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1 of 13
Seminar
on
The Solar Chimney
Presented By:
Arup Kumar Sikdar
Roll No – ME/MHPE/02/14
Topic to be Discuss
1. Introduction
2. The Solar Chimney
a. Parts of the Solar Chimney
i. Collector
ii. Turbines
iii. Chimney
b. Working Principles of Solar Chimney
c. Technology
3. Cost
5. Advantages
6. Disadvantages
7. Conclusion
1. Introduction:
In many parts of the world, there is a growing awareness that
some alternative energy sources could have an important role
to play in the production of electricity.
However,only the solar energy represents totally nonpolluting
inexhaustible energy resource that can be utilized economically
to supply Man’s energy needs for all time.
There are lots of methods
of using the solar energy ,
and the Solar Chimney is
one of them, which can
be seen below, in figure
1.
Fig. 1 The Prototype Manzanares
Solar Chimney [2].
2.a. Parts of the Solar Chimney
2.a.i. The Collector
Collector is the part,which is
used to produce hot air by
green-house effect. It is usually
5-6 meters high and covers a
very large area about thousands
of m² as seen in fıgure 2.
Since glazing increases the
mass of the roof, glazed
collectors should have stronger
rods and should be attached as
in figure 3.
Fig. 2 The Collector [2].
Collector
Turbines, seen in figure 4, are used to convert air
current to the mechanical energy. Turbines are
placed horizontally in chimney, vertically in the
collector.In order to obtain maximum energy
from the warmed air,turbines blades should
cover all the cross-sectional area of the chimney.
To do this,one big turbine or a few small
turbines should be used in chimney, as can be
seen from the figure 5. and figure 6.
Fig. 4 Turbine for Solar
Chimney Power Station [2].
2.a.ii. Turbines
Fig. 5 Turbine with large diameter [5].Fig. 6 Small turbines [5].
The most important part of the
plant is the chimney,seen in
fıgure 7. It acts as a thermal
engine. Since the friction loss
is minimum in the chimney it
likes a pressure tube.
Longer the chimneys height, the
more the energy produced from the
chimney.
The efficiency of the chimney is not
depend on the amount of the
temperature rising, but depends on
the outside temperature.
Thus, efficiency directly
proportional to the ratio between the
height of the chimney and the outside
temperature. [5]
Chimney
Fig. 7 The chimney [2].
2.a.iii. The chimney
2.b. Working principles of
Solar Chimney
Transparent roof, which is seen in fıgure
10, admits the short wave solar radiation
component and retains long-wave radiation
from the heated ground. Thus, when solar
radiation pass through the transparent roof
it is absorbed by the ground elements and it
converts into heat energy.
Since air is heated, it starts to rise up and
move towards to chimney,seen in fıgure 11.
Also, it gains velocity.Heated air enters the
chimney placed at the center of the roof and
creates an up draught there.
•Inside the chimney, turbines with electric
generator,produce electricity [6].
Fig. 10 Transparent
roof [4].
Fig. 11 Schematic seen of
the solar chimney [6]
Heat Output
Collector Area Solar Radiation
Specific heat capacity
of the air
Mass flow
Collector Efficiency
The temperature
differences between the
collector and out flow
Air speed at collector outflow
Specific dendsity of air at temperature
To + ΔT at collector outflow
Chimney cross-section area
2.c. Technology
•Solar chimneys are large-scale power plants with an
output of 5 to 200 MW each [4].
•A 100 MW plant will produce about 750 GWh/year at
2.300 kWh/m² global horizontal radiation [4].
•For that the glass roof has to be several kilometers in
diameter and the tube has to be as high as possible to
achieve a large annual output [4].
•The turbines are basically more closely related to the
pressure-staged hydroelectric turbines than to the speed-
stepped wind turbines. Therefore they have been
developed and designed in collaboration with
hydroelectric power plant manufacturers [4].
• The turbine’s life span is based on its resistance to
rapid pressure and speed changes of the air [5].
4.Cost
“With the support of construction companies, the glass industry and
turbine manufacturers a rather exact cost estimate for a 200 MW solar
chimney could be compiled. We asked the utility "Energie Baden
Württemberg" to determine the energy production costs compared to coal-
and combined cycle power plants based on equal and common methods”
[8]. (Table. 1).
Fig. 13 Energy production costs from solar chimneys, coal and combined cycle
power plants depending on the interest rate [8].
6.Advantages
Solar chimney power stations are particularly suitable
for generating electricity in deserts and sun-rich
wasteland.
 It provides electricity 24 hour a day from solar energy
alone.
No fuel is needed. It needs no cooling water and is
suitable in extreme drying regions.
It is particularly reliable and a little trouble-prone
compared with other power plants.
The materials concrete, glass and steel necessary for the
building of solar chimney power stations are everywhere
in sufficient quantities.
 No ecological harm and no consumption of resources.
7.Disadvantages
Some estimates say that the cost of
generating electricity from a solar chimney is
5x more than from a gas turbine. Although
fuel is not required, solar chimneys have a
very high capital cost [2].
 The structure itself is massive and requires
a lot of engineering expertise and materials to
construct [2].
8.Conclusion
Solar chimney power stations could make
important contributions to the energy
supplies in Africa, Asia and Australia,
because there is plenty of space and
sunlight available there [2].
It is very important for the future, because
our resources are limited, except our sun.

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Seminar 0n solar Chimney

  • 1. Seminar on The Solar Chimney Presented By: Arup Kumar Sikdar Roll No – ME/MHPE/02/14
  • 2. Topic to be Discuss 1. Introduction 2. The Solar Chimney a. Parts of the Solar Chimney i. Collector ii. Turbines iii. Chimney b. Working Principles of Solar Chimney c. Technology 3. Cost 5. Advantages 6. Disadvantages 7. Conclusion
  • 3. 1. Introduction: In many parts of the world, there is a growing awareness that some alternative energy sources could have an important role to play in the production of electricity. However,only the solar energy represents totally nonpolluting inexhaustible energy resource that can be utilized economically to supply Man’s energy needs for all time. There are lots of methods of using the solar energy , and the Solar Chimney is one of them, which can be seen below, in figure 1. Fig. 1 The Prototype Manzanares Solar Chimney [2].
  • 4. 2.a. Parts of the Solar Chimney 2.a.i. The Collector Collector is the part,which is used to produce hot air by green-house effect. It is usually 5-6 meters high and covers a very large area about thousands of m² as seen in fıgure 2. Since glazing increases the mass of the roof, glazed collectors should have stronger rods and should be attached as in figure 3. Fig. 2 The Collector [2]. Collector
  • 5. Turbines, seen in figure 4, are used to convert air current to the mechanical energy. Turbines are placed horizontally in chimney, vertically in the collector.In order to obtain maximum energy from the warmed air,turbines blades should cover all the cross-sectional area of the chimney. To do this,one big turbine or a few small turbines should be used in chimney, as can be seen from the figure 5. and figure 6. Fig. 4 Turbine for Solar Chimney Power Station [2]. 2.a.ii. Turbines Fig. 5 Turbine with large diameter [5].Fig. 6 Small turbines [5].
  • 6. The most important part of the plant is the chimney,seen in fıgure 7. It acts as a thermal engine. Since the friction loss is minimum in the chimney it likes a pressure tube. Longer the chimneys height, the more the energy produced from the chimney. The efficiency of the chimney is not depend on the amount of the temperature rising, but depends on the outside temperature. Thus, efficiency directly proportional to the ratio between the height of the chimney and the outside temperature. [5] Chimney Fig. 7 The chimney [2]. 2.a.iii. The chimney
  • 7. 2.b. Working principles of Solar Chimney Transparent roof, which is seen in fıgure 10, admits the short wave solar radiation component and retains long-wave radiation from the heated ground. Thus, when solar radiation pass through the transparent roof it is absorbed by the ground elements and it converts into heat energy. Since air is heated, it starts to rise up and move towards to chimney,seen in fıgure 11. Also, it gains velocity.Heated air enters the chimney placed at the center of the roof and creates an up draught there. •Inside the chimney, turbines with electric generator,produce electricity [6]. Fig. 10 Transparent roof [4]. Fig. 11 Schematic seen of the solar chimney [6]
  • 8. Heat Output Collector Area Solar Radiation Specific heat capacity of the air Mass flow Collector Efficiency The temperature differences between the collector and out flow Air speed at collector outflow Specific dendsity of air at temperature To + ΔT at collector outflow Chimney cross-section area
  • 9. 2.c. Technology •Solar chimneys are large-scale power plants with an output of 5 to 200 MW each [4]. •A 100 MW plant will produce about 750 GWh/year at 2.300 kWh/m² global horizontal radiation [4]. •For that the glass roof has to be several kilometers in diameter and the tube has to be as high as possible to achieve a large annual output [4]. •The turbines are basically more closely related to the pressure-staged hydroelectric turbines than to the speed- stepped wind turbines. Therefore they have been developed and designed in collaboration with hydroelectric power plant manufacturers [4]. • The turbine’s life span is based on its resistance to rapid pressure and speed changes of the air [5].
  • 10. 4.Cost “With the support of construction companies, the glass industry and turbine manufacturers a rather exact cost estimate for a 200 MW solar chimney could be compiled. We asked the utility "Energie Baden Württemberg" to determine the energy production costs compared to coal- and combined cycle power plants based on equal and common methods” [8]. (Table. 1). Fig. 13 Energy production costs from solar chimneys, coal and combined cycle power plants depending on the interest rate [8].
  • 11. 6.Advantages Solar chimney power stations are particularly suitable for generating electricity in deserts and sun-rich wasteland.  It provides electricity 24 hour a day from solar energy alone. No fuel is needed. It needs no cooling water and is suitable in extreme drying regions. It is particularly reliable and a little trouble-prone compared with other power plants. The materials concrete, glass and steel necessary for the building of solar chimney power stations are everywhere in sufficient quantities.  No ecological harm and no consumption of resources.
  • 12. 7.Disadvantages Some estimates say that the cost of generating electricity from a solar chimney is 5x more than from a gas turbine. Although fuel is not required, solar chimneys have a very high capital cost [2].  The structure itself is massive and requires a lot of engineering expertise and materials to construct [2].
  • 13. 8.Conclusion Solar chimney power stations could make important contributions to the energy supplies in Africa, Asia and Australia, because there is plenty of space and sunlight available there [2]. It is very important for the future, because our resources are limited, except our sun.