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Presented By
Arup Kumar Sikdar
Roll No : 11899814005
Registration No : 141180410017
Project Guide : Prof. Amar Nath Mullick (NIT, Durgapur)
Co-Guide : Mr. Santanu Banerjee (BIET, Suri)
• Introduction
• Engine performance factors
• Choosing area.
• Relationship between cutoff ratio and
compression ratio in Diesel Engine.
• Find out the aero-dynamic drag
• Conclusion
• Bibliography.
• The basic task to design an efficient engine for vehicle is
to reduce the cost of manufacturing and to improve the
power output and reliability. In order to achieve these
goals, there are various design concepts. Engine
performance is an indication of the degree of success
with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion
of chemical energy contained in the fuel into useful
mechanical work. The degree of success primarily
depends on the following parameters like Specific fuel
consumption, Brake mean effective pressure, Specific
power output, Specific weight, Exhaust smoke and
other emission.
• As well as reducing vehicle drag by make a good body
superstucture.
1. Power and mechanical efficiency,
2. Mean effective pressure and torque,
3. Specific output,
4. Volumetric efficiency,
5. Fuel-air ratio,
6. Specific fuel consumption,
7. Thermal efficiency and heat balance,
8. Exhaust smoke other emission,
9. Specific weight.
• The power develop by an engine at the output shaft is
called the brake power (B.P) and is given by
B.P. = 2πNT
• Another power developed by the combustion of fuel in
combustion chamber which is greater than B.P. and is
called Indicated power (I.P.).
I.P. = Watt
• The mean effective pressure of an engine is the average
pressure on the piston during the working stroke and is
given by the mean height of P-V diagram in N/m2
• For a given engine, it is defined as brake power (B.P) per
unit piston displacement.
• The specific output consists of two element like the force
available to work and the speed with which it is working.
• It is clearly defined as breathing capacity of the engine.
Volumetric efficiency (Ƞv) =
• It is the ratio of mass of fuel to the mass of air in fuel-air mixture. It
is affected the combustion phenomenon in that it determines the
flame propagation velocity, the heat release from the combustion
chamber, the maximum temperature and completeness of
combustion chamber.
• Specific fuel consumption is defined as the amount
of fuel consumed per unit of power developed per
hour.
Specific fuel consumption (sfc) =
Thermal efficiency of an engine is defined as the ratio of the
output to that of the chemical energy input in the form of fuel
supply. It may be based on Brake or Indicated output. It is the true
indication of the efficiency with which the thermodynamic input is
converted into mechanical work. Thermal efficiency, in this
definition, accounts for combustion efficiency, i.e., for the fact that
whole of the chemical energy of the fuel is not converted into
heat energy during combustion.
Brake thermal efficiency = B.P / X C.V.)
• Smoke and other exhaust emissions such
as oxides of nitrogen, unburned
hydrocarbons, etc., are nuisance for the
environment. Exhaust emissions have of
late become a matter of grave concern
and with the enforcement of legislation
on air pollution in many countries; it has
become necessary to view them as
performance parameters.
• Specific weight is defined as the weight of the engine in Kg for
each Brake power developed an indication of the engine bulk.
• For the study and as well as experimental
purpose we choose Diesel engine segment.
• Thought about optimum engine output for
optimum performance.
• Take an example a successful Diesel version
hatchback and sedan vehicle which is use
same engine in both segment.
• Comparing with vehicle drag.
• Overall Thermal efficiency of Diesel engine
theoretically depend on cut off ratio and
compression ratio. The cut-off ratio depends
upon the load on the engine. As load on the
engine decreases, cut off ratio also decreases,
cycle efficiency Increases.
Thermal Efficiency =
ȠD =
Now the efficiency is written as in form of
temparature.
Some automobile manufacturing company make
hatchback and sedan car with the same engine
specification. Like Maruti, TATA, FIAT, TOYOTA,
Volkswagan etc. We choose Maruti Suzuki Swift
and Swift Dezire (Diesel version).
Swift Dezire is saloon and another Swift is hatch back
car. Both the car has almost same performance
except Aerodynamic Drag. Here below the
performance chart and then we made a
comparison of aerodynamic drag.
Performance Parameter
& Dimension
Swift Dezire Swift
Displacement 1248 c.c. 1248 c.c.
Cylinder No. 4 4
Bore/Stroke 69.6 x 82 69.6 x 82
Compression Ratio 17.6:1 17.6:1
Kerb Weight (Kg) 1070 (ZDI) 1060 (ZDI)
Gross Vehicle weight (Kg) 1505 1505
Maximum Power 75 ps @ 4000 rpm 75 ps @ 4000 rpm
Length (mm) 3995 3850
Width (mm) 1695 1695
Height (mm) 1555 1530
Wheel Base (mm) 2430 2430
Ground Clearance (mm) 170 170
Tyre Size (Front) 165/80R14 165/80R14
Tyre Size (Rear) 165/80R14 165/80R14
Where, ρ = Density of air,
v = Velocity of air,
Cd = Co-efficient of drag,
A = Frontal area of the vehicle
How to get Co-efficient of drag ??
All the parameter are set as per vehicle
construction which is mentioned in the next
slide.
Aerodynamic drag parameter Swift Dezire Swift
Front Plan Well rounded Well rounded
Front elevation Medium height, rounded sloping Medium height, rounded sloping
Scuttle & wind cross section Flush, rounded sides Flush, well-rounded sides
Wind screen - peak Rounded Rounded
Canopy - plan Constant width Constant width
Rear canopy boot Squred canopy and boot Hatchback
Lower rear quarter Constant width Constant width
Underbody Monocoque (Front wheel drive) Monocoque (Front wheel drive)
Skin Friction
Perfectly smooth body with
mirrors
Perfectly smooth body with mirrors
Internal flow Very good design Very good design
Openings Closed cockpits Closed cockpits
Wheel & Tyre
Fender & W/D ratio 0.266 both
front and rear wheel
Fender & W/D ratio 0.266 both front
and rear wheel
Lift Induced Drag High performance lowered vehicle High performance lowered vehicle
Frontal area 23.26 ft² 22.89 ft²
• Swift Dezire is 7.92 ft2
• Swift is 7.58 ft2.
Taking the value of ρ = 1.184 kg/m3 at 250C, v =
40 km/hr. for calculation purpose.
Aerodynamic Drag force for Swift Dezire
=
=
= 53.776 ≈ 54 N
Aerodynamic Drag force for Swift
=
=
=
• Power needed for Swift Dezire to overcome
the drag force @ 40 km/hr
=
= 600 W
51.467 ≈ 51.5 N
P =
54 X
• Power needed for Swift to overcome the drag
force @ 40 km/hr
P = x v
= 51.5 x
= 572.2 w
• From last calculation we can see the
influencing of aero dynamic drag coefficient is
change the power output in case of same
engine. If the power is different then the
specific fuel consumption is also varies.
Bibliography
• Internal combustion Engine by Sharma & Mathur.
• Internal combustion Engine by Willard W Pulkrabek.
• Applied Thermodynamics by B.K. Venkanna & Swati B.V.
• www.hpwizard.com
• www.marutisuzuki.com
• Drag Force and Drag Coefficient from Sadraey M., Aircraft
Performance Analysis, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2009
• I.C. engine fundamentals by Heywood.
• Advance I.C. engine by Taylor
• Automobile Technology by R.K. Jain.
INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE

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INFLUENCE OF DRAG CO-EFFICIENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE

  • 1. Presented By Arup Kumar Sikdar Roll No : 11899814005 Registration No : 141180410017 Project Guide : Prof. Amar Nath Mullick (NIT, Durgapur) Co-Guide : Mr. Santanu Banerjee (BIET, Suri)
  • 2. • Introduction • Engine performance factors • Choosing area. • Relationship between cutoff ratio and compression ratio in Diesel Engine. • Find out the aero-dynamic drag • Conclusion • Bibliography.
  • 3. • The basic task to design an efficient engine for vehicle is to reduce the cost of manufacturing and to improve the power output and reliability. In order to achieve these goals, there are various design concepts. Engine performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion of chemical energy contained in the fuel into useful mechanical work. The degree of success primarily depends on the following parameters like Specific fuel consumption, Brake mean effective pressure, Specific power output, Specific weight, Exhaust smoke and other emission. • As well as reducing vehicle drag by make a good body superstucture.
  • 4. 1. Power and mechanical efficiency, 2. Mean effective pressure and torque, 3. Specific output, 4. Volumetric efficiency, 5. Fuel-air ratio, 6. Specific fuel consumption, 7. Thermal efficiency and heat balance, 8. Exhaust smoke other emission, 9. Specific weight.
  • 5. • The power develop by an engine at the output shaft is called the brake power (B.P) and is given by B.P. = 2πNT • Another power developed by the combustion of fuel in combustion chamber which is greater than B.P. and is called Indicated power (I.P.). I.P. = Watt • The mean effective pressure of an engine is the average pressure on the piston during the working stroke and is given by the mean height of P-V diagram in N/m2
  • 6. • For a given engine, it is defined as brake power (B.P) per unit piston displacement. • The specific output consists of two element like the force available to work and the speed with which it is working. • It is clearly defined as breathing capacity of the engine. Volumetric efficiency (Ƞv) = • It is the ratio of mass of fuel to the mass of air in fuel-air mixture. It is affected the combustion phenomenon in that it determines the flame propagation velocity, the heat release from the combustion chamber, the maximum temperature and completeness of combustion chamber.
  • 7. • Specific fuel consumption is defined as the amount of fuel consumed per unit of power developed per hour. Specific fuel consumption (sfc) = Thermal efficiency of an engine is defined as the ratio of the output to that of the chemical energy input in the form of fuel supply. It may be based on Brake or Indicated output. It is the true indication of the efficiency with which the thermodynamic input is converted into mechanical work. Thermal efficiency, in this definition, accounts for combustion efficiency, i.e., for the fact that whole of the chemical energy of the fuel is not converted into heat energy during combustion. Brake thermal efficiency = B.P / X C.V.)
  • 8. • Smoke and other exhaust emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, etc., are nuisance for the environment. Exhaust emissions have of late become a matter of grave concern and with the enforcement of legislation on air pollution in many countries; it has become necessary to view them as performance parameters. • Specific weight is defined as the weight of the engine in Kg for each Brake power developed an indication of the engine bulk.
  • 9. • For the study and as well as experimental purpose we choose Diesel engine segment. • Thought about optimum engine output for optimum performance. • Take an example a successful Diesel version hatchback and sedan vehicle which is use same engine in both segment. • Comparing with vehicle drag.
  • 10. • Overall Thermal efficiency of Diesel engine theoretically depend on cut off ratio and compression ratio. The cut-off ratio depends upon the load on the engine. As load on the engine decreases, cut off ratio also decreases, cycle efficiency Increases. Thermal Efficiency =
  • 11. ȠD = Now the efficiency is written as in form of temparature.
  • 12. Some automobile manufacturing company make hatchback and sedan car with the same engine specification. Like Maruti, TATA, FIAT, TOYOTA, Volkswagan etc. We choose Maruti Suzuki Swift and Swift Dezire (Diesel version). Swift Dezire is saloon and another Swift is hatch back car. Both the car has almost same performance except Aerodynamic Drag. Here below the performance chart and then we made a comparison of aerodynamic drag.
  • 13. Performance Parameter & Dimension Swift Dezire Swift Displacement 1248 c.c. 1248 c.c. Cylinder No. 4 4 Bore/Stroke 69.6 x 82 69.6 x 82 Compression Ratio 17.6:1 17.6:1 Kerb Weight (Kg) 1070 (ZDI) 1060 (ZDI) Gross Vehicle weight (Kg) 1505 1505 Maximum Power 75 ps @ 4000 rpm 75 ps @ 4000 rpm Length (mm) 3995 3850 Width (mm) 1695 1695 Height (mm) 1555 1530 Wheel Base (mm) 2430 2430 Ground Clearance (mm) 170 170 Tyre Size (Front) 165/80R14 165/80R14 Tyre Size (Rear) 165/80R14 165/80R14
  • 14. Where, ρ = Density of air, v = Velocity of air, Cd = Co-efficient of drag, A = Frontal area of the vehicle
  • 15. How to get Co-efficient of drag ??
  • 16. All the parameter are set as per vehicle construction which is mentioned in the next slide.
  • 17. Aerodynamic drag parameter Swift Dezire Swift Front Plan Well rounded Well rounded Front elevation Medium height, rounded sloping Medium height, rounded sloping Scuttle & wind cross section Flush, rounded sides Flush, well-rounded sides Wind screen - peak Rounded Rounded Canopy - plan Constant width Constant width Rear canopy boot Squred canopy and boot Hatchback Lower rear quarter Constant width Constant width Underbody Monocoque (Front wheel drive) Monocoque (Front wheel drive) Skin Friction Perfectly smooth body with mirrors Perfectly smooth body with mirrors Internal flow Very good design Very good design Openings Closed cockpits Closed cockpits Wheel & Tyre Fender & W/D ratio 0.266 both front and rear wheel Fender & W/D ratio 0.266 both front and rear wheel Lift Induced Drag High performance lowered vehicle High performance lowered vehicle Frontal area 23.26 ft² 22.89 ft²
  • 18. • Swift Dezire is 7.92 ft2 • Swift is 7.58 ft2. Taking the value of ρ = 1.184 kg/m3 at 250C, v = 40 km/hr. for calculation purpose. Aerodynamic Drag force for Swift Dezire = = = 53.776 ≈ 54 N
  • 19. Aerodynamic Drag force for Swift = = = • Power needed for Swift Dezire to overcome the drag force @ 40 km/hr = = 600 W 51.467 ≈ 51.5 N P = 54 X
  • 20. • Power needed for Swift to overcome the drag force @ 40 km/hr P = x v = 51.5 x = 572.2 w
  • 21. • From last calculation we can see the influencing of aero dynamic drag coefficient is change the power output in case of same engine. If the power is different then the specific fuel consumption is also varies.
  • 22. Bibliography • Internal combustion Engine by Sharma & Mathur. • Internal combustion Engine by Willard W Pulkrabek. • Applied Thermodynamics by B.K. Venkanna & Swati B.V. • www.hpwizard.com • www.marutisuzuki.com • Drag Force and Drag Coefficient from Sadraey M., Aircraft Performance Analysis, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2009 • I.C. engine fundamentals by Heywood. • Advance I.C. engine by Taylor • Automobile Technology by R.K. Jain.