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SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP AND
MANAGEMENT
POWER AND LEADERSHIP
◦ The ability or capacity to do something or act in a particular way.
◦ Power is opportunity to build, to create, to nudge the history in a different direction.
By Richard Nixon
◦ Power in itself is neither good nor bad. But it is precisely its way of using what determines
whether it is functional or dysfunctional (harmful).
◦ At a basic level, leaders need power. They need the power to influence, to develop, and to
enable people.
◦ The leader’s power should always be seen as a means to an end, with the ‘end’ being the
achievement of worthwhile outcomes for the greater good.
SOURCE OF POWER
◦ The ability to marshal human, informational, or material resources to get something done.
By Rees & Porter
◦ Effective leadership is not based on having power, but rather on how the leader uses the
power. When most people think about power, their minds go immediately to the control
that high-level leaders exert from their positions atop the organizational hierarchy.
◦ Some sources of power are;
◦ Position
◦ Charisma
◦ Information
◦ Expertise
◦ Punishment
◦ Reward
SOURCE OF POWER
◦ Research in this area has identified six bases of power that leaders may leverage:
The power of position is the formal authority that derives from a person’s title or
position in a group or an organization. It is also called legitimate power.
◦ Legitimate Power is how the leader got into the position in the first place
whether by election, appointment, hiring, or volunteering.
◦ This type of power is dependent upon the official position held by the person
exercising it.
◦ This power comes when employees in the organization recognize the authority of
individual. For example, the CEO who determines the overall direction of the
company and the resource needs of the company.
The power of charisma is the influence that is generated by a leader’s style or
persona.
◦ The idea of charisma has taken on many interpretations, some staying true to the
purest definition, with others expanding to celebrity-like proportions.
◦ The leaders of this leadership have clear vision, good communication skills and
high principles.
◦ Followers are often in the awe of relationship.
SOURCE OF POWER
SOURCE OF POWER
The power of information is the control that is generated through the use of
evidence deployed to make an argument.
° Information Power is what you have if you possess knowledge that others need
or want.
° This power is related to your ability to get access to information, and doesn’t
require expertise.
° Information power is time-sensitive.
SOURCE OF POWER
The power of expertise is the influence that comes from developing and
communicating specialized knowledge (or the perception of knowledge).
° People who have more knowledge or experience than other members of their
team exhibit expert power.
° Expert Power is based on knowledge, special skills, or experience.
° When you know more about something than everyone else, you just became the
expert. This includes experience in doing something.
SOURCE OF POWER
 The power of punishment is the ability to sanction individuals for failure to
conform to standards or expectations.
° Legitimate position of power may include the authority to fire someone, demote
them, deny privileges, or give them low marks on their annual evaluation.
° Heavy reliance on Coercive Power is a symptom of poor leadership and a toxic
working environment that will ultimately make your team weaker instead of
stronger.
° It’s not a good way to motivate people to excel.
SOURCE OF POWER
 The power of reward is the ability to recognize or reward individuals for adhering to
standards or expectations.
◦ Power of a Rewards can be tangible or intangible.
◦ The key distinction between a tangible reward and an intangible reward is that
tangible rewards are physical things, while intangible rewards are not.
◦ Examples of tangible rewards include monetary awards, wage or salary increases,
bonuses, plaques, certificates and gifts.
◦ And while money can be a great short-term incentive, there are actually much
more powerful ways to reward than straight up cash.
WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT?
◦ Leaders cannot exist without followers, nor can followers exist without leaders.
◦ Leaders can influence their followers but not without follower compliance.
◦ Leaders who understand what their followers want are successful leaders and gain the
compliance of their followers.
◦ Maslow helps leaders understand this connection with followers through his Hierarchy of
needs.
◦ Physiological need
◦ Safety need
◦ Social need
◦ Esteem need
◦ Self-actualization need
WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT?
◦ Maslow focused more on the whole person of the follower and leader and saw them as
people with “values” and people who make “choices.”
◦ For any leader, though, the most important audience is followers. Nothing gets done
without inspired and motivated followers.
◦ People follow leaders for some reasons and for some specific wants.
◦ The four main things they want are;
◦ Trust: Respect, integrity and honesty
◦ Compassion: Caring, friendship, happiness and love
◦ Stability: Security, strength, support and peace
◦ Hope: Direction, faith and guidance
WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT?
◦ They want their leader must be intelligent, responsible, confident and most importantly
honest.
◦ They must have effective communicational skills.
◦ Leaders have good political skills.
◦ They must have self control and must be situational.
◦ They want someone who listens to them and respects their views.
◦ Someone who gives them energy and makes them feel involved and even electrified.
◦ They want someone whose passion and drive make it fun to work with them.
WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT?
◦ They must be interpersonal and intrapersonal.
◦ They want to be trusted and in turn, to trust their leader.
◦ They want to be appreciated and to have their successes celebrated.
◦ They want to feel valued, as much as they need to value their colleagues and the company
for which they work.
◦ They want to have fun, and enjoy what they do, and they want to believe that what they
do makes a difference.
◦ Followers want leaders to make them feel inspired.
◦ They want leaders to be accessible, with genuine humility and even, occasionally,
vulnerability.
GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS
◦ Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments
and in solving problems.
◦ The definition of a follower is someone who agrees with the beliefs of others, or listens
to the lead or commands of another.
◦ The ideal follower knows when to provide critical thought, when to let others take the
role in generating ideas, when they should be active and when they can take a back seat.
◦ Guidance is for everyone but followers need guidance to judge, analyse and to check that
leader which they are following, whether whom they are following is right or not,
beneficial for them or not.
GUIDELINE FOR AN EFFECTIVE
FOLLOWERS
◦ If you want to become a great leader you must first become a great follower.
◦ Offer support to leader.
◦ Take initiative.
◦ Raise issues and/or concerns when necessary.
◦ Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader.
◦ Clarify your role and expectations.
◦ Show appreciation.
◦ Keep the leader informed.
GUIDELINE FOR AN EFFECTIVE
FOLLOWERS
◦ Resist inappropriate influence of leader.
◦ Support leader efforts to make necessary changes.
◦ Challenge flawed plans and proposals made by leaders.
◦ Provide upgrade counseling and coaching when appropriate.
GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS
◦ Guideline for followers;
◦ Need awareness – followers learn to read people and understand what upsets and motivates
them.
◦ If responsibility is offered, take it – take the risk and volunteer. Don’t let a job description or
pay grade keep you from stepping up. Your job or pay grade might just change later for the better.
◦ Do speak honestly and openly with your leader – but do so in private. Disagree with them,
when it is necessary, so that the situation can be worked out. But also keep the conversation
private so as to not undermine the rapport you have built with them.
◦ Create an idea or make a decision, then run it past the leader – it shows initiative. It also
keeps a leader from becoming a micromanager by showing you are active and getting the work
done.
GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS
◦ It’s easy to criticize a decision a leader has made – but show your support. If
something a leader has decided is unpopular but necessary, remember they rely on you
for laying the ground work for support.
◦ If you see a problem, fix it – even if it’s not “your problem”. If it is something you
aren’t capable of fixing, bring it to the leader with any idea you have for a solution.
◦ Know how much time you have and any limitations – because if you recommend an
idea, you are most likely the one to carry it out. Hang on to any great ideas for when you
might have the time to take them on.
◦ Admit when you miscalculated or made a mistake – a leader can help you fix it and
go to bat for you.
GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS
◦ They must be competent – The follower cannot follow properly unless competent at
the task that is directed by the leader. It is the obligation of the leader to assure that
followers are competent.
◦ Have courage to say something – support and aid the leader when he or she is doing
the right thing, and stand up to the leader–having the courage to let the leader know
when he or she is doing something wrong or headed in the wrong direction.
SEX BIASED DISCRIMINATION
◦ Sex or gender biased discrimination means,
“A situation in which someone is treated less well because of their sex or gender,
usually when a woman is treated less well than a man.”
◦ Literal meaning of sex biased discrimination is unequal differentiation with respect to
gender or sex.
◦ It has been linked to stereotypes and may include the belief that one sex or gender is
intrinsically superior to another.
◦ Extreme discrimination may foster many forms of sexual violence.
SEX BIASED DISCRIMINATION
◦ Gender discrimination affects both men and women.
◦ It is apparent in work situations where one gender is given preferential treatment or one
gender receives less pay or job responsibilities because of gender bias and unfair
stereotypes.
◦ Gender discrimination also exists in sports, educational institutions and political
organizations.
◦ Gender discrimination is just one part of Gender Inequality.
◦ This unequal differentiation is divided in sexism and gender discrimination.
SEX BIASED DISCRIMINATION
◦ Sexism refers to attitudes, decision-making, policies, or assertions that intrude gender
into issues where it is not needed, or that make stereotypical assumptions or
generalizations about people based on their gender.
◦ Gender discrimination is making a decision about some issue taking a person’s gender
into account.
◦ Gender biases not only describe stereotyped characteristics of men and women, but they
also set standards for how men and women should think and behave.
EXAMPLES OF DISCRIMINATION
◦ Personality traits
◦ Women are often expected to be passive and submissive, while men are usually
expected to be self-confident and aggressive.
◦ Domestic behaviours
◦ Caring for children is often considered best done by women, while household repairs
(constructive work) are often considered best done by men.
◦ Discrimination in Education
◦ Women are treated unequally in education. As education is for all but there are some
stereotypes in backward areas like villages (specifically in Asian region) says that it is
not for women.
EXAMPLE OF DISCRIMINATION
◦ Occupations
◦ Until very recently most nurses and secretaries were usually women, and most doctors
and construction workers were usually men.
◦ Physical appearance
◦ Women are expected to be small and graceful, while men are expected to be tall and
broad-shouldered.
◦ Wage Discrimination
◦ There have been many situations in which men and women perform the same type of work
and they probably have the same education too, but still employers don’t give equal pay for
women. This difference is merely because of gender inequality.
SOME COMMON STEREOTYPES
MEN
◦ Men do not do housework and they are
not responsible for taking care of
children.
◦ Men are in charge; they are always at the
top.
◦ Men do "dirty jobs" such as
construction and mechanics; they are
not secretaries, teachers, or
cosmetologist.
WOMEN
◦ Women are supposed to cook and do
housework. Women are responsible for
raising children.
◦ Women are never in charge.
◦ Women are supposed to have "clean
jobs" such as secretaries, teachers, and
librarians.
SOME COMMON STEREOTYPES
MEN
◦ Men are dominant and do whatever they
want.
◦ Men do not cook, sew, or do crafts.
◦ As men are dominant so only they can
lead an organization or country.
◦ Education is only for men.
◦ Men are effective speakers and
communicators.
WOMEN
◦ Women are supposed to be submissive
and do as they are told.
◦ Women do not have technical skills.
◦ Women can not lead an organization or
country.
◦ Women don’t need to be educated.
◦ Women do not have good
communication skills.
DISCRIMINATION IN PAKISTAN
◦ The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 compiled by the World Economic Forum ranks
countries on gender gap and includes factors such as economic participation and
opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival and political empowerment.
◦ The report has ranked Pakistan 143 out of 144 countries. Unfortunately, Pakistan has not
only fared particularly poorly in 2016, but its rankings have deteriorated fore decade.
Comparing Pakistan’s performance in the South Asian region, India has done much
better being ranked 87 out of 144 countries.
◦ Pakistan is also the worst performing state in South Asia and has been for the last couple
of years, while Sri Lanka ranks 100th, Nepal 110th, the Maldives 115th and Bhutan
121st.
DISCRIMINATION IN PAKISTAN
◦ The only country ranked below Pakistan is Yemen (144), while Syria is one place ahead at
142.
◦ Pakistan ranked 112th in 2006, the first year of the report. Since then, its position has
been deteriorating every year. Pakistan ranked 135th in 2013, 141st in 2014 and 143rd in
2015.
◦ The report captures progress towards parity between men and women in four areas:
educational attainment, health and survival, economic opportunity and political
empowerment.

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School leadership and management

  • 2. POWER AND LEADERSHIP ◦ The ability or capacity to do something or act in a particular way. ◦ Power is opportunity to build, to create, to nudge the history in a different direction. By Richard Nixon ◦ Power in itself is neither good nor bad. But it is precisely its way of using what determines whether it is functional or dysfunctional (harmful). ◦ At a basic level, leaders need power. They need the power to influence, to develop, and to enable people. ◦ The leader’s power should always be seen as a means to an end, with the ‘end’ being the achievement of worthwhile outcomes for the greater good.
  • 3. SOURCE OF POWER ◦ The ability to marshal human, informational, or material resources to get something done. By Rees & Porter ◦ Effective leadership is not based on having power, but rather on how the leader uses the power. When most people think about power, their minds go immediately to the control that high-level leaders exert from their positions atop the organizational hierarchy. ◦ Some sources of power are; ◦ Position ◦ Charisma ◦ Information ◦ Expertise ◦ Punishment ◦ Reward
  • 4. SOURCE OF POWER ◦ Research in this area has identified six bases of power that leaders may leverage: The power of position is the formal authority that derives from a person’s title or position in a group or an organization. It is also called legitimate power. ◦ Legitimate Power is how the leader got into the position in the first place whether by election, appointment, hiring, or volunteering. ◦ This type of power is dependent upon the official position held by the person exercising it. ◦ This power comes when employees in the organization recognize the authority of individual. For example, the CEO who determines the overall direction of the company and the resource needs of the company.
  • 5. The power of charisma is the influence that is generated by a leader’s style or persona. ◦ The idea of charisma has taken on many interpretations, some staying true to the purest definition, with others expanding to celebrity-like proportions. ◦ The leaders of this leadership have clear vision, good communication skills and high principles. ◦ Followers are often in the awe of relationship. SOURCE OF POWER
  • 6. SOURCE OF POWER The power of information is the control that is generated through the use of evidence deployed to make an argument. ° Information Power is what you have if you possess knowledge that others need or want. ° This power is related to your ability to get access to information, and doesn’t require expertise. ° Information power is time-sensitive.
  • 7. SOURCE OF POWER The power of expertise is the influence that comes from developing and communicating specialized knowledge (or the perception of knowledge). ° People who have more knowledge or experience than other members of their team exhibit expert power. ° Expert Power is based on knowledge, special skills, or experience. ° When you know more about something than everyone else, you just became the expert. This includes experience in doing something.
  • 8. SOURCE OF POWER  The power of punishment is the ability to sanction individuals for failure to conform to standards or expectations. ° Legitimate position of power may include the authority to fire someone, demote them, deny privileges, or give them low marks on their annual evaluation. ° Heavy reliance on Coercive Power is a symptom of poor leadership and a toxic working environment that will ultimately make your team weaker instead of stronger. ° It’s not a good way to motivate people to excel.
  • 9. SOURCE OF POWER  The power of reward is the ability to recognize or reward individuals for adhering to standards or expectations. ◦ Power of a Rewards can be tangible or intangible. ◦ The key distinction between a tangible reward and an intangible reward is that tangible rewards are physical things, while intangible rewards are not. ◦ Examples of tangible rewards include monetary awards, wage or salary increases, bonuses, plaques, certificates and gifts. ◦ And while money can be a great short-term incentive, there are actually much more powerful ways to reward than straight up cash.
  • 10. WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT? ◦ Leaders cannot exist without followers, nor can followers exist without leaders. ◦ Leaders can influence their followers but not without follower compliance. ◦ Leaders who understand what their followers want are successful leaders and gain the compliance of their followers. ◦ Maslow helps leaders understand this connection with followers through his Hierarchy of needs. ◦ Physiological need ◦ Safety need ◦ Social need ◦ Esteem need ◦ Self-actualization need
  • 11. WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT? ◦ Maslow focused more on the whole person of the follower and leader and saw them as people with “values” and people who make “choices.” ◦ For any leader, though, the most important audience is followers. Nothing gets done without inspired and motivated followers. ◦ People follow leaders for some reasons and for some specific wants. ◦ The four main things they want are; ◦ Trust: Respect, integrity and honesty ◦ Compassion: Caring, friendship, happiness and love ◦ Stability: Security, strength, support and peace ◦ Hope: Direction, faith and guidance
  • 12. WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT? ◦ They want their leader must be intelligent, responsible, confident and most importantly honest. ◦ They must have effective communicational skills. ◦ Leaders have good political skills. ◦ They must have self control and must be situational. ◦ They want someone who listens to them and respects their views. ◦ Someone who gives them energy and makes them feel involved and even electrified. ◦ They want someone whose passion and drive make it fun to work with them.
  • 13. WHAT FOLLOWERS WANT? ◦ They must be interpersonal and intrapersonal. ◦ They want to be trusted and in turn, to trust their leader. ◦ They want to be appreciated and to have their successes celebrated. ◦ They want to feel valued, as much as they need to value their colleagues and the company for which they work. ◦ They want to have fun, and enjoy what they do, and they want to believe that what they do makes a difference. ◦ Followers want leaders to make them feel inspired. ◦ They want leaders to be accessible, with genuine humility and even, occasionally, vulnerability.
  • 14. GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS ◦ Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems. ◦ The definition of a follower is someone who agrees with the beliefs of others, or listens to the lead or commands of another. ◦ The ideal follower knows when to provide critical thought, when to let others take the role in generating ideas, when they should be active and when they can take a back seat. ◦ Guidance is for everyone but followers need guidance to judge, analyse and to check that leader which they are following, whether whom they are following is right or not, beneficial for them or not.
  • 15. GUIDELINE FOR AN EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS ◦ If you want to become a great leader you must first become a great follower. ◦ Offer support to leader. ◦ Take initiative. ◦ Raise issues and/or concerns when necessary. ◦ Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader. ◦ Clarify your role and expectations. ◦ Show appreciation. ◦ Keep the leader informed.
  • 16. GUIDELINE FOR AN EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS ◦ Resist inappropriate influence of leader. ◦ Support leader efforts to make necessary changes. ◦ Challenge flawed plans and proposals made by leaders. ◦ Provide upgrade counseling and coaching when appropriate.
  • 17. GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS ◦ Guideline for followers; ◦ Need awareness – followers learn to read people and understand what upsets and motivates them. ◦ If responsibility is offered, take it – take the risk and volunteer. Don’t let a job description or pay grade keep you from stepping up. Your job or pay grade might just change later for the better. ◦ Do speak honestly and openly with your leader – but do so in private. Disagree with them, when it is necessary, so that the situation can be worked out. But also keep the conversation private so as to not undermine the rapport you have built with them. ◦ Create an idea or make a decision, then run it past the leader – it shows initiative. It also keeps a leader from becoming a micromanager by showing you are active and getting the work done.
  • 18. GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS ◦ It’s easy to criticize a decision a leader has made – but show your support. If something a leader has decided is unpopular but necessary, remember they rely on you for laying the ground work for support. ◦ If you see a problem, fix it – even if it’s not “your problem”. If it is something you aren’t capable of fixing, bring it to the leader with any idea you have for a solution. ◦ Know how much time you have and any limitations – because if you recommend an idea, you are most likely the one to carry it out. Hang on to any great ideas for when you might have the time to take them on. ◦ Admit when you miscalculated or made a mistake – a leader can help you fix it and go to bat for you.
  • 19. GUIDANCE FOR FOLLOWERS ◦ They must be competent – The follower cannot follow properly unless competent at the task that is directed by the leader. It is the obligation of the leader to assure that followers are competent. ◦ Have courage to say something – support and aid the leader when he or she is doing the right thing, and stand up to the leader–having the courage to let the leader know when he or she is doing something wrong or headed in the wrong direction.
  • 20. SEX BIASED DISCRIMINATION ◦ Sex or gender biased discrimination means, “A situation in which someone is treated less well because of their sex or gender, usually when a woman is treated less well than a man.” ◦ Literal meaning of sex biased discrimination is unequal differentiation with respect to gender or sex. ◦ It has been linked to stereotypes and may include the belief that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another. ◦ Extreme discrimination may foster many forms of sexual violence.
  • 21. SEX BIASED DISCRIMINATION ◦ Gender discrimination affects both men and women. ◦ It is apparent in work situations where one gender is given preferential treatment or one gender receives less pay or job responsibilities because of gender bias and unfair stereotypes. ◦ Gender discrimination also exists in sports, educational institutions and political organizations. ◦ Gender discrimination is just one part of Gender Inequality. ◦ This unequal differentiation is divided in sexism and gender discrimination.
  • 22. SEX BIASED DISCRIMINATION ◦ Sexism refers to attitudes, decision-making, policies, or assertions that intrude gender into issues where it is not needed, or that make stereotypical assumptions or generalizations about people based on their gender. ◦ Gender discrimination is making a decision about some issue taking a person’s gender into account. ◦ Gender biases not only describe stereotyped characteristics of men and women, but they also set standards for how men and women should think and behave.
  • 23. EXAMPLES OF DISCRIMINATION ◦ Personality traits ◦ Women are often expected to be passive and submissive, while men are usually expected to be self-confident and aggressive. ◦ Domestic behaviours ◦ Caring for children is often considered best done by women, while household repairs (constructive work) are often considered best done by men. ◦ Discrimination in Education ◦ Women are treated unequally in education. As education is for all but there are some stereotypes in backward areas like villages (specifically in Asian region) says that it is not for women.
  • 24. EXAMPLE OF DISCRIMINATION ◦ Occupations ◦ Until very recently most nurses and secretaries were usually women, and most doctors and construction workers were usually men. ◦ Physical appearance ◦ Women are expected to be small and graceful, while men are expected to be tall and broad-shouldered. ◦ Wage Discrimination ◦ There have been many situations in which men and women perform the same type of work and they probably have the same education too, but still employers don’t give equal pay for women. This difference is merely because of gender inequality.
  • 25. SOME COMMON STEREOTYPES MEN ◦ Men do not do housework and they are not responsible for taking care of children. ◦ Men are in charge; they are always at the top. ◦ Men do "dirty jobs" such as construction and mechanics; they are not secretaries, teachers, or cosmetologist. WOMEN ◦ Women are supposed to cook and do housework. Women are responsible for raising children. ◦ Women are never in charge. ◦ Women are supposed to have "clean jobs" such as secretaries, teachers, and librarians.
  • 26. SOME COMMON STEREOTYPES MEN ◦ Men are dominant and do whatever they want. ◦ Men do not cook, sew, or do crafts. ◦ As men are dominant so only they can lead an organization or country. ◦ Education is only for men. ◦ Men are effective speakers and communicators. WOMEN ◦ Women are supposed to be submissive and do as they are told. ◦ Women do not have technical skills. ◦ Women can not lead an organization or country. ◦ Women don’t need to be educated. ◦ Women do not have good communication skills.
  • 27. DISCRIMINATION IN PAKISTAN ◦ The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 compiled by the World Economic Forum ranks countries on gender gap and includes factors such as economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival and political empowerment. ◦ The report has ranked Pakistan 143 out of 144 countries. Unfortunately, Pakistan has not only fared particularly poorly in 2016, but its rankings have deteriorated fore decade. Comparing Pakistan’s performance in the South Asian region, India has done much better being ranked 87 out of 144 countries. ◦ Pakistan is also the worst performing state in South Asia and has been for the last couple of years, while Sri Lanka ranks 100th, Nepal 110th, the Maldives 115th and Bhutan 121st.
  • 28. DISCRIMINATION IN PAKISTAN ◦ The only country ranked below Pakistan is Yemen (144), while Syria is one place ahead at 142. ◦ Pakistan ranked 112th in 2006, the first year of the report. Since then, its position has been deteriorating every year. Pakistan ranked 135th in 2013, 141st in 2014 and 143rd in 2015. ◦ The report captures progress towards parity between men and women in four areas: educational attainment, health and survival, economic opportunity and political empowerment.