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Design for Good or Evil. World Usability Day & Limina


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Design for Good or Evil. World Usability Day & Limina

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When it comes to good user experience, there is good design, unintentionally bad design and then there is evil design. Limina takes a look at what exactly makes design go from bad to evil. Good vs Evil in UX

When it comes to good user experience, there is good design, unintentionally bad design and then there is evil design. Limina takes a look at what exactly makes design go from bad to evil. Good vs Evil in UX


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Design for Good or Evil. World Usability Day & Limina

  1. 1. DESIGN FOR GOOD OR EVIL brought to you by Limina
  2. 2. Agenda Evil Design Good Design Problem Solving Design Sprint Workshop
  3. 3. “Good design is actually a lot harder to notice than poor design, in part because good designs fit our needs so well that the design is invisible.”- Don Norman
  4. 4. What makes design good? “Good design is one that fills the gap between business goals and user needs. In order to fill this gap, a process must be followed. A process that takes into consideration best practices of user experience (UX) and usability guidelines to produce the desired outcome. Good design is one that is tailored for the human use, and not one that is only functional or usable. A good designer knows how to get into the mindset of his users, and turns their needs into a meaningful, desirable, and easy-to-use product or service.” Quote from “Good Design vs. Bad Design: Examples from Everyday Experiences” on UX Collective
  6. 6. What makes design evil? “Tricks used in websites and apps that make you buy or sign up for things that you didn’t mean to.”
  7. 7. Dark Pattern Works… in its own way Productive for one party Exploits human weaknesses Carefully crafted Difficult to identify Not always intentional Doesn’t Work Counter-productive Plain bad design Poorly executed Easily identified metrics Never intentional Anti-Pattern VS
  8. 8. 12 Different Types of Dark Patterns 1. Bait and Switch 2. Confirmshaming 3. Disguised Ads 4. Forced Continuity 5. Friend Spam 6. Hidden Costs 7. Sneak into Basket 8. Misdirection 9. Price Comparison Convention 10. Privacy Zuckering 11. Roach Motel 12. Trick Questions
  9. 9. Bait and Switch You set out to do one thing, but a different, undesirable thing happens instead. Ex. Confusing buttons on a modal that you have to interact with the move forward. When a mobile ad appears a few seconds after the page loads.
  10. 10. Confirmshaming Confirmshaming is the act of guilting the user into opting into something. The option to decline is worded in such a way as to shame the user into compliance. Ex. The most common use is to get a user to sign up for a mailing list.
  11. 11. Disguised Ads Adverts that are disguised as other kinds of content or navigation, in order to get you to click on them. Ex. Huge download buttons on an ad that have nothing to do with the rest of the page.
  12. 12. Forced Continuity When your free trial with a service comes to an end and your credit card silently starts getting charged without any warning. In some cases this is made even worse by making it difficult to cancel the membership. Ex. Many subscription based companies do this like Netflix, Blue Apron, The Honest Company.
  13. 13. Friend Spam The product asks for your email or social media permissions under the pretence it will be used for a desirable outcome (e.g. finding friends), but then spams all your contacts in a message that claims to be from you. Ex. LinkedIn does this by trying to get you to connect with all of your contacts after confirming one connection. The primary button is to add all connections.
  14. 14. Hidden Costs You get to the last step of the checkout process, only to discover some unexpected charges have appeared, e.g. delivery charges, tax, etc. Ex. GoDaddy does this when buying domains. The site offers the user one price in the beginning but by the time they check out, the price increases exponentially.
  15. 15. Sneak into Basket You attempt to purchase something, but somewhere in the purchasing journey the site sneaks an additional item into your basket, often through the use of an opt-out radio button or checkbox on a prior page. Ex. Sites will sneak this in at the last second before the user hits “Place Order”. User has to remove the item in order to avoid the extra charge.
  16. 16. Misdirection The design purposefully focuses your attention on one thing in order to distract you attention from another. Ex. Hidden extra costs that are preselected for you but you can avoid if you hit “skip”.
  17. 17. Price Comparison Prevention The retailer makes it hard for you to compare the price of an item with another item, so you cannot make an informed decision. Ex. Site doesn’t include how much of something you’ll be getting, so you can’t figure out comparing what the final cost will be.
  18. 18. Privacy Zuckering You are tricked into publicly sharing more information about yourself than you really intended to. Named after Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Ex. When you sign up for anything using Facebook. Hidden private terms and conditions.
  19. 19. Roach Motel The design makes it very easy for you to get into a certain situation, but then makes it hard for you to get out of it (e.g. a subscription). Ex. When you sign up for a service online then try to cancel your subscription, only to find that you have to phone the company to do so. Or if you order something and have to jump through hoops to return it.
  20. 20. Trick Questions You respond to a question, which, when glanced upon quickly appears to ask one thing, but if read carefully, asks another thing entirely. Ex. This happens a lot when users are agreeing to terms and conditions when creating an account for a website
  21. 21. Evil UX Awards
  22. 22. Evil UX patterns can occur in real life too...
  23. 23. Real Life Examples ● Parking signs ● Service fees on tickets ● Speed traps ● Door handles
  24. 24. Real Life Examples
  25. 25. Real Life Examples
  26. 26. Bad UX + Art An artist by the name Katerina Kamprani shows us with “The Uncomfortable”, examples of bad UX with a series of familiar household objects rendered aggravatingly unusable with a few simple adjustments.
  27. 27. GOOD DESIGN
  28. 28. Jakob Nielsen’s ‘10 General Principles for Interaction Design.’ 1. Visibility of system status. 2. Match between system and the real world. 3. User control and freedom. 4. Consistency and standards. 5. Error prevention. 6. Recognition rather than recall. 7. Flexibility and efficiency of use. 8. Aesthetic and minimalist design. 9. Error recovery. 10. Help and documentation.
  29. 29. Predictable Consequences The actions you take have predictable and desired consequences. Ex. Easily visible buttons with clear text to set expectations, common and consistent interaction patterns, an understanding and reflection of the most likely user path.
  30. 30. Meets the User’s Needs + The interaction not only allows you, but helps you achieve your goal as a user, hopefully with a bit of delight. “If we want users to like our software we should design it to behave like a likeable person: respectful, generous and helpful.” - Alan Cooper Ex. If you leave a slack channel before sending the text you wrote, the # turns into a edit pencil icon. Google Forms can tell if you will want checkbox by the words in your question.
  31. 31. Clear Navigation & Organization - No Cul de sacs Clear nav. is fundamental to a good experience and key in accessibility success. Good nav design also keeps users from becoming stuck somewhere which can lead to frustration & abandonment. Ex. The U.S. Web Design System side nav. component tells the user what page they are, where that page lives in the hierarchy of the this section of architecture and when labeled prescriptively, it can tell the user what type of info is to be found on each page
  32. 32. User Control and Freedom There is a reason why “empowering the user” is commonly heard when discussing UX best practices. Even offboarding is a good chance to improve users experience, empowering not only the user, but your brand and reputation as well. Ex. Clear and easy to use cancellation flows, unsubscribes and customer service links readily available, undo, user customization
  33. 33. Error Prevention, Error Recovery & Help “Users hate errors, and even more so hate the feeling that they themselves have done something wrong. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and notify users about that before they commit to the action.” Ex. Testing to inform decisions to help prevent interaction pain- points that could cause errors, error checking and user feedback to help correct errors, and no dead end error states.
  34. 34. Minimal Design Aesthetic Minimalism isn’t the same as simplicity. Minimal UI is about making screens as simple as they need to be. “Minimalism is a perfect marriage of form and function. It’s greatest strength is clarity of form — clean lines, generous whitespace, and minimal graphical elements brings simplicity to even the most confounding subject matter. That is, of course, if it’s used effectively.” -Nick Babich Ex. Use of whitespace, clear visual hierarchy, large readable text, use of color and icons to organize information.
  35. 35. Flexible, Efficient, Consistent System Often including a symbol library or component library combine the concepts of consistency, predictability, clarity through minimalism. Ex. Standardized buttons, dropdowns, models, list styles, etc (including all states). Google’s Material Design is a good example of such a library
  36. 36. Real Life Examples
  37. 37. User Trust There is a reason why the UX industry is ripe with practices like empathy mapping and user journeys. There is a real person using your service, product or app and they are doing so because you are offering something they want or need. Users are smart, the moment we forget or worse try to exploit their motivations is the moment we lose them. Trust is hard-won, but rebuilding user trust after hurting it is close to impossible. Comcast’s reputation as a huge internet provider with horrible customer service (i.e. horrible support UX) was so ingrained (they lost over 600,000 customers in 2009), they had to change their entire brand in hopes of regaining customer good will.
  38. 38. RESOURCES
  39. 39. Resources & Tools: WCAG Compliance ● WCAG 2.0 checklists and explanations ○ ● Plugins ○ Browser plugins like Chrome Color Contrast Analyzer ○ Sketch plugins like Stark ● Online testing tools ○ DYNOMAPPER.COM ○ A11Y COMPLIANCE PLATFORM ○ Many more available ● User Testing “[Testing tools alone] cannot tell you if your web content is accessible. Only a human can determine true accessibility ”
  40. 40. Resources: U.S. Digital Service & Web Design System The U.S. Web Design system of UI components are designed to set a new bar for simplicity and consistency across government services, while providing you with plug-and-play design and code. They also address many aspects of accessibility and WCAG requirements. U.S. Web Design System V2 now in beta
  41. 41. Striving to Go Beyond Good to Noble Why focus on UX at all? Are you in it purely to win the business of users, are you trying just “beat your competitors”? Or… are you looking to truly improve and enhance the lives of your users… maybe even go beyond that to become meaningful to the lives of your users, and be a source of happiness in their lives? There was a TEDx MidAtlantic talk by Joel Salatin who summed up his talk with the following statement: “When you strive for nobility in your given vocation, the world will rise to meet you.” no·bil·i·ty/nōˈbilədē/ noun. the quality of being noble in character or mind. synonyms: virtue, goodness, honor, decency, integrity; magnanimity, generosity, selflessness "the nobility of his/her deed" Abraham Maslow
  42. 42. FUNCTIONAL
  46. 46. WORKSHOP
  47. 47. UX Design Sprint Workshop
  48. 48. Design Sprints: In a Nutshell A design sprint is a time-bound, six-part process that uses design thinking with the purpose of limiting risk when bringing a new product, service or feature to the market. It follows six phases: 1. Understand 2. Define 3. Sketch 4. Decide 5. Prototype 6. Validate
  49. 49. Select a Problem (3 min) Divide into teams of 2-3. Choose a one of our example UX problems to tackle for your design sprint, or, you can tackle one of your own.
  50. 50. Mind Mapping (10 min) Create a high-level overview of all the user tasks and subtasks associated with a product. ● Start high-level ● Expand your branches ● Focus on user needs
  51. 51. Crazy 8s (8 min) Divide your paper into 8 sections, and sketch 8 ideas. ● Rough sketches are ok! ● All 8 sketches can be towards 1 idea or individual ideas
  52. 52. Discussion & Voting (10 min) After sketching, you have a few minutes to discuss your ideas. Then, each person can vote on the 3 best ideas. ● Keep discussion to 3 minutes or less per person ● Each team member uses their dots to denote what they think the top 3 compelling ideas are ● You can use your all your votes on one idea
  53. 53. Solution Sketching (10 min) Based on the top 3 ideas coming out of Crazy 8s voting, create a more detailed sketch of a single idea. ● Include a couple states of your sketch to help illustrate functionality or flows
  54. 54. Storyboarding (10 min) Select which solution sketch your group would like to storyboard. Then, visually show the steps that a user would take to interact with the product. ● Keep to 1 frame per user task
  55. 55. Present (20 min) Give a quick overview of your problem and your final outcomes from your design sprint.
  56. 56. Please share your social media posts including #locowudUP
  57. 57. Thank You
  58. 58. About Event Organizers World Usability Day LOCO | UX Limina World Usability Day is single day of events occurring around the world that brings together communities of professional, industrial, educational, citizen, and government groups for our common objective: to ensure that the services and products important to life are easier to access and simpler to use. This group is for Longmont UX / UI professionals to get together to discuss tools, tips, techniques and trends in user experience. This meetup will be used to organize happy hours, presentations, civic-tech UX workshops, and more. Technical & UX Leadership for Complex Systems We work with startups, enterprise businesses, and government agencies to lead design and integrated UX for complex user-centered systems

Editor's Notes

  • Welcome to WUD. Topic this year is Good vs Evil design. Today we will be going over evil design (dark patterns), good design (what you should be doing) and as well as a problem solving sprint workshop to get everyone involved.
  • When you’re on your phone, you probably only notice when things aren’t working well.

    How many times have you tweeted or called out when something has been bad vs good?

    I guess the moral is, your design should be so good that people don’t even notice it.
  • Eventually Ellie is going to go over in depth what Good Design looks like what I wanted to give you a definition so we have something to compare it to.

    Good design fills in the gap between business goals and user needs. We all have clients where we’re trying to fulfill their business goals but we also have to remember that there are humans on the other end, with needs that we have to address. We can do this with a good process of discovery in order to figure out how to provide a meaningful experience for the users.
  • Switch gears, to Evil Design
  • This definition comes from

    In general this means being dishonest and using trickery to get users to go down a desired path for the company and not the user
  • Before I explain the 12 different patterns, I want to acknowledge that there are Dark Patterns and just bad design in general, known as anti-patterns. Dark patterns are on purpose... anti-patterns usually come from lack of knowledge, poor discovery, bad design, etc.
    If you think you might have some of these anti-patterns, the best way to find out is to turn to your web metrics. Look for users dropping off of pages, random clicking, repeatedly scrolling up and down.
    For example, a hover-over menu that closes before you can click a menu item, clickable elements that don’t appear clickable, erasing information in a form when there’s an error...

  • Evil UX is currently categorized into 12 different categories that we’ll go over in depth on the next few slides called Dark Patterns
  • Windows became famous for creating this modal. The upgrade now, ok and X all automatically started the upgrade. There was no getting out of it.
  • One of my favorites because it uses passive aggressive statements to guilt users into either signing up for an email subscription, coupon, etc by writing a statement that means you’re choosing a negative choice by opting out of whatever the site is proposing.
  • Sites that usually have a download CTA will have these targeted ads with a huge download button in them, trying to trick users into clicking on them since the main action of the page is to download something.
  • Blue Apron, The Honest Company does this

    Continuity = like CONtinent

    Many of these sites won’t give your money back once they start charging you
  • Opt-out instead of an opt-in

    The primary button is to add every one of your contacts, including all of your ex girlfriends and ex boyfriends.
  • This one is done by sites that will quote you at one price in the beginning so it sounds like such a deal but by the time you go through the process and get to your shopping cart to check out, the price has increased exponentially.n
  • You have to remove it and if you don’t, you’re automatically charged for a random item that the site has added to your cart. I’ve seen this happen a lot with a site adding product insurance.
  • This airline website automatically selects a seat for you that is extra money. The user can avoid the charge by selecting a free seat but most users would assume their only choice is a preselected seat for more money.
  • Units aren’t consistent
  • 3rd party sign-up, hard to back out of
  • Email, ask for shipping label,

    Seen this with subscription services where it’s easy to sign up online but to cancel the subscription you have to call someone and they try to convince you out of it.
  • Not sure whether clicking is opting in or opting out here
  • Almost like it incentivises it

    Kind of like Razzie
  • Not sure where this should fit in

  • As we mentioned, this year’s World Usability Day theme is Design for Good or Evil.
    Clearly Dark Patterns are the Evil side
    They exploit UX knowledge to trick and manipulate users to ends that are detrimental to them
    Transversely, and obviously UX practices can be used for and overwhelming are used for good.
    Many of us are familiar with good UX patterns either as UX practitioners or just as users.
    Let’s look at some examples of Good design principles in-action
  • Jakob Nielsen, one of the founders of the Nielsen Norman group
    10 General Principles for Interaction Design
    These are general guidelines for designers to ensure the usability of their creations are both good and consistent
  • In response to “Bait and Switch”

    Predictable Consequences:
    Understanding the most likely user path and making it easy to find an begin
    Clearly visible buttons
    Text on buttons that gives users a pretty clear idea what will happen when clicked
    Not including a lot of other info not useful to the task the user is trying to do at that moment
  • In response to “Confirmshaming”

    Help users with what they are trying to do
    beyond path obvious, make sure the interaction is helpful,
    confirm and give indication of “status”

    Users are interacting with a product, site or application because they need or want to do something.

    Good UX doesn’t just allow that, it’s a helper with the task
    One way is Contextual guidance and reminders (careful, can get annoying if not implemented correctly - ie clippy)
    These are Great opportunities for moments of delight
  • Response to Disguised Ads : clarity in navigation (where you are, where you want to go next)

    Don’t want your users to get stuck
    Good nav tells the user where they are
    Where they are or can go
    And what they will find when they get there
    It also helps the user understand the hierarchy and organization of the information
  • In response to misdirection, and “sneak into the basket”, and “friendspam”, “zuckering”

    Users expect to be empowered
    Think of all the major market disruptors from the last decade or so
    Uber and Lyft
    They all offered more individual empowerment to the users in industries previously dictated greatly by the companies that led in those markets
    Even offboarding is an opportunity to give users the control and freedom they want. Sure they are leaving, but they could still become a brand evangelist if their experience is good OR they could decide to stay

  • Users are likely to blame themselves for errors
    And then abandon the technology thinking they just can’t figure out how to use
    Good UX Helps the user
    Give feedback as they input a new password to let them know if it meets the requirements and how secure their choice is before they hit enter
    Give them context
    Remind them when they are about to do something that cannot be undone or impacts other aspects of the interaction that they may not be thinking of
    Speed-bumps can be a good thing when applied correctly
  •, Shazam, Airbnb calendar
    Misdirection? Disguised Ads?
    Bait n Switch?

    Minimal UI Design is about only giving the user what they need at that moment to accomplish what they are trying to do
    Google is a big proponent of this philosophy
    Not only is it clean and pleasing, it’s clearer
    especially important for mobile when screen space is less
  • Consistent stop signs/street signs
    Accessibility signs = wheelchair symbol

    Consistent Systems provide
    Clear expectations
    Google’s Material Design one of many available free

    It also helps with branding, speeds up the design process and implementation
  • Consistent stop signs/street signs
    Accessibility signs = wheelchair symbol

    Just like Dark UX patterns aren’t just in the digital space, same goes for Positive UX patterns
    Paved Desire paths
    Picture frames allowing for portrait or landscape images to be hung
    Visual cues for escalator
    Labeled Dressing Room hooks
    Universal Icons and signage
    Moments to delight - Disneyland
    Make life not just better but safer
    Communicate and solves problems
  • What happens when a company doesn’t make Good UX a priority?
    They lose User Trust
    It could definitely be argued that Comcast’s customer service model was a dark pattern
    It purposely blocked users from accomplishing the task they were trying to do
    That broke user’s trust
    In 2009, as users shared stories of their interactions with Comcast support across social media
    They lost 600,000 customers
    Their reputation with users was so damaged that they chose to change their entire brand in hopes of regaining customer goodwill

    And in the end it all boils down to User Trust
    Dark Patterns exploit this trust and good luck getting it back

    There is a reason why UX industry is ripe with terms like Empathy Mapping and User Journey. There are people on the other side of every product, digital service or application. There is a person on the other side of that interaction

    Comcast’s reputation as a huge internet provider with horrible customer service (i.e. horrible support UX) was so ingrained (they lost over 600,000 customers in 2009), they had to change their entire brand in hopes of regaining customer good will.

    Ex Roach Motel
  • 19% of user , aging population
  • World Usability Day is single day of events occurring around the world that brings together communities of professional, industrial, educational, citizen, and government groups for our common objective: to ensure that the services and products important to life are easier to access and simpler to use.

    It’s about inclusion through user experience and I will hand it off to Jon to finish up the presentation and start us in on the workshop
  • Add benefits to all steps
  • Add benefits to all steps
  • Physical things we need: