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Behavior Change
As Value Proposition


Chris Risdon @chrisrisdon   #behaviordesign
SxSWi 2013
It was 3 years ago I started to dive deeper into the
psychology of how we made decisions and were
influenced by technology.
Three years ago I moved from NYC to Atlanta, GA.
Within two months, I gained 10 pounds.
My whole family gained weight, even our three dogs.
Obviously I moved from a city where I walked
everywhere, to one where I drove everywhere. I
became fascinated how the design of city spaces
influenced my health and how my perceptions
changed around certain activities.
In New York, if you said there was a great restaurant just a 20
minute walk away, I thought that was convenient.

If you said that restaurant was a 20 minute walk in Atlanta, I
was going to drive, and have it only take 8 minutes.
If I have a few of these choices every day, every week, I think
about how I can maximize my time, not rationally about long
term environment or health impact.
Dan Ariely
Predictably Irrational

The Upside
of Irrationality




                         http://www.flickr.com/photos/
                         billhr/3266119190/
Let’s say I have a half a box of chocolates open here in front of you. I offer to give
you this half box of chocolates now, or I will give you a full box of chocolates in a
week. Most people will select the half box of chocolates now.

If you ask if they want a half box of chocolates in a year, or a full box in a year and
one week, they will be able to think rationally and select the full box.
“
    Active Design is the idea that we can
    design...buildings to encourage people to
    get more exercise...

    By attacking obesity through urban
    design and architecture, governments are
    beginning to realize that designers might




                          ”
    be their best warriors in the battle against
    obesity and its costs.


                             —Fast Company
“
    This strategy recognizes that the
    public’s underlying motivations are not




                             ”
    about health, but rather, about what is
    convenient and enjoyable.




                           —Fast Company
BJ Fogg



When we understand how people make decisions, and how
we can provide insight to their behaviors, how do we target
behavior change?
                                                              http://www.flickr.com/photos/
                                                              netliferesearch/2867937570/
2004: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s halfway around the world. But the story of destruction and loss of life
understandably creates sympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the redcross.org.

To do this, you may need to take your flight, get home, remember that you wanted to donate, then go through traditional ecommerce funnel,
providing billing address and credit card details. Then you also have to think, “how much do I want to donate?”

You have to be fairly motivated to follow-through and donate.
90999




2010: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Your
heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s in another part of the world. But the story understandably creates sympathy.
In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the Red Cross by texting “Haiti” to 90999. $10 will be added to your phone bill.

You pull out your phone there at the bar (it can even be a feature phone), type 90999, and “Haiti”, hit send, and you’re done. No billing, and it’s
just $10. And you feel good about helping out.
Opportune Moments




We can see these “triggers” at other opportune moments. How about when you go to the pet store and buy pet supplies?
The POS credit card swiper asks if you want to add $1 to your charge to help animal shelters. You’re already spending $50,
what’s $51? And you’ll feel good about donating, since you do love animals.

Would they be just as successful if they gave you a flyer that made the case to donate and asked you to get online and
donate an unspecified amount?
Robert
  Cialdini



Robert Cialdini wrote Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion in the 90s,
and not in the context of technology...
Reciprocity
Commitment & Consistency
Social Proof
Authority
Liking
Scarcity


                ...yet his “6 weapons of influence” are more pervasive than ever in our
                digital products and services.
Behavior Design (short for designing for behavior change)
Design with the intent to change someone’s
behavior or attitude.

Persuasive Technology
Technology designed to persuade the user to use a
system or platform in a desired way.
(may/may not have intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude)




                 These are unofficial definitions that may differ from academic thinking. This represents my
                 synthesis and understand and how I’ve chosen to make sense of them in the context of my work.
All around us.




        Bitter nail polish for nail bitters, if they use it, they’ll taste a bitter taste when trying to bite their
        nails, perhaps dissuading them from the habit.
All around us.




        Design patterns such as interlocking, where tasks are required to be done in a certain way or
        order. For example, this ATM machine requires you to take your card back before getting your
        money, so you don’t accidentally leave it behind.
Persuasion
Neutral (utility/usability)




                                                                                                                  Persuasive




In some camps, certain techniques are seen as a means to persuade, in others that same technique is a
means to aid cognition. Trialability is the concept that if you simulate an activity, or demonstrate a product,
the user will be more likely to engage in that activity, or with that product - it’s a tool for persuasion. But
others, such as an information architect or usability specialist, may see this as a means for aiding cognition,
allowing the user to better complete the activity, or understand how to use the product.
Neutral (utility/usability)




                                                                               Persuasive




Amazon One Click is a persuasive tool designed to prompt more impulse
purchases (think: reduce friction, increase ability).

But it’s not a binary proposition only in Amazon’s interest. The feature has
value to the user, it makes purchasing an item easier.
Neutral (utility/usability)




                                                                                     Persuasive




                              Good Defaults (AKA Smart Defaults) are intended to aid in completing forms or
                              wizards easily and correctly.

                              But it also persuades the user’s actions. People will be less likely to consider their
                              options. This ‘cognitive shortcut’ persuades the user to go with the system defaults.
Intent is the primary factor in
placement on the spectrum.
Clearly intent and purpose are key. Defaults can be pushed within the spectrum, like in the case of defaulting
to “yes” in selecting organ donation when applying for a driver’s license, and needing to opt out.

Countries that require opt-out have very high organ donation volunteerism, and countries that require you to
opt in are much lower.




            Neutral (utility/usability)




                                                                                                                 Persuasive



           Example:
           Organ Donation
           Opt-in vs. Opt-out
Let’s take the scale and add a second axis. This is the user’s
                                                              awareness of your intent as a designer. (or as a product/service)



                    High




  Awareness
     (of your intent)




                        Low
                              Utility /Usability                                       Persuasion




Macro                                Micro
(utility / prods. & services)        (usability / features)
We’ve seen where features like good defaults and one-click are. We can plot other
                                                    design patterns, such as progress indicators.

                                                    The middle horizontal line represents the ‘intent declaration’ line, these don’t
                                                    “declare” their intent, yet they don’t deliberately conceal
                    High                            it either. So they sit slightly below that.




  Awareness
     (of your intent)                                                          Amazon
                                      Good                                     One-Click
                                      defaults     Progress      Visualizations
                                                   indicator




                        Low
                              Utility /Usability                                               Persuasion




Macro                                Micro
(utility / prods. & services)        (usability / features)
Manipulation: all persuasion with no value to the user

                                                        Deception: covert in intentions

                                                        Stay away from this ethically mucky area. This is where you see products and
                    High                                services that hide their true intent (deception) and involve you in a service that
                                                        you were not aware of or didn’t explicitly approve (manipulation).




  Awareness
     (of your intent)                                                          Amazon
                                      Good                                     One-Click
                                      defaults     Progress      Visualizations
                                                   indicator
                                                                                                          Freecreditreport.com
                                                                                                          Dark Patterns
                                                                                                          Manipulation
                        Low                                                                               Deception

                              Utility /Usability                                              Persuasion




Macro                                Micro
(utility / prods. & services)        (usability / features)
Products and services above the horizontal line have a clearly
                                                                   stated value proposition (creating explicit awareness of their
                                                                   intent).

                    High       High utility                          High persuasion
                               Obvious intent (value prop)           Obvious intent (value prop)




  Awareness
     (of your intent)                                                           Amazon
                                        Good                                    One-Click
                                        defaults      Progress    Visualizations
                                                      indicator
                                                                                                        Freecreditreport.com
                                                                                                        Dark Patterns
                                                                                                        Manipulation
                        Low                                                                             Deception

                              Utility /Usability                                               Persuasion




Macro                                 Micro
(utility / prods. & services)         (usability / features)
High        High utility                                High persuasion
                                Obvious intent (value prop)                 Obvious intent (value prop)


                                      Gmail Flickr
                                        iTunes Basecamp
                                                                  Shortmail
                                                              Mailbox


  Awareness
     (of your intent)                                                                Amazon
                                         Good                                        One-Click
                                         defaults      Progress        Visualizations
                                                       indicator
                                                                                                                  Freecreditreport.com
                                                                                                                  Dark Patterns
                                                                                                                  Manipulation
                        Low                                                                                       Deception

                              Utility /Usability                                                      Persuasion

                         Applications with high utility (iTunes, Gmail, Basecamp, etc.). Intent of utility is fairly high, usually as part of value
                         proposition.

                         Some products deliberately constrains features, as part of their value proposition, so they may move slightly to the
Macro                                   Micro
                         right of the scale, as the product’s features will influence how you manage your projects with the tool. Such as email
                         apps that promise to get positive behavior based outcomes around email management.
(utility / prods. & services)          (usability / features)
We now have an influx of products and services, enabled by technology, that are designed
                                               with the intent of influencing our behavior. Intent is made clear, usually in value proposition
                                               (reduce your debt, get in shape, etc.)

                               High utility                               High persuasion
                    High       Obvious intent (value prop)                Obvious intent (value prop)

                                                                                               Ready for Zero
                                      Gmail Flickr                               Nike+
                                                                                                Weight
                                        iTunes                         Mint.com            Nest Watchers
                                                  Basecamp
                                                                  Shortmail
                                                              Mailbox


  Awareness
     (of your intent)                                                               Amazon
                                        Good                                        One-Click
                                        defaults      Progress        Visualizations
                                                      indicator
                                                                                                               Freecreditreport.com
                                                                                                               Dark Patterns
                                                                                                               Manipulation
                        Low                                                                                    Deception

                              Utility /Usability                                                    Persuasion




Macro                                 Micro
(utility / prods. & services)         (usability / features)
Behavior change as value proposition.




                               High utility                          High persuasion
                               Obvious intent (value prop)           Obvious intent (value prop)
                    High


  Awareness                           Gmail Flickr                           Nike+
                                                                                          Ready for Zero
                                                                                           Weight
     (of your intent)                   iTunes                      Mint.com          Nest Watchers
                                                  Basecamp
                                                                 Shortmail
                                                             Mailbox



                        Low
                              Utility /Usability                                               Persuasion




Macro                                 Micro
(utility / prods. & services)         (usability / features)
Behavior Change
as Value Proposition
The New “Me” Generation
Behavior Change
as Value Proposition
Products and services designed and
marketed on the premise that their
benefits—the value received—are specific
behavioral-based outcomes.
Behavior Change
as Value Proposition
Value proposition is directly related to behavior-
based outcome (Rewarding outcomes from persistent
behaviors)
Data collection is a primary feature
System makes recommendations or guidance
Behavior is measurable
Prescriptive / Constrained self-determination
The fuel...

Sensors & Data
Feedback & Feedforward
Framing & Profiling
Sensors & Data
If it can be connected, it will be connected.
It hasn’t just been the proliferation of sensors, but also our attitudes
                     and behaviors around our data.




Collection
GPS
Accelerometers
                              Sensors
RFID
Image Capture
Profiles                      Attitudes
Status Updates                & Behaviors
Shared credentials
Passive data collection
Feedback and Feedforward
In the 60s most people didn’t have personal scales. If you joined weight watchers,
you attended a weekly meeting, where you were weighed and received group
therapy style guidance.

The feedback loop was one week. You got feedback on all your decisions and
behaviors over the course of 7 days at one-week intervals, and received guidance
that wasn’t custom for you.
Connected scales mean immediate feedback loop.
Realtime feedback and guidance just for you.
“
    I do take some of
    the totals to heart
    and try to adjust




                                                  ”
    my behavior
    accordingly.

                         —Nicholas Felton




     The utility and pervasiveness of data has grown.
Feedback is still a response after an action—after a decision or behavior has been
   made. As we get “smarter” with our services, we will present feedforward, guidance
   at the point of a decisions to engage in a behavior, such as making the right choice on a
   menu in a fast food restaurant.




Feedforward
Framing & Profiling
Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people...


Option A: 200 people will be saved.

Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will
be saved and 2/3 probability that no people
will be saved.



Option A: 400 people will die.

Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die
and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die.



                                                 How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people...


Option A: 200 people will be saved.

Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will
be saved and 2/3 probability that no people
will be saved.



Option A: 400 people will die.

Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die
and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die.



                                                 How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people...


Option A: 200 people will be saved.

Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people
will be saved and 2/3 probability that no
people will be saved.



Option A: 400 people will die.

Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die
and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die.



                                                How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people...


Option A: 200 people will be saved.

Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will
                                                 A = 72%
be saved and 2/3 probability that no people
will be saved.
                                                 B = 28%
Option A: 400 people will die.
                                                 A = 22%
Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die
and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die.    B = 78%
                                                 How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
Math is hard!
“
    Choice Architecture...organizing
    the context in which people



                   ”
    make decisions.

                            Nudge
                            Richard Thaler
                            Cass Sunstein
Depth versus breadth
Persuasion Profiling

“
    Persuasion profiling means that each one of us has a different set of persuasion
    strategies that affect us. Just like we like different types of food or are vulnerable
    to giving in to different types of food on a diet, we are vulnerable to different



                                        ”
    types of persuasion strategies.*
                                                                                 — BJ Fogg



“
    PersuasionAPI helps companies increase customer loyalty and conversion by
    personalizing content to the specific persuasion preferences of individual



                                                                  ”
    customers and builds individual intelligent profiles.

                                                                 — Science Rockstars



                            *http://www.deaneckles.com/blog/256_persuasion-profiling-and-genres-fogg-in-2006/?
                   utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=persuasion-profiling-and-genres-fogg-in-2006
Behavior Heuristics

“   Rules (of thumb) that
    people might follow when


                                            ”
    interacting with a system.
                       —Dan Lockton


“   Asking users questions about how and
    why they behaved in certain ways with
    technology led to answers which were



                                       ”
    resolvable into something like rules.




                                                http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Behavior Heuristics
Peel back layers
Similar to “5 Whys”
“Let’s look in more detail at ‘People will do what they
see other people doing’: Why? Why will people do
what they see other people doing? If we break this
down, asking ‘Why?’ a couple of times, we get to
tease out some slightly different possible factors.”




                                                          http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Behavior Heuristics

Create heuristics   ▶ If lots of people are doing it, do it

                    Show directly how many (or what proportion of) people are
or principles       choosing an option

                    ▶ If people like me are doing it, do it

                    Show the user that his or her peers, or people in a similar
                    situation, make a particular choice

                    ▶ If people that I aspire to be like are doing it, do it

                    Show the user that aspirational figures are making a
                    particular choice

                    ▶ If something worked before, do it again

                    Remind the user what worked last time

                    ▶ If an expert recommends it, do it

                    Show the user that expert figures are making a particular
                    choice




                        http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Implicit                           Prescriptive

Both can be effective and have different value propositions. One will have broader adoption due to wider range of utility. It
may have lower rate of sustained behavior change, but number could still be high do to high overall product usage.

The other is more narrowly focused on a specific problem, lower adoption, but higher rate of sustained behavior change
among users.
Collection > Visualization > Story


Data                          Framing
          Feedback Loop
We’ve created the technology, and we’ve started to understand the psychology, but
              we are still learning to marry the two together to provide an effective value
              proposition around services providing a positive behavior-based outcome.




 Technology                                    Psychology


 Collection > Visualization > Story


Data                                                         Framing
          Feedback Loop
Every design decision
influences the user.
(however benevolent the intent)
“Life as it is.”
                                                         —Dziga Vertov

                                    “A factual film
                                        which is dramatic”
                                                         —Dziga Vertov




Documentary filmmaking is an analogy I’ve often used. Long considered the “objective” form of
cinema, in contrast to fictional, scripted and reenacted films. However, the moment you “frame” a
story with constraints (for example tell a story in 2 hours that played out over 2 years), you make
decisions; where the filmmaker points the camera, how they edit the story, all these decision affect
how the view receives—perceives and understands—the story. Interaction design is no different.
“
    We should look at what kind of
    impact people’s behavior



                           ”
    should have on design.



                   —Paola Antonelli
Behavior Change
As Value Proposition

Thank you!!


Chris Risdon @chrisrisdon   #behaviordesign
SxSWi 2013

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SxSW 2013: Behavior Change as Value Proposition

  • 1. Behavior Change As Value Proposition Chris Risdon @chrisrisdon #behaviordesign SxSWi 2013
  • 2. It was 3 years ago I started to dive deeper into the psychology of how we made decisions and were influenced by technology.
  • 3. Three years ago I moved from NYC to Atlanta, GA.
  • 4. Within two months, I gained 10 pounds.
  • 5. My whole family gained weight, even our three dogs.
  • 6. Obviously I moved from a city where I walked everywhere, to one where I drove everywhere. I became fascinated how the design of city spaces influenced my health and how my perceptions changed around certain activities.
  • 7. In New York, if you said there was a great restaurant just a 20 minute walk away, I thought that was convenient. If you said that restaurant was a 20 minute walk in Atlanta, I was going to drive, and have it only take 8 minutes.
  • 8. If I have a few of these choices every day, every week, I think about how I can maximize my time, not rationally about long term environment or health impact.
  • 9. Dan Ariely Predictably Irrational The Upside of Irrationality http://www.flickr.com/photos/ billhr/3266119190/
  • 10. Let’s say I have a half a box of chocolates open here in front of you. I offer to give you this half box of chocolates now, or I will give you a full box of chocolates in a week. Most people will select the half box of chocolates now. If you ask if they want a half box of chocolates in a year, or a full box in a year and one week, they will be able to think rationally and select the full box.
  • 11. Active Design is the idea that we can design...buildings to encourage people to get more exercise... By attacking obesity through urban design and architecture, governments are beginning to realize that designers might ” be their best warriors in the battle against obesity and its costs. —Fast Company
  • 12. This strategy recognizes that the public’s underlying motivations are not ” about health, but rather, about what is convenient and enjoyable. —Fast Company
  • 13. BJ Fogg When we understand how people make decisions, and how we can provide insight to their behaviors, how do we target behavior change? http://www.flickr.com/photos/ netliferesearch/2867937570/
  • 14.
  • 15. 2004: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s halfway around the world. But the story of destruction and loss of life understandably creates sympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the redcross.org. To do this, you may need to take your flight, get home, remember that you wanted to donate, then go through traditional ecommerce funnel, providing billing address and credit card details. Then you also have to think, “how much do I want to donate?” You have to be fairly motivated to follow-through and donate.
  • 16. 90999 2010: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s in another part of the world. But the story understandably creates sympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the Red Cross by texting “Haiti” to 90999. $10 will be added to your phone bill. You pull out your phone there at the bar (it can even be a feature phone), type 90999, and “Haiti”, hit send, and you’re done. No billing, and it’s just $10. And you feel good about helping out.
  • 17.
  • 18. Opportune Moments We can see these “triggers” at other opportune moments. How about when you go to the pet store and buy pet supplies? The POS credit card swiper asks if you want to add $1 to your charge to help animal shelters. You’re already spending $50, what’s $51? And you’ll feel good about donating, since you do love animals. Would they be just as successful if they gave you a flyer that made the case to donate and asked you to get online and donate an unspecified amount?
  • 19. Robert Cialdini Robert Cialdini wrote Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion in the 90s, and not in the context of technology...
  • 20. Reciprocity Commitment & Consistency Social Proof Authority Liking Scarcity ...yet his “6 weapons of influence” are more pervasive than ever in our digital products and services.
  • 21.
  • 22. Behavior Design (short for designing for behavior change) Design with the intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude. Persuasive Technology Technology designed to persuade the user to use a system or platform in a desired way. (may/may not have intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude) These are unofficial definitions that may differ from academic thinking. This represents my synthesis and understand and how I’ve chosen to make sense of them in the context of my work.
  • 23. All around us. Bitter nail polish for nail bitters, if they use it, they’ll taste a bitter taste when trying to bite their nails, perhaps dissuading them from the habit.
  • 24. All around us. Design patterns such as interlocking, where tasks are required to be done in a certain way or order. For example, this ATM machine requires you to take your card back before getting your money, so you don’t accidentally leave it behind.
  • 26. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive In some camps, certain techniques are seen as a means to persuade, in others that same technique is a means to aid cognition. Trialability is the concept that if you simulate an activity, or demonstrate a product, the user will be more likely to engage in that activity, or with that product - it’s a tool for persuasion. But others, such as an information architect or usability specialist, may see this as a means for aiding cognition, allowing the user to better complete the activity, or understand how to use the product.
  • 27. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive Amazon One Click is a persuasive tool designed to prompt more impulse purchases (think: reduce friction, increase ability). But it’s not a binary proposition only in Amazon’s interest. The feature has value to the user, it makes purchasing an item easier.
  • 28. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive Good Defaults (AKA Smart Defaults) are intended to aid in completing forms or wizards easily and correctly. But it also persuades the user’s actions. People will be less likely to consider their options. This ‘cognitive shortcut’ persuades the user to go with the system defaults.
  • 29. Intent is the primary factor in placement on the spectrum.
  • 30. Clearly intent and purpose are key. Defaults can be pushed within the spectrum, like in the case of defaulting to “yes” in selecting organ donation when applying for a driver’s license, and needing to opt out. Countries that require opt-out have very high organ donation volunteerism, and countries that require you to opt in are much lower. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive Example: Organ Donation Opt-in vs. Opt-out
  • 31. Let’s take the scale and add a second axis. This is the user’s awareness of your intent as a designer. (or as a product/service) High Awareness (of your intent) Low Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 32. We’ve seen where features like good defaults and one-click are. We can plot other design patterns, such as progress indicators. The middle horizontal line represents the ‘intent declaration’ line, these don’t “declare” their intent, yet they don’t deliberately conceal High it either. So they sit slightly below that. Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Low Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 33. Manipulation: all persuasion with no value to the user Deception: covert in intentions Stay away from this ethically mucky area. This is where you see products and High services that hide their true intent (deception) and involve you in a service that you were not aware of or didn’t explicitly approve (manipulation). Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 34. Products and services above the horizontal line have a clearly stated value proposition (creating explicit awareness of their intent). High High utility High persuasion Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 35. High High utility High persuasion Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Gmail Flickr iTunes Basecamp Shortmail Mailbox Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Applications with high utility (iTunes, Gmail, Basecamp, etc.). Intent of utility is fairly high, usually as part of value proposition. Some products deliberately constrains features, as part of their value proposition, so they may move slightly to the Macro Micro right of the scale, as the product’s features will influence how you manage your projects with the tool. Such as email apps that promise to get positive behavior based outcomes around email management. (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 36. We now have an influx of products and services, enabled by technology, that are designed with the intent of influencing our behavior. Intent is made clear, usually in value proposition (reduce your debt, get in shape, etc.) High utility High persuasion High Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Ready for Zero Gmail Flickr Nike+ Weight iTunes Mint.com Nest Watchers Basecamp Shortmail Mailbox Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 37. Behavior change as value proposition. High utility High persuasion Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) High Awareness Gmail Flickr Nike+ Ready for Zero Weight (of your intent) iTunes Mint.com Nest Watchers Basecamp Shortmail Mailbox Low Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  • 39. The New “Me” Generation
  • 40. Behavior Change as Value Proposition Products and services designed and marketed on the premise that their benefits—the value received—are specific behavioral-based outcomes.
  • 41. Behavior Change as Value Proposition Value proposition is directly related to behavior- based outcome (Rewarding outcomes from persistent behaviors) Data collection is a primary feature System makes recommendations or guidance Behavior is measurable Prescriptive / Constrained self-determination
  • 42. The fuel... Sensors & Data Feedback & Feedforward Framing & Profiling
  • 44.
  • 45. If it can be connected, it will be connected.
  • 46. It hasn’t just been the proliferation of sensors, but also our attitudes and behaviors around our data. Collection GPS Accelerometers Sensors RFID Image Capture Profiles Attitudes Status Updates & Behaviors Shared credentials
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 51. In the 60s most people didn’t have personal scales. If you joined weight watchers, you attended a weekly meeting, where you were weighed and received group therapy style guidance. The feedback loop was one week. You got feedback on all your decisions and behaviors over the course of 7 days at one-week intervals, and received guidance that wasn’t custom for you.
  • 52. Connected scales mean immediate feedback loop.
  • 53. Realtime feedback and guidance just for you.
  • 54. I do take some of the totals to heart and try to adjust ” my behavior accordingly. —Nicholas Felton The utility and pervasiveness of data has grown.
  • 55. Feedback is still a response after an action—after a decision or behavior has been made. As we get “smarter” with our services, we will present feedforward, guidance at the point of a decisions to engage in a behavior, such as making the right choice on a menu in a fast food restaurant. Feedforward
  • 57. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. Option A: 400 people will die. Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  • 58. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. Option A: 400 people will die. Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  • 59. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. Option A: 400 people will die. Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  • 60. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will A = 72% be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. B = 28% Option A: 400 people will die. A = 22% Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. B = 78% How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  • 62. Choice Architecture...organizing the context in which people ” make decisions. Nudge Richard Thaler Cass Sunstein
  • 64. Persuasion Profiling “ Persuasion profiling means that each one of us has a different set of persuasion strategies that affect us. Just like we like different types of food or are vulnerable to giving in to different types of food on a diet, we are vulnerable to different ” types of persuasion strategies.* — BJ Fogg “ PersuasionAPI helps companies increase customer loyalty and conversion by personalizing content to the specific persuasion preferences of individual ” customers and builds individual intelligent profiles. — Science Rockstars *http://www.deaneckles.com/blog/256_persuasion-profiling-and-genres-fogg-in-2006/? utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=persuasion-profiling-and-genres-fogg-in-2006
  • 65.
  • 66. Behavior Heuristics “ Rules (of thumb) that people might follow when ” interacting with a system. —Dan Lockton “ Asking users questions about how and why they behaved in certain ways with technology led to answers which were ” resolvable into something like rules. http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
  • 67. Behavior Heuristics Peel back layers Similar to “5 Whys” “Let’s look in more detail at ‘People will do what they see other people doing’: Why? Why will people do what they see other people doing? If we break this down, asking ‘Why?’ a couple of times, we get to tease out some slightly different possible factors.” http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
  • 68. Behavior Heuristics Create heuristics ▶ If lots of people are doing it, do it Show directly how many (or what proportion of) people are or principles choosing an option ▶ If people like me are doing it, do it Show the user that his or her peers, or people in a similar situation, make a particular choice ▶ If people that I aspire to be like are doing it, do it Show the user that aspirational figures are making a particular choice ▶ If something worked before, do it again Remind the user what worked last time ▶ If an expert recommends it, do it Show the user that expert figures are making a particular choice http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
  • 69. Implicit Prescriptive Both can be effective and have different value propositions. One will have broader adoption due to wider range of utility. It may have lower rate of sustained behavior change, but number could still be high do to high overall product usage. The other is more narrowly focused on a specific problem, lower adoption, but higher rate of sustained behavior change among users.
  • 70. Collection > Visualization > Story Data Framing Feedback Loop
  • 71. We’ve created the technology, and we’ve started to understand the psychology, but we are still learning to marry the two together to provide an effective value proposition around services providing a positive behavior-based outcome. Technology Psychology Collection > Visualization > Story Data Framing Feedback Loop
  • 72. Every design decision influences the user. (however benevolent the intent)
  • 73. “Life as it is.” —Dziga Vertov “A factual film which is dramatic” —Dziga Vertov Documentary filmmaking is an analogy I’ve often used. Long considered the “objective” form of cinema, in contrast to fictional, scripted and reenacted films. However, the moment you “frame” a story with constraints (for example tell a story in 2 hours that played out over 2 years), you make decisions; where the filmmaker points the camera, how they edit the story, all these decision affect how the view receives—perceives and understands—the story. Interaction design is no different.
  • 74. We should look at what kind of impact people’s behavior ” should have on design. —Paola Antonelli
  • 75. Behavior Change As Value Proposition Thank you!! Chris Risdon @chrisrisdon #behaviordesign SxSWi 2013