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Purchasing Wine in the Information Age:
The Role of Quick Response (QR) Codes
Lindsey Higgins
Mitch Wolf
Marianne McGarry Wolf
California Polytechnic State University
San Luis Obispo, CA
Selected paper prepared for the 2013 AAWE conference in Stellenbosch, South Africa
Motivation
 Wine as an experiential good
 Wine as information laden
 Implications for purchase decisions
Cooper-Martin (1991)
Thach (2008)
Top purchase decision criteria:
Prior tasting experience
Motivation
 Technology empowers consumers
Motivation
Motivation
 Quick Response (QR) Codes
 Developed as supply chain strategy tool
Motivation
 Comscore (2012)
 QR code use in Europe increased 96% from 2011 to 2012
 17.4 million users in July of 2012
 3 out of 4 users scanned the QR code for product information
 October of 2011, 20.4 million Americans used their smart
phone to scan a QR code for product information
 Okazaki and Barwise (2011)
 QR codes as an area of emerging research and growth in
retailing
QR Codes Information
Purchase
Decision
• Product knowledge is key in consumer
decision-making (Raju, Lonial, and Mangold,
1993)
• Information search as the primary method
of risk reduction in the wine purchase
decision (Mitchell and Greatorex, 1989)
• One step closer to interactive marketing
(Shin, Jung, and Chang, 2012)
• Younger wine consumers?
• purchase out of convenience
• little wine knowledge
• more likely to be engaged
electronically
(Lecat and Pelet, 2011)
Objectives
 Explore the role of QR codes in the wine purchase decision
 desirability of QR codes on wine labels
 Determine the segment of consumers most likely to respond to
QR codes
 wine consumption behavior
 demographics
 wine knowledge
 other sources of wine information
Methods
 25 question survey designed
 demographics, reported behavior
 QR code concept exposure
 Administered during the fall of 2012 to wine consumers
 nationally recognized test market location
 intercept approach
The hands that tend our vineyards are the same
that craft our wine, a rare tradition in today’s
wine industry. For three generations our family’s
vineyard-to-bottle ideology has allowed us to
create lively, approachable wines with plenty of
character.
$11.99 $9.99
Our back label
has a QR code.
Methods
 11 point purchase intent scale (Juster, 1966)
 Verbal anchors and probability estimates
Results: Demographics
 631 usable responses
 52% Male
Results: Features
 11 features
 5 point scale
 Extremely desirable (5) to Not desirable at all (1)
The following is a list of features people may look
for when purchasing wines. Please indicate the
desirability of each feature to you when you
purchase wine.
Results: Features
Feature
% Extremely /
Very Desirable
Feature
% Extremely/
Very Desirable
Good value for the money 85.3% Screwcap closure 11.4%
Locally produced 52.2% Organically grown 31.9%
Grown in an enviro.
friendly way
47.1% Sustainably grown 33.9%
Recommended by friends 73%
Grown using
biotechnology
11.9%
Varietal I like 79.3%
From a family
owned winery
46.9%
Feature
% Extremely / Very
Desirable
% Not Desirable at all
QR Code 7.4% 43.9%
Results: Concept Exposure
 50% of respondents said there was at least 60 chances in 100
they would buy the new wine
Results: Concept Exposure
 Respondents indicated they were likely to purchase 11.33
bottles of wine in the next 3 months
 If available, respondents likely to purchase 3.44bottles of the
concept wine in the next 3 months
Results: Concept QR
 Increase purchase interest?
 38% reported that it definitely
did not increase their purchase
interest
 31.2% reported that it
probably did not increase their
purchase interest
Results: QR Increase Segment
 Reported influence of QR code
 Few demographic differences
 No difference in:
 Age
 Beer consumption
 Wine consumption or spending
 Gender
 Relationship status
 Education
 Employment
 Income
QR increased
purchase interest
11.6%
QR did not increase
purchase interest
88.4%
VS.
Results: QR Increase Segment
 Reported influence of QR code
 Few demographic differences
 No differences in closure preferences
 More likely to regularly use apps
QR Increased
purchase interest
11.6%
QR did not increase
purchase interest
88.4%
VS.
Results: QR Segments and Features
Feature
QR likely to
Increase
QR not likely to
increase
P-value
QR Code 3.08 1.8 .000
Locally produced 3.88 3.51 .004
Produced in an enviro.
friendly way
3.75 3.31 .001
Organically grown 3.45 2.96 .000
Certified Sustainable 3.38 3.00 .005
Biotech used 2.62 2.37 .042
Family owned 3.71 3.34 .006
5= Extremely desirable, 4=Very desirable, 3=Somewhat desirable, 2=Not very desirable, 1= Not desirable at all
Results: QR Segments and Info
Info Source
QR likely to
Increase
QR not likely to
increase
P-value
Google 56% 35% .000
Facebook 33% 21% .024
Youtube 14% 5% .006
Facebook ads 8% 2% .002
Blogs 16% 7% .003
Which of the following do you regularly use to
get news or find information about wine?
Results: QR Segments and Descriptors
Descriptor
QR likely to
Increase
QR not likely to
increase
P-value
Wine enthusiast 2.96 2.67 .006
Talk wine 3.00 2.65 .000
Wine Connoisseur 2.42 2.16 .008
Would use an app that
allows me to instantly
purchase wine
2.71 2.24 .005
4=Strongly agree, 3=Agree, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly disagree
How strongly do you agree or disagree with
the following statements?
Conclusions
 Little importance to most
 No differences by age
 Marketers may be more fond of QR codes than consumers
 Some differences related to information
 Interested in production characteristics
 Interested in learning more
 Interested in talking about wine
QR code
becomes very
useful tool
Conclusions
Targeted
Group Learn More About
Wine
Production
Characteristics
Talk About
Wine
2%
13%
9%
.6%
.6%
2% 2
%
.6% of 631
consumers
=
4 consumers
Concluding Remarks
 Questions
 Contact information:
Lindsey Higgins
lhiggins@calpoly.edu
Marianne McGarry Wolf
mwolf@calpoly.edu

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QR Codes:Purchasing Wine in the Information Age

  • 1. Purchasing Wine in the Information Age: The Role of Quick Response (QR) Codes Lindsey Higgins Mitch Wolf Marianne McGarry Wolf California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA Selected paper prepared for the 2013 AAWE conference in Stellenbosch, South Africa
  • 2. Motivation  Wine as an experiential good  Wine as information laden  Implications for purchase decisions Cooper-Martin (1991) Thach (2008) Top purchase decision criteria: Prior tasting experience
  • 5. Motivation  Quick Response (QR) Codes  Developed as supply chain strategy tool
  • 6. Motivation  Comscore (2012)  QR code use in Europe increased 96% from 2011 to 2012  17.4 million users in July of 2012  3 out of 4 users scanned the QR code for product information  October of 2011, 20.4 million Americans used their smart phone to scan a QR code for product information  Okazaki and Barwise (2011)  QR codes as an area of emerging research and growth in retailing
  • 7. QR Codes Information Purchase Decision • Product knowledge is key in consumer decision-making (Raju, Lonial, and Mangold, 1993) • Information search as the primary method of risk reduction in the wine purchase decision (Mitchell and Greatorex, 1989) • One step closer to interactive marketing (Shin, Jung, and Chang, 2012) • Younger wine consumers? • purchase out of convenience • little wine knowledge • more likely to be engaged electronically (Lecat and Pelet, 2011)
  • 8.
  • 9. Objectives  Explore the role of QR codes in the wine purchase decision  desirability of QR codes on wine labels  Determine the segment of consumers most likely to respond to QR codes  wine consumption behavior  demographics  wine knowledge  other sources of wine information
  • 10. Methods  25 question survey designed  demographics, reported behavior  QR code concept exposure  Administered during the fall of 2012 to wine consumers  nationally recognized test market location  intercept approach
  • 11. The hands that tend our vineyards are the same that craft our wine, a rare tradition in today’s wine industry. For three generations our family’s vineyard-to-bottle ideology has allowed us to create lively, approachable wines with plenty of character. $11.99 $9.99 Our back label has a QR code.
  • 12.
  • 13. Methods  11 point purchase intent scale (Juster, 1966)  Verbal anchors and probability estimates
  • 14. Results: Demographics  631 usable responses  52% Male
  • 15. Results: Features  11 features  5 point scale  Extremely desirable (5) to Not desirable at all (1) The following is a list of features people may look for when purchasing wines. Please indicate the desirability of each feature to you when you purchase wine.
  • 16. Results: Features Feature % Extremely / Very Desirable Feature % Extremely/ Very Desirable Good value for the money 85.3% Screwcap closure 11.4% Locally produced 52.2% Organically grown 31.9% Grown in an enviro. friendly way 47.1% Sustainably grown 33.9% Recommended by friends 73% Grown using biotechnology 11.9% Varietal I like 79.3% From a family owned winery 46.9% Feature % Extremely / Very Desirable % Not Desirable at all QR Code 7.4% 43.9%
  • 17. Results: Concept Exposure  50% of respondents said there was at least 60 chances in 100 they would buy the new wine
  • 18. Results: Concept Exposure  Respondents indicated they were likely to purchase 11.33 bottles of wine in the next 3 months  If available, respondents likely to purchase 3.44bottles of the concept wine in the next 3 months
  • 19. Results: Concept QR  Increase purchase interest?  38% reported that it definitely did not increase their purchase interest  31.2% reported that it probably did not increase their purchase interest
  • 20. Results: QR Increase Segment  Reported influence of QR code  Few demographic differences  No difference in:  Age  Beer consumption  Wine consumption or spending  Gender  Relationship status  Education  Employment  Income QR increased purchase interest 11.6% QR did not increase purchase interest 88.4% VS.
  • 21. Results: QR Increase Segment  Reported influence of QR code  Few demographic differences  No differences in closure preferences  More likely to regularly use apps QR Increased purchase interest 11.6% QR did not increase purchase interest 88.4% VS.
  • 22. Results: QR Segments and Features Feature QR likely to Increase QR not likely to increase P-value QR Code 3.08 1.8 .000 Locally produced 3.88 3.51 .004 Produced in an enviro. friendly way 3.75 3.31 .001 Organically grown 3.45 2.96 .000 Certified Sustainable 3.38 3.00 .005 Biotech used 2.62 2.37 .042 Family owned 3.71 3.34 .006 5= Extremely desirable, 4=Very desirable, 3=Somewhat desirable, 2=Not very desirable, 1= Not desirable at all
  • 23. Results: QR Segments and Info Info Source QR likely to Increase QR not likely to increase P-value Google 56% 35% .000 Facebook 33% 21% .024 Youtube 14% 5% .006 Facebook ads 8% 2% .002 Blogs 16% 7% .003 Which of the following do you regularly use to get news or find information about wine?
  • 24. Results: QR Segments and Descriptors Descriptor QR likely to Increase QR not likely to increase P-value Wine enthusiast 2.96 2.67 .006 Talk wine 3.00 2.65 .000 Wine Connoisseur 2.42 2.16 .008 Would use an app that allows me to instantly purchase wine 2.71 2.24 .005 4=Strongly agree, 3=Agree, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly disagree How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
  • 25. Conclusions  Little importance to most  No differences by age  Marketers may be more fond of QR codes than consumers  Some differences related to information  Interested in production characteristics  Interested in learning more  Interested in talking about wine QR code becomes very useful tool
  • 26. Conclusions Targeted Group Learn More About Wine Production Characteristics Talk About Wine 2% 13% 9% .6% .6% 2% 2 % .6% of 631 consumers = 4 consumers
  • 27. Concluding Remarks  Questions  Contact information: Lindsey Higgins lhiggins@calpoly.edu Marianne McGarry Wolf mwolf@calpoly.edu