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SemanticWeb: Nuts ‘n Bolts Leibniz Center Meeting, November 2007 Rinke Hoekstra
Overview The Semantic Web Identification Languages and Integration Storage and Querying Browsing and Viewing ... does it really exist?
The Semantic Web adds... Machine  understandable  semantics Explicit metadata Ontology on the web: shared  understanding of a domain Logic Explanation --> Confidence Reasoning Expressiveness vs. Computational Efficiency
The Semantic Web Ideology Partial solutions are great too! Layer cake OWL
Identification: URI’s and Namespaces URI: Universal Resource Identifier ... Just an identifier http://www.leibnizcenter.org/people#joost URL: Universal Resource Location http://www.leibnizcenter.org/people#joost URN: Universal Resource Name urn:leibnizcenter:people:joost IRI: Internationalized Resource Identifier http://www.l èî ß ñ ¡zç é nt ë r.ørg/p é øple#jøøst Namespace A ‘space’ in which all locally defined names are unique, e.g.: http://www.leibnizcenter.org/people#joost http://www.hcs.science.uva.nl/staff#joost Basis for `trust’
Languages: XML, XML Schema, XPath & XSLT Meta-language for markup XML: Structured metadata Elements & attributes Semantics through nesting Ordered labeled tree Constraints on values Order of elements important XML Schema: Defines structure Types Built-in datatypes XPath:  Traverse structure XSLT: Transform structure
Languages: RDF & RDF Schema RDF: Data-model Triples: object-attribute-value Has an XML syntax, but also others (!) Semantics is independent of order of elements Independent of domain of use Graph, not tree RDF(S): Defines vocabulary Introduces classes Makes semantic information machine accessible
Languages: RDF Resource ‘ things’ on the web Have a URI ( rdf:ID, rdf:about ) Literal Property Also a resource Describes relations Statement Also a resource Triple: <resource,property,value> Asserts the property of a resource Reification Statements about statements  Contrast: traditional meta-classes
Languages: RDF Schema Distinction between individual objects & classes rdfs:Class ,  rdf:type Subclasses:   rdfs:subClassOf Subclass hierarchies Inheritance of properties Global restrictions on properties rdf:domain  and  rdf:range Subproperties:  rdfs:subPropertyOf Metadata rdfs:seeAlso ,  rdfs:isDefinedBy ,  rdfs:comment ,  rdfs:label
Languages: RDF/XML Code Example <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“utf-8”?> <rdf:RDF  xmlns:rdf=“http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#”  xmlns:uva=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#” xmlns=“http://www.uva.nl/people”> <rdf:Description rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/people#joost”> <uva:teaches rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/courses#kr2007”/> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:ID=“#joost”> <uva:name>Joost Breuker</uva:name> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
Languages: RDF(S)/XML Code Example. <rdf:RDF  xmlns:rdf=“http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#” xmlns:rdfs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/&quot;  xmlns:uva=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#” xmlns=“http://www.uva.nl/people”> <rdf:Description rdf:ID=“#joost”> <rdf:type rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Professor”/> <uva:name>Joost Breuker</uva:name> <uva:teaches rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/courses#kr2007”/> </rdf:Description> <uva:Course rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/courses#kr2007”/> <rdfs:Class rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Professor”> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#StaffMember”/> </rdfs:Class> <rdf:Property rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#teaches”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Professor”/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Course”/> </rdf:Property> </rdf:RDF>
Languages: RDF notations Different ways of writing RDF RDF/XML RDF/XML Abbrev N3 Turtle only allows valid RDF-graphs Ntriple one triple per line, fully qualified id’s.
Languages: N3 @prefix rdf:<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>. @prefix rdfs:<http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/>. @prefix uva:<http://www.uva.nl/rdf#>. @prefix courses:<http://www.uva.nl/courses#>. @prefix :<http://www.uva.nl/people#>. uva:Professor a rdfs:Class; rdfs:subClassOf uva:StaffMember. uva:teaches a rdf:Property; rdfs:domain uva:Professor; rdfs:range uva:Course. :joost a uva:Professor; uva:name &quot;Joost Breuker”^^xsd:string; uva:teaches courses:kr2007. courses:kr2007 a uva:Course.
Languages: Important Message RDF statements are: Triples <subject, predicate,object> Distributed Always  about  something else ... but can be about other RDF triples as well.
Integration How to add this ‘meta’ to my ‘data’? Three options: Oldfashioned HTML: <link rel='meta' type='application/rdf+xml' href='http://www.leibnizcenter.org/~hoekstra/foaf.rdf' title='FOAF'>  HTTP 303 `see other’ http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-vocab-pub/ Inline
Integration: 303 See Other
Integration: Inline  RDFa Attributes on XHTML elements http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer Standard XHTML: Predicate: @rel, @rev Object: @href, @src (embedded) RDFa: Subject: @about Predicate: @property Object: @resource (not clickable)  Datatype: @datatype Alternative: @content RDF Type: @instanceof
Integration: RDFa Example In XHTML: <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd&quot;> <html xmlns:cal=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#&quot;> <head><title>Jo's Friends and Family Blog</title></head> <body> <p instanceof=&quot;cal:Vevent&quot;> I'm holding <span property=&quot;cal:summary&quot;>one last summer Barbecue</span>, on <span property=&quot;cal:dtstart&quot; content=&quot;20070916T1600-0500&quot;> September 16th at 4pm. </span> </p> </body> </html> In RDF: _:blanknode0 rdf:type cal:Vevent;  cal:summary &quot;last summer Barbecue&quot;; cal:dtstart &quot;20070916T1600-0500&quot; .
Integration: GRDDL Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages http://www.w3.org/TR/grddl/ In HTML/XML instance documents: <html xmlns=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xmlns:grddl='http://www.w3.org/2003/g/data-view#' grddl:transformation=&quot;glean_title.xsl http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/grddl-wg/td/getAuthor.xsl”> In XML Schema documents: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.metalex.eu/latest&quot;>   <data-view:namespaceTransformation   rdf:resource=”http://www.metalex.eu/grddl/metalex2owl.xsl&quot; /> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation>
Storage (on the web) As documents .rdf, .n3, .turtle, .html In a RDF triple-store Sesame ( http://www.openrdf.org ) Jena/Joseki ( http://jena.sourceforge.net ) RDF(S)/OWL reasoning  Jena’s OntModel Sesame OWLIM Sail module SPARQL Endpoints Results as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) http://draco.leibnizcenter.org:8180/openrdf-sesame
Querying Many languages SPARQL, nRQL, SeRQL, etc.  SPARQL:  http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ Example PREFIX course: <http://www.uva.nl/courses#> PREFIX uva: <http://www.uva.nl/rdf#> SELECT ?name WHERE { ?x uva:teaches course:kr2007. ?x uva:name ?name } ?x  binds with  <http://www.uva.nl/people#joost>  ?name  binds with  “Joost Breuker”^^xsd:string
Querying: SPARQL  Construct PREFIX course: <http://www.uva.nl/courses#> PREFIX uva: <http://www.uva.nl/rdf#> CONSTRUCT { ?x uva:teaches course:kr2008 } WHERE { ?x uva:teaches course:kr2007 } Filtering Strings (regexp), Integers (values) Grouping, patterns, collections, optionals
Browsing and Viewing How to unlock your RDF to users? Custom applications (e.g. Legal Atlas) Generic RDF Browsers How to present your RDF to users? Custom applications  Generic RDF Visualisation
Browsing: Facets Multi-dimensional search User filters available information Context dependent Facet UI element Values of a property Number of results Query building
Browsing MIT Longwell http://simile.mit.edu/longwell/demo/libraries /facet http://slashfacet.semanticweb.org Flamenco RDFBrowser Exhibit LENA http://draco.leibnizcenter.org:8180/lena
/facet
Longwell
Viewing Tables are boring! Different data? Different presentation: URI/URL Images Strings Coordinates Filtering data Aggregating data
Viewing: Fresnel RDF specification of What data to present, and How to present it http://www.w3.org/2005/04/fresnel-info Lenses Group information  (class membership, SPARQL result) Formats  Specify how property values should be rendered
Viewing: Fresnel lens :foafPersonDefaultLens rdf:type fresnel:Lens ; fresnel:purpose fresnel:defaultLens ; fresnel:classLensDomain foaf:Person ; fresnel:group :foafGroup ; fresnel:showProperties ( foaf:name  foaf:surname  foaf:depiction ) . :knowsLens rdf:type fresnel:Lens ; fresnel:classLensDomain foaf:Person ; fresnel:group :foafGroup ; fresnel:showProperties ( foaf:name  foaf:surname foaf:mbox  [ rdf:type fresnel:PropertyDescription ; fresnel:property foaf:knows ; fresnel:sublens :foafPersonDefaultLens ] ) .
Viewing: Fresnel format :foafGroup rdf:type fresnel:Group ; fresnel:stylesheetLink <http://www.example.org/example.css> .  :depictFormat rdf:type fresnel:Format ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:depiction ; fresnel:label fresnel:none ; fresnel:value fresnel:image ; fresnel:valueStyle &quot;imageWithThickBorder&quot;^^fresnel:styleClass ;  fresnel:group :foafGroup . :urlFormat rdf:type fresnel:Format ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:homepage ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:mbox ; fresnel:value fresnel:externalLink ; fresnel:labelStyle &quot;basicLabel&quot;^^fresnel:styleClass ; fresnel:valueStyle &quot;basicUrl&quot;^^fresnel:styleClass ; fresnel:group :foafGroup .
Million dollar question ... does the SemanticWeb really exist? Semantics: yes Web: mwoah Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) http://www.ldodds.com/foaf/foaf-a-matic   RSS feeds (pingbacks etc.) Web 2.0: Tagging However The nuts ‘n bolts are ready, And we’ve got the data!
Compelling Example? Yahoo Pipes http://pipes.yahoo.com Aggregate, select, filter feeds Feeds can be  any  data
Yahoo Pipes Editing
Yahoo Pipes Result
Resources http://www.w3.org RDF(S), N3, OWL, SPARQL, RDFa, GRDDL, XML, XMLSchema, XSLT, CSS, XPath, fresnel...  http://www.semanticweb.org /facet, other resources http://www.planetrdf.com Aggregated RSS feed of the cool & famous

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SemanticWeb Nuts 'n Bolts

  • 1. SemanticWeb: Nuts ‘n Bolts Leibniz Center Meeting, November 2007 Rinke Hoekstra
  • 2. Overview The Semantic Web Identification Languages and Integration Storage and Querying Browsing and Viewing ... does it really exist?
  • 3. The Semantic Web adds... Machine understandable semantics Explicit metadata Ontology on the web: shared understanding of a domain Logic Explanation --> Confidence Reasoning Expressiveness vs. Computational Efficiency
  • 4. The Semantic Web Ideology Partial solutions are great too! Layer cake OWL
  • 5. Identification: URI’s and Namespaces URI: Universal Resource Identifier ... Just an identifier http://www.leibnizcenter.org/people#joost URL: Universal Resource Location http://www.leibnizcenter.org/people#joost URN: Universal Resource Name urn:leibnizcenter:people:joost IRI: Internationalized Resource Identifier http://www.l èî ß ñ ¡zç é nt ë r.ørg/p é øple#jøøst Namespace A ‘space’ in which all locally defined names are unique, e.g.: http://www.leibnizcenter.org/people#joost http://www.hcs.science.uva.nl/staff#joost Basis for `trust’
  • 6. Languages: XML, XML Schema, XPath & XSLT Meta-language for markup XML: Structured metadata Elements & attributes Semantics through nesting Ordered labeled tree Constraints on values Order of elements important XML Schema: Defines structure Types Built-in datatypes XPath: Traverse structure XSLT: Transform structure
  • 7. Languages: RDF & RDF Schema RDF: Data-model Triples: object-attribute-value Has an XML syntax, but also others (!) Semantics is independent of order of elements Independent of domain of use Graph, not tree RDF(S): Defines vocabulary Introduces classes Makes semantic information machine accessible
  • 8. Languages: RDF Resource ‘ things’ on the web Have a URI ( rdf:ID, rdf:about ) Literal Property Also a resource Describes relations Statement Also a resource Triple: <resource,property,value> Asserts the property of a resource Reification Statements about statements Contrast: traditional meta-classes
  • 9. Languages: RDF Schema Distinction between individual objects & classes rdfs:Class , rdf:type Subclasses: rdfs:subClassOf Subclass hierarchies Inheritance of properties Global restrictions on properties rdf:domain and rdf:range Subproperties: rdfs:subPropertyOf Metadata rdfs:seeAlso , rdfs:isDefinedBy , rdfs:comment , rdfs:label
  • 10. Languages: RDF/XML Code Example <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“utf-8”?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=“http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#” xmlns:uva=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#” xmlns=“http://www.uva.nl/people”> <rdf:Description rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/people#joost”> <uva:teaches rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/courses#kr2007”/> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:ID=“#joost”> <uva:name>Joost Breuker</uva:name> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
  • 11. Languages: RDF(S)/XML Code Example. <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=“http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#” xmlns:rdfs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/&quot; xmlns:uva=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#” xmlns=“http://www.uva.nl/people”> <rdf:Description rdf:ID=“#joost”> <rdf:type rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Professor”/> <uva:name>Joost Breuker</uva:name> <uva:teaches rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/courses#kr2007”/> </rdf:Description> <uva:Course rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/courses#kr2007”/> <rdfs:Class rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Professor”> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#StaffMember”/> </rdfs:Class> <rdf:Property rdf:about=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#teaches”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Professor”/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“http://www.uva.nl/rdf#Course”/> </rdf:Property> </rdf:RDF>
  • 12. Languages: RDF notations Different ways of writing RDF RDF/XML RDF/XML Abbrev N3 Turtle only allows valid RDF-graphs Ntriple one triple per line, fully qualified id’s.
  • 13. Languages: N3 @prefix rdf:<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>. @prefix rdfs:<http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/>. @prefix uva:<http://www.uva.nl/rdf#>. @prefix courses:<http://www.uva.nl/courses#>. @prefix :<http://www.uva.nl/people#>. uva:Professor a rdfs:Class; rdfs:subClassOf uva:StaffMember. uva:teaches a rdf:Property; rdfs:domain uva:Professor; rdfs:range uva:Course. :joost a uva:Professor; uva:name &quot;Joost Breuker”^^xsd:string; uva:teaches courses:kr2007. courses:kr2007 a uva:Course.
  • 14. Languages: Important Message RDF statements are: Triples <subject, predicate,object> Distributed Always about something else ... but can be about other RDF triples as well.
  • 15. Integration How to add this ‘meta’ to my ‘data’? Three options: Oldfashioned HTML: <link rel='meta' type='application/rdf+xml' href='http://www.leibnizcenter.org/~hoekstra/foaf.rdf' title='FOAF'> HTTP 303 `see other’ http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-vocab-pub/ Inline
  • 17. Integration: Inline RDFa Attributes on XHTML elements http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer Standard XHTML: Predicate: @rel, @rev Object: @href, @src (embedded) RDFa: Subject: @about Predicate: @property Object: @resource (not clickable) Datatype: @datatype Alternative: @content RDF Type: @instanceof
  • 18. Integration: RDFa Example In XHTML: <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd&quot;> <html xmlns:cal=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical#&quot;> <head><title>Jo's Friends and Family Blog</title></head> <body> <p instanceof=&quot;cal:Vevent&quot;> I'm holding <span property=&quot;cal:summary&quot;>one last summer Barbecue</span>, on <span property=&quot;cal:dtstart&quot; content=&quot;20070916T1600-0500&quot;> September 16th at 4pm. </span> </p> </body> </html> In RDF: _:blanknode0 rdf:type cal:Vevent; cal:summary &quot;last summer Barbecue&quot;; cal:dtstart &quot;20070916T1600-0500&quot; .
  • 19. Integration: GRDDL Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages http://www.w3.org/TR/grddl/ In HTML/XML instance documents: <html xmlns=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xmlns:grddl='http://www.w3.org/2003/g/data-view#' grddl:transformation=&quot;glean_title.xsl http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/grddl-wg/td/getAuthor.xsl”> In XML Schema documents: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.metalex.eu/latest&quot;> <data-view:namespaceTransformation rdf:resource=”http://www.metalex.eu/grddl/metalex2owl.xsl&quot; /> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation>
  • 20. Storage (on the web) As documents .rdf, .n3, .turtle, .html In a RDF triple-store Sesame ( http://www.openrdf.org ) Jena/Joseki ( http://jena.sourceforge.net ) RDF(S)/OWL reasoning Jena’s OntModel Sesame OWLIM Sail module SPARQL Endpoints Results as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) http://draco.leibnizcenter.org:8180/openrdf-sesame
  • 21. Querying Many languages SPARQL, nRQL, SeRQL, etc. SPARQL: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ Example PREFIX course: <http://www.uva.nl/courses#> PREFIX uva: <http://www.uva.nl/rdf#> SELECT ?name WHERE { ?x uva:teaches course:kr2007. ?x uva:name ?name } ?x binds with <http://www.uva.nl/people#joost> ?name binds with “Joost Breuker”^^xsd:string
  • 22. Querying: SPARQL Construct PREFIX course: <http://www.uva.nl/courses#> PREFIX uva: <http://www.uva.nl/rdf#> CONSTRUCT { ?x uva:teaches course:kr2008 } WHERE { ?x uva:teaches course:kr2007 } Filtering Strings (regexp), Integers (values) Grouping, patterns, collections, optionals
  • 23. Browsing and Viewing How to unlock your RDF to users? Custom applications (e.g. Legal Atlas) Generic RDF Browsers How to present your RDF to users? Custom applications Generic RDF Visualisation
  • 24. Browsing: Facets Multi-dimensional search User filters available information Context dependent Facet UI element Values of a property Number of results Query building
  • 25. Browsing MIT Longwell http://simile.mit.edu/longwell/demo/libraries /facet http://slashfacet.semanticweb.org Flamenco RDFBrowser Exhibit LENA http://draco.leibnizcenter.org:8180/lena
  • 28. Viewing Tables are boring! Different data? Different presentation: URI/URL Images Strings Coordinates Filtering data Aggregating data
  • 29. Viewing: Fresnel RDF specification of What data to present, and How to present it http://www.w3.org/2005/04/fresnel-info Lenses Group information (class membership, SPARQL result) Formats Specify how property values should be rendered
  • 30. Viewing: Fresnel lens :foafPersonDefaultLens rdf:type fresnel:Lens ; fresnel:purpose fresnel:defaultLens ; fresnel:classLensDomain foaf:Person ; fresnel:group :foafGroup ; fresnel:showProperties ( foaf:name foaf:surname foaf:depiction ) . :knowsLens rdf:type fresnel:Lens ; fresnel:classLensDomain foaf:Person ; fresnel:group :foafGroup ; fresnel:showProperties ( foaf:name foaf:surname foaf:mbox [ rdf:type fresnel:PropertyDescription ; fresnel:property foaf:knows ; fresnel:sublens :foafPersonDefaultLens ] ) .
  • 31. Viewing: Fresnel format :foafGroup rdf:type fresnel:Group ; fresnel:stylesheetLink <http://www.example.org/example.css> . :depictFormat rdf:type fresnel:Format ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:depiction ; fresnel:label fresnel:none ; fresnel:value fresnel:image ; fresnel:valueStyle &quot;imageWithThickBorder&quot;^^fresnel:styleClass ; fresnel:group :foafGroup . :urlFormat rdf:type fresnel:Format ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:homepage ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:mbox ; fresnel:value fresnel:externalLink ; fresnel:labelStyle &quot;basicLabel&quot;^^fresnel:styleClass ; fresnel:valueStyle &quot;basicUrl&quot;^^fresnel:styleClass ; fresnel:group :foafGroup .
  • 32. Million dollar question ... does the SemanticWeb really exist? Semantics: yes Web: mwoah Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) http://www.ldodds.com/foaf/foaf-a-matic RSS feeds (pingbacks etc.) Web 2.0: Tagging However The nuts ‘n bolts are ready, And we’ve got the data!
  • 33. Compelling Example? Yahoo Pipes http://pipes.yahoo.com Aggregate, select, filter feeds Feeds can be any data
  • 36. Resources http://www.w3.org RDF(S), N3, OWL, SPARQL, RDFa, GRDDL, XML, XMLSchema, XSLT, CSS, XPath, fresnel... http://www.semanticweb.org /facet, other resources http://www.planetrdf.com Aggregated RSS feed of the cool & famous

Editor's Notes

  1. XPath doesn’t work