kennedy –Nixon Debate 51 First televised debate Those listening on radio preferred Nixon, but those watching on television preferred the young attractive Kennedy compared to the sweaty, pale looking Nixon. Recognition of the Importance of TV and “image”
  • 52. 52 Rod Serling always smoking 1960s Science Fiction on Television
  • 53. 53 1960s Comedy Laugh in "One ringy-dingy..."Sock it to me!" two ringy-dingies..." Popular Culture Memes “You bet your sweet bippy!” "Here come de judge!"
  • 54. 1964 Political Ad Controversy Lyndon Johnson runs Daisy ad in 1964 striking fears in minds of voters. A little girl picks the petals of a daisy counting each petal. When she reaches "nine", a male voice counts down a missile launch. On reaching zero blackness is by replaced by a nuclear mushroom explosion. followed by the words, "These are the stakes. To make a world in which all of God's children can live, or to go into the dark. We must either love each other, or we must die” Vote Lyndon Johnson on November 3rd. The ad ran once during a Monday Night Movie. 54 Johnson won with a landslide.
  • 55. 55 Late 1960s Smothers Brothers By the late 60’s political comment was being suppressed and caused cancellations of shows like Smothers Brothers which targeted racism, Vietnam war and Nixon.
  • 56. 56 1970s Colour TV outselling Black & White FCC becomes more Aggressive Spin-Offs shows are Popular Decline of the Western and Soap Opera Boom War and protest still televised 1970 brought Sesame Street and the Kent State Massacre TV content criticism continues More Government regulations Cigarette commercials were banned A "Family Hour" established before 9 pm- it was repealed 1977 videotaped movies appear for home viewing Personal video taping Beta vs VHS Satellite and Cable
  • 57. 57 1980s VCR allowed viewers to manage, organize and control the programs available to them. Remote controls- Zipping and Zapping "independent” TV and cable TV captured 40% of market Sitcoms: The Cosby Show, Cheers, Family Ties, Roseanne, Alf, Married with Children The infomercial became a popular ad medium Energizer Bunny, 1984 Apple Ad, Where’s the Beef Wendy’s ad, California Raisins Claymation AD TV ads for political campaigns 24 Hour Cable News
  • 58. 58 1980s --- CABLE! CNN 24-hour cable news founded 1980 80s cost cutting in networks led to fewer journalists allowing Ted Turner's Cable News Network CCN to become a prominent source for worldwide news 1985 Rupert Murdock bought half of 20th Century Fox and two years later started Fox
  • 60. 60 1990s Video REVOLUTION Citizen Journalism March 3 1991 Rodney King Beating Captured on Tape Average citizen, George Holliday has captured the news and influenced events Rodney King George Holliday
  • 61. 1990s Video REVOLUTION Citizen Journalism 61 March 3 1991 Rodney King Beating Captured on Tape After the Trial - LA RIOTS
  • 62. 1990s/2000s CABLE REVOLUTION War is Sanitized CNN brought the first Gulf War (1990-1991) live to the living rooms the world over. During the Gulf War (Desert Storm) Allied headquarters released videogame-like pictures of "smart bombs" destroying military installations Sometimes broadcasts showed reporters live in their gas masks during a suspected chemical weapons attack (there were none) Arthur Kent became known as the Stud Scud SMART BOMBS? NO BLOOD shown Peter Arnett of CNN The Stud Scud - Arthur Kent The CNN effect” It's usually thought of as the effect that continuous and instantaneous television may have on foreign policy
  • 63. 1990s/2000s CABLE REVOLUTION CNN Gulf War live to the living rooms the world over. videogame-like pictures of "smart bombs” “The CNN effect” SSMMAARRTT BBOOMMBBSS?? NNOO BBLLOOOODD sshhoowwnn
  • 64. World news events changed the way stories were covered- 2000 US election and Sept 11,2001 Reporters concerned with scooping others and reported events prematurely-networks depended on exit polls and all called Gore the winner, then the recanting began and called for Bush, then declared indecision weeks of confusion followed. After 9/11 people were afraid to criticize government 22000000ss
  • 65. 22000044 Janet Jackson's "wardrobe malfunction" during the 2004 Superbowl led to the incident being used as a wedge to try to enact further speech restrictions by congress and FCC creating a "chilling effect" on what the media was allowed to show Conservative backlash
  • 66. With 24- hour news networks, sensationalism reigns. The sky is falling! Again and again.
  • 67. Popular Shows in the 2000s- Rise of Cable Network Drama Series and Reality
  • 68. Change: Multiple Screens-It’s not just cable and satellite anymore
  • 69. Is it the ? 69 22001100ss aanndd bbeeyyoonndd WWhheerree iiss tthhee eemmpphhaassiiss?? WWhhaatt iiss nneewwss?? IInnffoottaaiinnmmeenntt?? IIss tthheerree aa ffuuttuurree ffoorr tteelleevviissiioonn aass wwee kknnooww iitt?? Image Source: Business Insider