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Presenter: Pallabi Priyadarsini 
1st yr MPH 
Mod: Dr. M. R.Narayana Murthy 
Professor, 
Department of Community Medicine 
JSS MC
 Introduction to waste and types 
 Solid waste 
 Types of solid waste 
 Effects of solid waste 
 Waste management concept 
 Concept of 3R 
 solid waste management 
storage 
collection 
waste handling and transport 
method of disposal 
 Technology 
 Zero waste system 
 Recommendation
 It is defined as 
Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, 
garbage, junk) is any unwanted or useless 
materials. 
OR 
Any materials unused and rejected as 
worthless or unwanted and “A useless or profile 
less activity using or expanding or consuming 
thoughtlessly or carefully.”
 Solid waste 
 Liquid waste 
 Gaseous waste 
 Animal by 
product(ABPs) 
 Biodegradable waste 
 Chemical waste 
 Commercial waste/ 
Business waste 
 Biomedical waste 
 Bulky waste
 It is defined as 
“ non liquid, non-soluble materials ranging 
from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that 
contain complex & sometimes hazardous 
substances” 
 Solid waste also include 
 Garbage 
 Rubbish 
 Demolition products 
 Sewage treatment residue 
 Dead animals 
 Manure and other discarded material. 
-- Per capita solid waste out put 0.25-2.5 Kg/day
 Agriculture 
 Fisheries 
 Household 
 Commerce and industry
Broadly there are 3 types of waste 
which as follows 
1. Household waste as municipal waste 
2. Industrial waste as hazardous waste 
3.Biomedical waste or hospital waste as 
infectious waste
 Municipal solid waste consist of--- 
household waste 
construction and demolition debris 
sanitation residue 
waste from streets 
With rising urbanization and change in life 
style and food habits ,the amount of 
municipal solid waste has been increasing 
rapidly and its composition changing.
 Industrial and hospital waste is considered 
hazardous as they may contain toxic substances 
 Hazardous waste could be highly toxic to 
humans, animals and plants. They are 
- corrosive 
- highly inflammable or explosive 
 In the industrial sector the major generators of 
hazardous waste are the metal’ chemical’ 
paper, pesticide, dye and rubber goods 
industries. 
 Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste 
such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal
 Bio-medical waste means “Any waste which 
is generated during the diagnosis, treatment 
or immunization of human beings or animals 
or in research activities pertaining thereto or 
in the production or testing of biological” 
-Bio-medical waste rules ,1998 
 It may includes wastes like sharp waste, 
pathological waste, pharmaceutical waste, 
genotoxic waste, chemical waste, and 
radioactive waste etc.
A:Health hazard 
 If solid waste are not collected and allowed 
to accumulate , they may create unsanitary 
conditions. 
 This may lead to epidemic outbreaks . 
 Many diseases like cholera. Diarrhea, 
dysentery, plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal 
diseases may spread and cause loss 
of human lives.
 In addition improper handling of the solid 
wastes ,a health hazard for the workers who 
come in direct contact with the waste. 
B: Environmental impact 
 If the solid wastes are not treated properly 
decomposition and putrefaction( decay) may 
take place . 
 The organic solid waste during decomposition 
may generate obnozious (intolerable odour)
 The 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) to be 
followed for waste management.
 Disposable goods: paper plate, paper bowl, 
Styrofoam cup, plastic spoon, roll of paper 
towels, paper napkin; Durable goods: 
ceramic/plastic plate, metal spoon, 
glass/plastic drinking cup, 
dish towel, cloth napkin) 
 Recovery of one tonne paper can save 17 
trees.
 Instead of buying new containers from the 
market, use the ones that are in the house. 
 Don’t through away the soft drink can or 
bottle cover them with home made paper or 
paint on them and use them as pencil stands 
or small vases.
 Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute 
which can be used over and over
 There are a number of concepts about waste 
management which vary in their usage between 
countries or regions. Some of the most general, 
widely used concepts include: 
1. Waste hierarchy - The waste hierarchy refers to 
the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify 
waste management strategies according to their 
desirability in terms of waste minimization. The 
waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most 
waste minimization strategies. 
• The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the 
maximum practical benefits from products and to 
generate the minimum amount of waste .
 Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays 
Principle is a principle where the polluting 
party pays for the impact caused to the 
environment. With respect to waste 
management, this generally refers to the 
requirement for a waste generator to pay for 
appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable 
material.
Waste management is the 
 storage 
 collection 
 transport and handling 
 recycling 
 disposal and monitoring of waste materials.
 Storage: 
- Galvanized steel dust bin 
- Paper sack 
- Public bins
 Collection 
- House-to-house collection 
- Collection from the public bins
Waste handling and separation involves 
activities associated with waste management 
until the waste is placed in storage 
containers for collection. Handling also 
encompasses the movement of loaded 
containers to the point of collection. 
 waste is transferred from a smaller 
collection vehicle to larger transport 
equipment
 Recycling refers to the collection and 
refuse of waste materials such as empty 
beverage container. 
 The materials from which the items are 
made can be processed into new 
products. 
 Materials for recycling may be collected 
separately from general waste using 
dedicated bins.
1. Dumping 
2. Controlled Tipping or Sanitary Landfill 
3. Incineration 
4. Composting 
5. Manure pits 
6. Burial
 Public hygiene and health. 
 Reuse, recovery and recycle 
 Energy generation 
 Sustainable development 
 Aesthetics
 Low lying areas. 
 Mainly for dry refuses 
 Kolkata disposes by this 
 method and reclaimed land 
given for cultivation. 
 Unsanitary method 
- Exposed to flies and rodents 
- Nuisance 
- Dispersed by wind 
- pollution of surface water
 Satisfactory method 
- Material placed in a trench 
- compacted with earth at the end of the 
working day. 
 Modified sanitary land fill-where compaction 
and covering are accomplished once or twice 
a week.
 3 Methods 
1. Trench method 
2. Ramp method 
3. Area method 
Refuse is compacted on its exposed surface 
with excavated earth (30 cm).
 Long trench of 6-10 feet deep and12-36 feet 
wide. 
 Refuse is compacted and covered with 
excavated earth. 
 Refuse is filled up to 6 feet. 
 It is estimated one acre of land per year for 
10,000 population. 
 RAMP METHOD: suited where the terrain is 
moderately slopping.
 Used for filling land depressions, disused 
quarries and clay pits. 
 Refuse is deposited, packed and consolidated 
in uniform layers for 6-8 feet. 
 Each layer is sealed with a mud cover at 
least 12 inches. 
 Sealing prevents infestation by flies and 
rodents. 
 Prevents nuisance of smell and dust.
 Changes 
- Chemical 
- Bacteriological 
- Physical 
 The temperature rises to over 60 deg. C 
within 7 days and kills all pathogens and 
hastens the decomposition process. 
 It takes 4 to 6 months for complete 
decomposition.
 it is a disposal method in which solid organic 
wastes are subjected to combustion so as to 
convert them into residue and gaseous products. 
 This process reduces the volumes of solid waste 
to 20-30% of the original volume. 
 Also described as thermal treatment 
 Where land is not available 
 Hospital waste
 Method of combined disposal of refuse and 
night soil/ sludge 
 Principal by products are: CO2 , Water and 
heat 
 End product- compost 
 Methods 
a. Bangalore method 
b. Mechanical composting 
c. Vermicomposting
 IISc- Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 
 Trenches are dug 3ft deep, 5-8ft broad, 15-30ft 
long. 
 Composting procedure 
- 1. Layer of Refuse- 15 cm 
- 2. Layer of Night soil – 5 cm 
Physical, chemical and biological changes takes 
place
 Compost manufactured by processing raw 
materials. 
 1. Screening 
 2. Pulverization (<2inches) 
 3. Mixing 
 4. Incubation 
Process completed in 4-6 week 
C: vermicomposting :It is a method 
of disposal of kitchen and plate 
wastes, which serves the dual 
purpose of disposing off the 
garbage as well as proving 
eco-friendly.
 Mostly used in rural areas 
 Digging “manure pits” is to prevent the 
refuses thrown around the houses. 
 The garbage, cattle dung, straw, and leaves 
should be dumped into the mannure pits and 
covered with earth. 
 Two pits will be needed 
 In 5-6 month’s time the refuse is converted 
into manure which can be returned to the 
field.
 Suitable for small camp 
 A trench 1.5m wide &2 m deep is excavated 
 The refuse is covered with 20 -30cm of earth 
 When the level in the trench is 40cm from 
ground level, the trench is filled with earth 
& compacted 
 4-6 months
 Technologies like 
RFID( Radio frequency identification) tags are 
now being used to collect data on presentation rates 
for curb-side pick-ups. 
GPS tracking is particularly evident when 
considering the efficiency of ad hoc pick-ups (like 
skip bins or dumpsters) where the collection is done 
on a consumer request basis. 
Rear vision cameras are commonly used for 
OH&S (Occupational Health & Safety) reasons and 
video recording devices are becoming more widely 
used, particularly concerning residential services.
 Zero waste system which was founded by PhD 
chemist .Paul parmer in Okland. 
 It is a philosophy that encourages the 
redesign of resource life cycle so that all 
products are reused.
 There are two solid waste management 
plant in Mysore. 
J.P Nagar 
vidyaranyapuram
 BBMP represents the third level of 
government & forth largest municipal 
corporation in India . 
 It is responsible for the development of the 
city , health hygiene, licensing trade & 
education.
 Environment protection act, 1986 
 Hazardous waste rule 1989 
 Bio-medical waste rule 1998 
 Municipal solid waste rule 2000 
Waste management act 1996 
 Solid waste policy in India 2006
 The improvement of people and private 
sector through NGOs could improve the 
efficiency of solid waste management. 
 Public awareness should be created 
especially at primary level. 
 Littering of solid waste should prohibited in 
cities towns and urban areas. 
 More over house to house collecting solid 
waste should be .
 The collection bins must be have a large 
enough capacity to accommodate 20% more 
than the expected waste generation in the 
area. 
 Municipal authorities should maintain the 
storage facilities to avoid unhygienic & 
unsanitary condition. 
 It is advisable to move from open dumping to 
sanitary land filling in a phased manner.
 Park K. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social 
Medicine. 22nd ed. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot 
Publishers; 2013. Chapter 20, Communication for 
Health Education; p699-701 
 Bhalwar, Rajvir et al, 2009, Textbook of Public Health 
and Community Medicine, Prune, WHO/AFMC;p715- 
717 
 BK Mahajan. (2011) Text book of preventive and 
social medicine. 7th Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical 
Publishers (P) Ltd., Daryaganj, New Delhi.;p71-73 
 AH Suryakantha. Community Medicine With Recent 
Advances. 3rd Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical 
Publishers (P) Ltd., Daryaganj, New Delhi; 2013;p233- 
237
Solid waste management ppt

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Solid waste management ppt

  • 1. Presenter: Pallabi Priyadarsini 1st yr MPH Mod: Dr. M. R.Narayana Murthy Professor, Department of Community Medicine JSS MC
  • 2.  Introduction to waste and types  Solid waste  Types of solid waste  Effects of solid waste  Waste management concept  Concept of 3R  solid waste management storage collection waste handling and transport method of disposal  Technology  Zero waste system  Recommendation
  • 3.  It is defined as Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, junk) is any unwanted or useless materials. OR Any materials unused and rejected as worthless or unwanted and “A useless or profile less activity using or expanding or consuming thoughtlessly or carefully.”
  • 4.  Solid waste  Liquid waste  Gaseous waste  Animal by product(ABPs)  Biodegradable waste  Chemical waste  Commercial waste/ Business waste  Biomedical waste  Bulky waste
  • 5.  It is defined as “ non liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that contain complex & sometimes hazardous substances”  Solid waste also include  Garbage  Rubbish  Demolition products  Sewage treatment residue  Dead animals  Manure and other discarded material. -- Per capita solid waste out put 0.25-2.5 Kg/day
  • 6.  Agriculture  Fisheries  Household  Commerce and industry
  • 7. Broadly there are 3 types of waste which as follows 1. Household waste as municipal waste 2. Industrial waste as hazardous waste 3.Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste
  • 8.  Municipal solid waste consist of--- household waste construction and demolition debris sanitation residue waste from streets With rising urbanization and change in life style and food habits ,the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing.
  • 9.
  • 10.  Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances  Hazardous waste could be highly toxic to humans, animals and plants. They are - corrosive - highly inflammable or explosive  In the industrial sector the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal’ chemical’ paper, pesticide, dye and rubber goods industries.  Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal
  • 11.  Bio-medical waste means “Any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological” -Bio-medical waste rules ,1998  It may includes wastes like sharp waste, pathological waste, pharmaceutical waste, genotoxic waste, chemical waste, and radioactive waste etc.
  • 12. A:Health hazard  If solid waste are not collected and allowed to accumulate , they may create unsanitary conditions.  This may lead to epidemic outbreaks .  Many diseases like cholera. Diarrhea, dysentery, plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases may spread and cause loss of human lives.
  • 13.  In addition improper handling of the solid wastes ,a health hazard for the workers who come in direct contact with the waste. B: Environmental impact  If the solid wastes are not treated properly decomposition and putrefaction( decay) may take place .  The organic solid waste during decomposition may generate obnozious (intolerable odour)
  • 14.  The 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) to be followed for waste management.
  • 15.  Disposable goods: paper plate, paper bowl, Styrofoam cup, plastic spoon, roll of paper towels, paper napkin; Durable goods: ceramic/plastic plate, metal spoon, glass/plastic drinking cup, dish towel, cloth napkin)  Recovery of one tonne paper can save 17 trees.
  • 16.  Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house.  Don’t through away the soft drink can or bottle cover them with home made paper or paint on them and use them as pencil stands or small vases.
  • 17.  Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute which can be used over and over
  • 18.
  • 19.  There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include: 1. Waste hierarchy - The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. • The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste .
  • 20.
  • 21.  Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material.
  • 22. Waste management is the  storage  collection  transport and handling  recycling  disposal and monitoring of waste materials.
  • 23.  Storage: - Galvanized steel dust bin - Paper sack - Public bins
  • 24.  Collection - House-to-house collection - Collection from the public bins
  • 25. Waste handling and separation involves activities associated with waste management until the waste is placed in storage containers for collection. Handling also encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection.  waste is transferred from a smaller collection vehicle to larger transport equipment
  • 26.  Recycling refers to the collection and refuse of waste materials such as empty beverage container.  The materials from which the items are made can be processed into new products.  Materials for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins.
  • 27. 1. Dumping 2. Controlled Tipping or Sanitary Landfill 3. Incineration 4. Composting 5. Manure pits 6. Burial
  • 28.  Public hygiene and health.  Reuse, recovery and recycle  Energy generation  Sustainable development  Aesthetics
  • 29.  Low lying areas.  Mainly for dry refuses  Kolkata disposes by this  method and reclaimed land given for cultivation.  Unsanitary method - Exposed to flies and rodents - Nuisance - Dispersed by wind - pollution of surface water
  • 30.  Satisfactory method - Material placed in a trench - compacted with earth at the end of the working day.  Modified sanitary land fill-where compaction and covering are accomplished once or twice a week.
  • 31.  3 Methods 1. Trench method 2. Ramp method 3. Area method Refuse is compacted on its exposed surface with excavated earth (30 cm).
  • 32.  Long trench of 6-10 feet deep and12-36 feet wide.  Refuse is compacted and covered with excavated earth.  Refuse is filled up to 6 feet.  It is estimated one acre of land per year for 10,000 population.  RAMP METHOD: suited where the terrain is moderately slopping.
  • 33.  Used for filling land depressions, disused quarries and clay pits.  Refuse is deposited, packed and consolidated in uniform layers for 6-8 feet.  Each layer is sealed with a mud cover at least 12 inches.  Sealing prevents infestation by flies and rodents.  Prevents nuisance of smell and dust.
  • 34.  Changes - Chemical - Bacteriological - Physical  The temperature rises to over 60 deg. C within 7 days and kills all pathogens and hastens the decomposition process.  It takes 4 to 6 months for complete decomposition.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.  it is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products.  This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20-30% of the original volume.  Also described as thermal treatment  Where land is not available  Hospital waste
  • 39.  Method of combined disposal of refuse and night soil/ sludge  Principal by products are: CO2 , Water and heat  End product- compost  Methods a. Bangalore method b. Mechanical composting c. Vermicomposting
  • 40.
  • 41.  IISc- Indian Council of Agricultural Research.  Trenches are dug 3ft deep, 5-8ft broad, 15-30ft long.  Composting procedure - 1. Layer of Refuse- 15 cm - 2. Layer of Night soil – 5 cm Physical, chemical and biological changes takes place
  • 42.  Compost manufactured by processing raw materials.  1. Screening  2. Pulverization (<2inches)  3. Mixing  4. Incubation Process completed in 4-6 week C: vermicomposting :It is a method of disposal of kitchen and plate wastes, which serves the dual purpose of disposing off the garbage as well as proving eco-friendly.
  • 43.  Mostly used in rural areas  Digging “manure pits” is to prevent the refuses thrown around the houses.  The garbage, cattle dung, straw, and leaves should be dumped into the mannure pits and covered with earth.  Two pits will be needed  In 5-6 month’s time the refuse is converted into manure which can be returned to the field.
  • 44.  Suitable for small camp  A trench 1.5m wide &2 m deep is excavated  The refuse is covered with 20 -30cm of earth  When the level in the trench is 40cm from ground level, the trench is filled with earth & compacted  4-6 months
  • 45.  Technologies like RFID( Radio frequency identification) tags are now being used to collect data on presentation rates for curb-side pick-ups. GPS tracking is particularly evident when considering the efficiency of ad hoc pick-ups (like skip bins or dumpsters) where the collection is done on a consumer request basis. Rear vision cameras are commonly used for OH&S (Occupational Health & Safety) reasons and video recording devices are becoming more widely used, particularly concerning residential services.
  • 46.  Zero waste system which was founded by PhD chemist .Paul parmer in Okland.  It is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycle so that all products are reused.
  • 47.
  • 48.  There are two solid waste management plant in Mysore. J.P Nagar vidyaranyapuram
  • 49.
  • 50.  BBMP represents the third level of government & forth largest municipal corporation in India .  It is responsible for the development of the city , health hygiene, licensing trade & education.
  • 51.
  • 52.  Environment protection act, 1986  Hazardous waste rule 1989  Bio-medical waste rule 1998  Municipal solid waste rule 2000 Waste management act 1996  Solid waste policy in India 2006
  • 53.  The improvement of people and private sector through NGOs could improve the efficiency of solid waste management.  Public awareness should be created especially at primary level.  Littering of solid waste should prohibited in cities towns and urban areas.  More over house to house collecting solid waste should be .
  • 54.  The collection bins must be have a large enough capacity to accommodate 20% more than the expected waste generation in the area.  Municipal authorities should maintain the storage facilities to avoid unhygienic & unsanitary condition.  It is advisable to move from open dumping to sanitary land filling in a phased manner.
  • 55.  Park K. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 22nd ed. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2013. Chapter 20, Communication for Health Education; p699-701  Bhalwar, Rajvir et al, 2009, Textbook of Public Health and Community Medicine, Prune, WHO/AFMC;p715- 717  BK Mahajan. (2011) Text book of preventive and social medicine. 7th Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., Daryaganj, New Delhi.;p71-73  AH Suryakantha. Community Medicine With Recent Advances. 3rd Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., Daryaganj, New Delhi; 2013;p233- 237