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RASHTRASANT TUKDOJI MAHARAJ NAGPUR
UNIVERSITY
MBA
SEMESTER: 4
SPECIALIZATION – HR
TEAM DYNAMICS
MODULE NO 2
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Q1.What is Interpersonal Communication. Give it’s importance.
INTERPERSONAL COMUNICATION
INTRODUCTION
• Interpersonal communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, and feelings between
two or more people through verbal and nonverbal channels. It involves both sending and receiving
messages, and includes factors such as tone of voice, body language, facial expressions, and the context in
which communication takes place.
• Interpersonal communication plays an important role from personal relationships to professional settings.
Effective interpersonal communication involves the ability to convey your message clearly and accurately,
while also listening actively to the messages of others. Good communication skills can help to foster
positive relationships, resolve conflicts, and achieve common goals.
• From an HR perspective, interpersonal communication is a critical skill for employees to possess in order
to succeed in the workplace.
• In a business setting, interpersonal communication can take many forms, including face-to-face
conversations, email and other written communication, phone calls, and virtual meetings. HR professionals
are often responsible for training employees on how to communicate effectively, including how to listen
actively, speak clearly and concisely, and convey ideas in a professional and respectful manner.
IMPORTANCE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
1 Building Relationships: Interpersonal communication is essential for building and maintaining positive
relationships with others, whether it's in personal or professional settings. It helps individuals to understand
each other better, establish trust, and create a sense of rapport.
2 Resolving Conflicts: Effective interpersonal communication is crucial for resolving conflicts and
misunderstandings. It enables individuals to express their feelings and concerns, listen to others, and work
together towards finding a mutually beneficial solution.
3 Management: Interpersonal communication is essential for effective management in organizations. It
enables managers to give feedback, provide guidance and support, manage conflicts, and create a positive
work environment, boosting employee engagement and satisfaction.
4 Improving Productivity: Effective interpersonal communication can help to improve productivity and
efficiency in the workplace by minimizing misunderstandings, reducing conflicts, and promoting teamwork.
It allows employees to work together more effectively, leading to better outcomes and results.
5 Sharing Information: Interpersonal communication allows individuals to share information and ideas with
others, which can be important for achieving common goals and making informed decisions. It can also help
to improve the flow of information within an organization or team.
Q2.What is Transactional Analysis. Explain it’s components.
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS [TA]
• TA was given by Eric Berne in 1950.
• Objective of TA: Help pep[le in understanding how to communicate with others so that their
relationship with others can be improved.
• TA analyses one’s own behaviour as well as behaviour of others.
• It guides people how to develop themselves and interact with others.
DEFINITION
• Eric Berne – “ TA is a theory of personality & social action, & a clinical method of psychotherapy, based
on the analysis of all possible transactions between 2 or more people, on the basis of specifically
defined ego states into a finite number of established types.
• Transactional Analysis is a psychological approach that analyses and improves communication and
relationships by understanding ego states.
NATURE
 Integrated concept
 Problem focused & goal focused
 Understanding self & other’s behaviour
COMPONENTS OF TA
1 EGO STATES
• Ego states are different parts of our personality that we access in different situations.
• There are three ego states in Transactional Analysis: Parent, Adult, and Child.
• Parent ego (Exteropsyche) state represents the attitudes and behaviours that we learned from our own
parents or authority figures.The Child ego (Archaeopsyche) state represents our emotional and
instinctual reactions, based on our childhood experiences.The Adult ego (Neopsyche) state represents
our rational and objective thinking.
• Ego states can influence our communication and interactions with others.
• Understanding our own ego states and recognizing them in others can help us communicate more
effectively and build better relationships.
• By being aware of which ego state we're in, we can choose to respond in a way that's appropriate and
productive for the situation.
3 COMPONENTS
OF
TRANSACTIONAL
ANALYSIS
2 TRANSACTION TYPES
1 Complementary Transactions:These are transactions where the ego states of the individuals match,
leading to smooth and productive communication.There are nine types of complementary transactions:
A) Adult-Adult, B) Adult-Parent, C) Adult-Child, D) Parent-Parent, E) Parent-Adult, F) Parent-Child, G) Child-
Parent, H) Child-Adult, and I) Child-Child.
2 Non-Complementary Transactions:These are transactions where the ego states of the individuals don't
match, leading to confusion or miscommunication.
3 Ulterior Transactions:These are transactions where the underlying intention or message is different from
the apparent message. For example, if someone says "I don't mind" but their tone of voice suggests they
actually do mind.
4 Gallows Transactions:These are transactions where the individuals involved are stuck in a negative pattern
of communication that feels like a lose-lose situation. For example, if two people keep arguing about the same
thing without making any progress.
COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION TYPES
A) Adult-Adult:This transaction occurs when two individuals communicate from their Adult ego states, using
rational and objective language.
B) Adult-Parent:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Adult ego state and the
other person responds from their Parent ego state, using attitudes and behaviors learned from authority
figures.
C) Adult-Child:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Adult ego state and the
other person responds from their Child ego state, using emotional and instinctual reactions.
D) Parent-Parent:This transaction occurs when two individuals communicate from their Parent ego states,
using attitudes and behaviors learned from authority figures.
E) Parent-Adult:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Parent ego state and the
other person responds from their Adult ego state, using rational and objective language.
F) Parent-Child:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Parent ego state and the
other person responds from their Child ego state, using attitudes and behaviors learned from authority figures
and emotional and instinctual reactions.
G) Child-Parent:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Child ego state and the
other person responds from their Parent ego state, using emotional and instinctual reactions and attitudes and
behaviors learned from authority figures.
H) Child-Adult:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Child ego state and the
other person responds from their Adult ego state, using emotional and instinctual reactions and rational and
objective language.
I) Child-Child:This transaction occurs when two individuals communicate from their Child ego states, using
emotional and instinctual reactions.
3 ANALYSIS OF LIFE POSITIONS
Life Positions refer to the individual's basic assumptions about themselves, others, and the world.There
are four life positions that an individual can take:
 I'm OK,You're OK:This position assumes that the individual and others are equally valuable and
capable, and that positive interactions and cooperation are possible.
 I'm OK,You're Not OK:This position assumes that the individual is capable and worthy, while others
are not, leading to feelings of superiority, isolation, or mistrust.
 I'm Not OK,You're OK:This position assumes that the individual is not capable or worthy, while
others are, leading to feelings of inadequacy, dependency, or resignation.
 I'm Not OK,You're Not OK:This position assumes that no one is capable or worthy, leading to
feelings of hopelessness, despair, or hostility.
Understanding life positions can help individuals recognize their default assumptions and attitudes, and
work towards more positive and productive interactions with others.
Q3. Explain in detail about FIRO-B.
CONCEPT OF FIRO-B
• FIRO-B stands for Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation - Behaviour. It is a personality
assessment tool that measures an individual's interpersonal needs and preferences in three areas:
inclusion, control, and affection.
• FIRO-B was developed by psychologist Will Schutz and is based on his theory that individuals have innate
needs for inclusion (belonging and being part of a group), control (having influence over others or being
influenced by others), and affection (giving and receiving emotional support and warmth).Will Schutz, the
creator of FIRO-B, was heavily influenced by the work of several prominent psychologists, including Alfred
Adler, Sigmund Freud, and Carl Jung.
• The assessment is used to help individuals better understand their own needs and preferences in
interpersonal relationships, as well as to improve communication and relationships with others. It is
commonly used in personal development, leadership training, team building, and organizational
development.
• Expressed behaviour in FIRO-B refers to the behaviour that others observe in a person's attempt to fulfil
their needs for inclusion, control, and affection.
• Wanted behaviour refers to the unconscious desires and expectations of a person regarding how others
should behave towards them in order to satisfy their interpersonal needs.
In FIRO-B, inclusion, control, and affection are the three fundamental interpersonal needs that individuals seek
to fulfil in their relationships with others.
Inclusion: the need to belong and be part of a group. People with high inclusion needs seek social
interaction, acceptance, and recognition from others.
Control: the need to have influence over others or be influenced by them. People with high control needs
seek to take charge and direct the actions of others or to be guided and directed by others.
Affection: the need to give and receive emotional support and warmth. People with high affection needs seek
to form close and intimate relationships with others, based on mutual care, trust, and understanding.
Understanding these needs and how they influence behaviour can help individuals to communicate more
effectively with others and build stronger and more fulfilling relationships.
BENEFITS OF FIRO-B
1 Retention: Helps identify employees' interpersonal needs to create effective retention strategies.
2 Conflict Management: Helps manage conflicts by addressing underlying needs of conflicting
parties.
3 Relationship Building: Helps build stronger relationships by identifying areas of compatibility and
potential areas of conflict.
4 Team Building: Helps create more effective teams by identifying the interpersonal needs of team
members.
5 Leadership Development: Helps leaders understand their own and their team members' needs to
create more effective communication strategies and build stronger, more productive teams.
Q4.What is Johari Window ? Explain its Quadrants.
JOHARIWINDOW
• Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham invented Johari Window
• This model is used to enhance individual’s perception on others.
• The interpersonal relationship along with communication can be improved through the Johari window.
• It says that interpersonal effectiveness is directly concerned with the volume of information which is
shared mutually .
• There are 4 window panes which signify personal information, feelings, motivation & whether that
information is known or unknown to oneself or others.
QUADRANTS OF JOHARIWINDOW
1
OPEN
2
BLIND
3
HIDDEN
4
UNKNOWN
Information
known to self
Information not
known to self
Information
known to others
Information not
known to others
Q5. Define Communication. Explain process of Communication.
COMMUNICATION
• Communication is the process of exchanging or conveying information, ideas, thoughts, feelings, or
messages between individuals, groups, or organizations through various channels such as verbal or non-
verbal means.
• The primary objective of communication is to share information and establish a common understanding
among the participants.
• Effective communication involves the use of clear and concise language, active listening, feedback, and
understanding the needs and perspectives of the audience.
• Communication plays a crucial role in building relationships, fostering teamwork, sharing knowledge,
and achieving common goals in personal and professional settings.
DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
• Newman & Summer – “ Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more persons.”
• Communication is simply the act of exchanging information or ideas between people.
PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
1 Sender:The person who initiates the communication process by forming a message to be sent.
2 Message:The information, idea, or message that the sender wants to convey to the receiver.
3 Encoding:The process of putting the sender's message or information into a format that can be transmitted
through the chosen channel.
4 Channel:The medium or method used to transmit the encoded message, such as face-to-face conversation,
phone call, email, or text message.
5 Receiver: The person or audience who receives and decodes the message sent by the sender.
6 Decoding:The process of interpreting and understanding the message by the receiver.
7 Feedback:The response or reaction of the receiver to the message, which provides the sender with
information about the effectiveness of the communication.
8 Noise: Any interference or barrier that may affect the clarity or accuracy of the message, such as
distractions, language barriers, or technical issues.
Q6.What are communication skills ? Explain Essentials of communication.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
1. Communication skills involve expressing thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively through various
modes of communication.
2. These skills are essential for understanding and being understood in personal and professional
settings.
3. Good communication skills involve listening, speaking, writing, and nonverbal cues.
4. Effective communication skills are crucial for building relationships, teamwork, and leadership.
5. Practicing good communication skills can help individuals become more confident, competent, and
successful in their personal and professional lives.
6. Effective communication can increase understanding, reduce conflicts, and improve productivity.
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION OR 7 Cs OF COMMUNICATION
1.Clarity: The message should be clear and easy to understand.
2.Completeness: The message should be complete and contain all the necessary information.
3.Conciseness: The message should be concise and to the point.
4.Correctness: The message should be accurate and free from errors.
5.Courtesy: The message should be polite and respectful.
6.Consideration: The message should take into account the needs and perspectives of the audience.
7.Concreteness: The message should be specific and tangible, avoiding abstract or vague language.
1 CLARITY
2 COMPLETENESS
3 CONCISENESS
4 CORRECTNESS
5 COURTESY
6 CONSIDERATION
7 CONCRETENESS
Q7.What is negotiation ?What are the types of negotiation ?
NEGOTIATION
• Negotiation is a process of communication between two or more parties to reach a mutually
acceptable agreement.
• It involves discussing and bargaining over issues and interests to find a solution that satisfies
both parties.
• Negotiation can take place in a variety of settings, including business, diplomacy, law, and
personal relationships.
DEFINITION OF NIGOTIATION
 Robert Fisher & William Ury – “ Negotiation is a basic means of getting what you want from
others.”
 Negotiation is a discussion between parties to reach a mutually acceptable agreement by
identifying and addressing each other's interests and needs.
TYPES OF NEGOTIATION
A] Distributive negotiation
It is a type of negotiation in which the parties are trying to divide a fixed amount of resources. In this type
of negotiation, each party tries to maximize their share of the resources, and any gain by one party is
considered a loss by the other party.There are four approaches of distributive negotiation:
1.Zero-sum negotiation:This type of negotiation is based on the assumption that there is a fixed amount
of resources and any gain by one party is considered a loss by the other party.The goal of each party is
to get as much of the resources as possible.
2.Win-lose negotiation:This type of negotiation is characterized by a highly competitive approach in
which one party tries to win at the expense of the other party.The focus is on achieving one's own goals
without regard for the other party's goals.
3.Substance-only negotiation:This type of negotiation focuses solely on the issue at hand and does not
take into account the relationship between the parties.The goal is to reach an agreement on the issue
without regard for the long-term relationship.
4.Unimportant relationship negotiation:This type of negotiation occurs when the relationship between
the parties is not important, and the focus is solely on achieving the desired outcome.The parties may be
willing to use aggressive tactics to achieve their goals since the relationship is not a priority.
B] Integrative negotiation
It is a type of negotiation in which the parties work collaboratively to find a solution that meets their mutual
interests.The focus is on identifying and addressing the underlying interests and needs of the parties rather
than just dividing a fixed amount of resources.There are three approaches of integrative negotiation:
1.Win-win negotiation:This type of negotiation focuses on finding a solution that satisfies both parties'
interests and results in a mutually beneficial outcome.
2.Fair process negotiation:This type of negotiation involves ensuring that the negotiation process is
transparent, open, and fair for both parties.The goal is to create a positive relationship between the parties,
which can lead to a more successful negotiation.
3.Joint problem-solving negotiation:This type of negotiation involves working together to solve a problem
that affects both parties.The parties collaborate to identify the root cause of the problem and work together
to find a solution that meets both parties' needs.
Q8.What are Negotiation skills? Explain Factors affecting negotiation.
Negotiation skills are the abilities and competencies required to negotiate effectively with others. Some
essential negotiation skills are:
1.Analytical skills: Negotiators need to analyze the situation and understand the other party's interests and
needs.They should also be able to evaluate the available options and make informed decisions.
2.Listening skills: Active listening is crucial in negotiation, as it helps negotiators understand the other
party's perspective and identify areas of agreement and disagreement.
3.Emotionally strong: Negotiation can be a stressful and emotional process.Therefore, negotiators need to
be emotionally strong and able to handle conflicts and difficult situations calmly.
4.Problem-solving: Negotiators should be able to identify and solve problems creatively.They should also
be able to generate alternative solutions and evaluate the pros and cons of each option.
5.Decision-making: Negotiators need to make informed decisions quickly based on the information
available.
6.Interpersonal skills: Negotiators should be able to build trust and rapport with the other party.They
should also be able to communicate effectively, express themselves clearly, and be persuasive when needed.
FACTORS AFFECTING NEGOTIATION
1 Personal factors: Personal factors are individual characteristics that affect the negotiation process.These
factors can include a person's personality, values, beliefs, and communication style. Personal factors can
influence how a person approaches negotiation and can affect their negotiation outcomes.
2 Role factors: Role factors refer to the positions and responsibilities of the negotiators. For example,
negotiators representing a company may have different goals and priorities than negotiators representing a
union. Role factors can also include the negotiator's level of authority and the extent to which they can make
decisions.
3 Situational factors: Situational factors refer to the external circumstances surrounding the negotiation,
such as the timing, location, and the availability of resources.The negotiation context can affect the
negotiation outcomes and the strategies that are most effective.
4 Interactional factors: Interactional factors refer to the interpersonal dynamics between the negotiators.
These factors can include the level of trust, the communication style, and the power dynamics between the
negotiators. Interactional factors can impact the quality of the relationship between the negotiators and can
affect the negotiation outcomes.

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Team_Dynamics_Mod_2.pdf

  • 1. RASHTRASANT TUKDOJI MAHARAJ NAGPUR UNIVERSITY MBA SEMESTER: 4 SPECIALIZATION – HR TEAM DYNAMICS MODULE NO 2 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  • 2. Q1.What is Interpersonal Communication. Give it’s importance. INTERPERSONAL COMUNICATION INTRODUCTION • Interpersonal communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, and feelings between two or more people through verbal and nonverbal channels. It involves both sending and receiving messages, and includes factors such as tone of voice, body language, facial expressions, and the context in which communication takes place. • Interpersonal communication plays an important role from personal relationships to professional settings. Effective interpersonal communication involves the ability to convey your message clearly and accurately, while also listening actively to the messages of others. Good communication skills can help to foster positive relationships, resolve conflicts, and achieve common goals. • From an HR perspective, interpersonal communication is a critical skill for employees to possess in order to succeed in the workplace. • In a business setting, interpersonal communication can take many forms, including face-to-face conversations, email and other written communication, phone calls, and virtual meetings. HR professionals are often responsible for training employees on how to communicate effectively, including how to listen actively, speak clearly and concisely, and convey ideas in a professional and respectful manner.
  • 3. IMPORTANCE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 1 Building Relationships: Interpersonal communication is essential for building and maintaining positive relationships with others, whether it's in personal or professional settings. It helps individuals to understand each other better, establish trust, and create a sense of rapport. 2 Resolving Conflicts: Effective interpersonal communication is crucial for resolving conflicts and misunderstandings. It enables individuals to express their feelings and concerns, listen to others, and work together towards finding a mutually beneficial solution. 3 Management: Interpersonal communication is essential for effective management in organizations. It enables managers to give feedback, provide guidance and support, manage conflicts, and create a positive work environment, boosting employee engagement and satisfaction. 4 Improving Productivity: Effective interpersonal communication can help to improve productivity and efficiency in the workplace by minimizing misunderstandings, reducing conflicts, and promoting teamwork. It allows employees to work together more effectively, leading to better outcomes and results. 5 Sharing Information: Interpersonal communication allows individuals to share information and ideas with others, which can be important for achieving common goals and making informed decisions. It can also help to improve the flow of information within an organization or team.
  • 4. Q2.What is Transactional Analysis. Explain it’s components. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS [TA] • TA was given by Eric Berne in 1950. • Objective of TA: Help pep[le in understanding how to communicate with others so that their relationship with others can be improved. • TA analyses one’s own behaviour as well as behaviour of others. • It guides people how to develop themselves and interact with others. DEFINITION • Eric Berne – “ TA is a theory of personality & social action, & a clinical method of psychotherapy, based on the analysis of all possible transactions between 2 or more people, on the basis of specifically defined ego states into a finite number of established types. • Transactional Analysis is a psychological approach that analyses and improves communication and relationships by understanding ego states. NATURE  Integrated concept  Problem focused & goal focused  Understanding self & other’s behaviour
  • 5. COMPONENTS OF TA 1 EGO STATES • Ego states are different parts of our personality that we access in different situations. • There are three ego states in Transactional Analysis: Parent, Adult, and Child. • Parent ego (Exteropsyche) state represents the attitudes and behaviours that we learned from our own parents or authority figures.The Child ego (Archaeopsyche) state represents our emotional and instinctual reactions, based on our childhood experiences.The Adult ego (Neopsyche) state represents our rational and objective thinking. • Ego states can influence our communication and interactions with others. • Understanding our own ego states and recognizing them in others can help us communicate more effectively and build better relationships. • By being aware of which ego state we're in, we can choose to respond in a way that's appropriate and productive for the situation. 3 COMPONENTS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
  • 6. 2 TRANSACTION TYPES 1 Complementary Transactions:These are transactions where the ego states of the individuals match, leading to smooth and productive communication.There are nine types of complementary transactions: A) Adult-Adult, B) Adult-Parent, C) Adult-Child, D) Parent-Parent, E) Parent-Adult, F) Parent-Child, G) Child- Parent, H) Child-Adult, and I) Child-Child. 2 Non-Complementary Transactions:These are transactions where the ego states of the individuals don't match, leading to confusion or miscommunication. 3 Ulterior Transactions:These are transactions where the underlying intention or message is different from the apparent message. For example, if someone says "I don't mind" but their tone of voice suggests they actually do mind. 4 Gallows Transactions:These are transactions where the individuals involved are stuck in a negative pattern of communication that feels like a lose-lose situation. For example, if two people keep arguing about the same thing without making any progress. COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION TYPES A) Adult-Adult:This transaction occurs when two individuals communicate from their Adult ego states, using rational and objective language. B) Adult-Parent:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Adult ego state and the other person responds from their Parent ego state, using attitudes and behaviors learned from authority figures.
  • 7. C) Adult-Child:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Adult ego state and the other person responds from their Child ego state, using emotional and instinctual reactions. D) Parent-Parent:This transaction occurs when two individuals communicate from their Parent ego states, using attitudes and behaviors learned from authority figures. E) Parent-Adult:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Parent ego state and the other person responds from their Adult ego state, using rational and objective language. F) Parent-Child:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Parent ego state and the other person responds from their Child ego state, using attitudes and behaviors learned from authority figures and emotional and instinctual reactions. G) Child-Parent:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Child ego state and the other person responds from their Parent ego state, using emotional and instinctual reactions and attitudes and behaviors learned from authority figures. H) Child-Adult:This transaction occurs when one person communicates from their Child ego state and the other person responds from their Adult ego state, using emotional and instinctual reactions and rational and objective language. I) Child-Child:This transaction occurs when two individuals communicate from their Child ego states, using emotional and instinctual reactions.
  • 8. 3 ANALYSIS OF LIFE POSITIONS Life Positions refer to the individual's basic assumptions about themselves, others, and the world.There are four life positions that an individual can take:  I'm OK,You're OK:This position assumes that the individual and others are equally valuable and capable, and that positive interactions and cooperation are possible.  I'm OK,You're Not OK:This position assumes that the individual is capable and worthy, while others are not, leading to feelings of superiority, isolation, or mistrust.  I'm Not OK,You're OK:This position assumes that the individual is not capable or worthy, while others are, leading to feelings of inadequacy, dependency, or resignation.  I'm Not OK,You're Not OK:This position assumes that no one is capable or worthy, leading to feelings of hopelessness, despair, or hostility. Understanding life positions can help individuals recognize their default assumptions and attitudes, and work towards more positive and productive interactions with others.
  • 9. Q3. Explain in detail about FIRO-B. CONCEPT OF FIRO-B • FIRO-B stands for Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation - Behaviour. It is a personality assessment tool that measures an individual's interpersonal needs and preferences in three areas: inclusion, control, and affection. • FIRO-B was developed by psychologist Will Schutz and is based on his theory that individuals have innate needs for inclusion (belonging and being part of a group), control (having influence over others or being influenced by others), and affection (giving and receiving emotional support and warmth).Will Schutz, the creator of FIRO-B, was heavily influenced by the work of several prominent psychologists, including Alfred Adler, Sigmund Freud, and Carl Jung. • The assessment is used to help individuals better understand their own needs and preferences in interpersonal relationships, as well as to improve communication and relationships with others. It is commonly used in personal development, leadership training, team building, and organizational development. • Expressed behaviour in FIRO-B refers to the behaviour that others observe in a person's attempt to fulfil their needs for inclusion, control, and affection. • Wanted behaviour refers to the unconscious desires and expectations of a person regarding how others should behave towards them in order to satisfy their interpersonal needs.
  • 10. In FIRO-B, inclusion, control, and affection are the three fundamental interpersonal needs that individuals seek to fulfil in their relationships with others. Inclusion: the need to belong and be part of a group. People with high inclusion needs seek social interaction, acceptance, and recognition from others. Control: the need to have influence over others or be influenced by them. People with high control needs seek to take charge and direct the actions of others or to be guided and directed by others. Affection: the need to give and receive emotional support and warmth. People with high affection needs seek to form close and intimate relationships with others, based on mutual care, trust, and understanding. Understanding these needs and how they influence behaviour can help individuals to communicate more effectively with others and build stronger and more fulfilling relationships.
  • 11. BENEFITS OF FIRO-B 1 Retention: Helps identify employees' interpersonal needs to create effective retention strategies. 2 Conflict Management: Helps manage conflicts by addressing underlying needs of conflicting parties. 3 Relationship Building: Helps build stronger relationships by identifying areas of compatibility and potential areas of conflict. 4 Team Building: Helps create more effective teams by identifying the interpersonal needs of team members. 5 Leadership Development: Helps leaders understand their own and their team members' needs to create more effective communication strategies and build stronger, more productive teams.
  • 12. Q4.What is Johari Window ? Explain its Quadrants. JOHARIWINDOW • Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham invented Johari Window • This model is used to enhance individual’s perception on others. • The interpersonal relationship along with communication can be improved through the Johari window. • It says that interpersonal effectiveness is directly concerned with the volume of information which is shared mutually . • There are 4 window panes which signify personal information, feelings, motivation & whether that information is known or unknown to oneself or others. QUADRANTS OF JOHARIWINDOW 1 OPEN 2 BLIND 3 HIDDEN 4 UNKNOWN Information known to self Information not known to self Information known to others Information not known to others
  • 13. Q5. Define Communication. Explain process of Communication. COMMUNICATION • Communication is the process of exchanging or conveying information, ideas, thoughts, feelings, or messages between individuals, groups, or organizations through various channels such as verbal or non- verbal means. • The primary objective of communication is to share information and establish a common understanding among the participants. • Effective communication involves the use of clear and concise language, active listening, feedback, and understanding the needs and perspectives of the audience. • Communication plays a crucial role in building relationships, fostering teamwork, sharing knowledge, and achieving common goals in personal and professional settings. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION • Newman & Summer – “ Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.” • Communication is simply the act of exchanging information or ideas between people.
  • 14. PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION 1 Sender:The person who initiates the communication process by forming a message to be sent. 2 Message:The information, idea, or message that the sender wants to convey to the receiver. 3 Encoding:The process of putting the sender's message or information into a format that can be transmitted through the chosen channel. 4 Channel:The medium or method used to transmit the encoded message, such as face-to-face conversation, phone call, email, or text message. 5 Receiver: The person or audience who receives and decodes the message sent by the sender. 6 Decoding:The process of interpreting and understanding the message by the receiver. 7 Feedback:The response or reaction of the receiver to the message, which provides the sender with information about the effectiveness of the communication. 8 Noise: Any interference or barrier that may affect the clarity or accuracy of the message, such as distractions, language barriers, or technical issues.
  • 15. Q6.What are communication skills ? Explain Essentials of communication. COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Communication skills involve expressing thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively through various modes of communication. 2. These skills are essential for understanding and being understood in personal and professional settings. 3. Good communication skills involve listening, speaking, writing, and nonverbal cues. 4. Effective communication skills are crucial for building relationships, teamwork, and leadership. 5. Practicing good communication skills can help individuals become more confident, competent, and successful in their personal and professional lives. 6. Effective communication can increase understanding, reduce conflicts, and improve productivity.
  • 16. ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION OR 7 Cs OF COMMUNICATION 1.Clarity: The message should be clear and easy to understand. 2.Completeness: The message should be complete and contain all the necessary information. 3.Conciseness: The message should be concise and to the point. 4.Correctness: The message should be accurate and free from errors. 5.Courtesy: The message should be polite and respectful. 6.Consideration: The message should take into account the needs and perspectives of the audience. 7.Concreteness: The message should be specific and tangible, avoiding abstract or vague language. 1 CLARITY 2 COMPLETENESS 3 CONCISENESS 4 CORRECTNESS 5 COURTESY 6 CONSIDERATION 7 CONCRETENESS
  • 17. Q7.What is negotiation ?What are the types of negotiation ? NEGOTIATION • Negotiation is a process of communication between two or more parties to reach a mutually acceptable agreement. • It involves discussing and bargaining over issues and interests to find a solution that satisfies both parties. • Negotiation can take place in a variety of settings, including business, diplomacy, law, and personal relationships. DEFINITION OF NIGOTIATION  Robert Fisher & William Ury – “ Negotiation is a basic means of getting what you want from others.”  Negotiation is a discussion between parties to reach a mutually acceptable agreement by identifying and addressing each other's interests and needs.
  • 18. TYPES OF NEGOTIATION A] Distributive negotiation It is a type of negotiation in which the parties are trying to divide a fixed amount of resources. In this type of negotiation, each party tries to maximize their share of the resources, and any gain by one party is considered a loss by the other party.There are four approaches of distributive negotiation: 1.Zero-sum negotiation:This type of negotiation is based on the assumption that there is a fixed amount of resources and any gain by one party is considered a loss by the other party.The goal of each party is to get as much of the resources as possible. 2.Win-lose negotiation:This type of negotiation is characterized by a highly competitive approach in which one party tries to win at the expense of the other party.The focus is on achieving one's own goals without regard for the other party's goals. 3.Substance-only negotiation:This type of negotiation focuses solely on the issue at hand and does not take into account the relationship between the parties.The goal is to reach an agreement on the issue without regard for the long-term relationship. 4.Unimportant relationship negotiation:This type of negotiation occurs when the relationship between the parties is not important, and the focus is solely on achieving the desired outcome.The parties may be willing to use aggressive tactics to achieve their goals since the relationship is not a priority.
  • 19. B] Integrative negotiation It is a type of negotiation in which the parties work collaboratively to find a solution that meets their mutual interests.The focus is on identifying and addressing the underlying interests and needs of the parties rather than just dividing a fixed amount of resources.There are three approaches of integrative negotiation: 1.Win-win negotiation:This type of negotiation focuses on finding a solution that satisfies both parties' interests and results in a mutually beneficial outcome. 2.Fair process negotiation:This type of negotiation involves ensuring that the negotiation process is transparent, open, and fair for both parties.The goal is to create a positive relationship between the parties, which can lead to a more successful negotiation. 3.Joint problem-solving negotiation:This type of negotiation involves working together to solve a problem that affects both parties.The parties collaborate to identify the root cause of the problem and work together to find a solution that meets both parties' needs.
  • 20. Q8.What are Negotiation skills? Explain Factors affecting negotiation. Negotiation skills are the abilities and competencies required to negotiate effectively with others. Some essential negotiation skills are: 1.Analytical skills: Negotiators need to analyze the situation and understand the other party's interests and needs.They should also be able to evaluate the available options and make informed decisions. 2.Listening skills: Active listening is crucial in negotiation, as it helps negotiators understand the other party's perspective and identify areas of agreement and disagreement. 3.Emotionally strong: Negotiation can be a stressful and emotional process.Therefore, negotiators need to be emotionally strong and able to handle conflicts and difficult situations calmly. 4.Problem-solving: Negotiators should be able to identify and solve problems creatively.They should also be able to generate alternative solutions and evaluate the pros and cons of each option. 5.Decision-making: Negotiators need to make informed decisions quickly based on the information available. 6.Interpersonal skills: Negotiators should be able to build trust and rapport with the other party.They should also be able to communicate effectively, express themselves clearly, and be persuasive when needed.
  • 21. FACTORS AFFECTING NEGOTIATION 1 Personal factors: Personal factors are individual characteristics that affect the negotiation process.These factors can include a person's personality, values, beliefs, and communication style. Personal factors can influence how a person approaches negotiation and can affect their negotiation outcomes. 2 Role factors: Role factors refer to the positions and responsibilities of the negotiators. For example, negotiators representing a company may have different goals and priorities than negotiators representing a union. Role factors can also include the negotiator's level of authority and the extent to which they can make decisions. 3 Situational factors: Situational factors refer to the external circumstances surrounding the negotiation, such as the timing, location, and the availability of resources.The negotiation context can affect the negotiation outcomes and the strategies that are most effective. 4 Interactional factors: Interactional factors refer to the interpersonal dynamics between the negotiators. These factors can include the level of trust, the communication style, and the power dynamics between the negotiators. Interactional factors can impact the quality of the relationship between the negotiators and can affect the negotiation outcomes.