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MYSTERIOUS PINEAL GLAND
PINEAL GLAND??????
-a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain
PHYSICAL CHARACTERSTICS ::
• Color :: Reddish grey
•It is larger in children, but shrinks with the onset of
puberty
•In adults, it weighs a bit more than 0.1 grams and is
about 0.8 cm long
•Lacks a blood-brain barrier, therefore, receives blood,
oxygen, & nutrients through a rich vascular network
EPONYMS..!!!
• BIOLOGICAL CLOCK
• EPIPHYSIS
• EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI
• CONARIUM
• A THIRD-EYE
WHY PINEAL GLAND
Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name)
The Pineal Gland
. It is stimulated by nerves from the eyes.
WHERE????
-attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain, beneath the posterior end of the corpus
callosum
WHERE????
FUNCTIONS OF PINEAL GLAND
Melatonin: The Pineal Gland Hormone
• Circadian Rhythm
• Reproduction
REPRODUCTION
• blocks the secretion of gonadotropins (lH &
FSH)
from anterior pituitary gland.
• These hormones aid in the proper
development and functioning of the ovaries
and testes.
DON’T CONFUSE..!!
MELATONIN WITH MELANIN!!!!!
MELATONIN
• special because its secretion is dictated by
• Natural Sleeping Tablet
MELATONIN VS TIME
MELATONIN VS AGE
CICARDIAN CYCLE..!!
Circadian rhythms are physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow
a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an
organism's environment.
BIOLOGICAL CLOCK & CIRCADIAN CYCLE----
SAME??
• Related but not same..!!!
• Our biological clocks drive our
circadian rhythms.
BIOLOGICAL CLOCK
The biological clocks that control circadian rhythms are groupings
of interacting molecules in cells throughout the body. A "master
clock" in the brain coordinates all the body clocks so that they are
MASTER CLOCK
The "master clock" that
controls circadian rhythms
consists of a group of
nerve cells in the brain
called the suprachiasmatic
nucleus, or SCN. The
SCN contains about
20,000 nerve cells and is
located in the
hypothalamus, an area of
the brain just above where
the optic nerves from the
eyes cross.
DISORDER..!!!
JET LAG
Jet lag occurs when travelers suffer
from disrupted circadian rhythms.
When you pass through different
time zones, your body's clock will
be different from your wristwatch.
For example, if you fly in an
airplane from California to New
York, you "lose" 3 hours of time.
So when you wake up at 7:00 a.m.,
your body still thinks it's 4:00 a.m.,
making you feel groggy and
disoriented. Your body's clock will
eventually reset itself, but this
often takes a few days.
DISORDERS..!!
Delayed Circadian Rhythm Disorder
• DCR constitutes a mismatch between you
external and internal clocks. Your internal
clock runs slower than a normal
circadian rhythm which is a 24-hour
period so your body doesn't 'wake up'
until later in the morning or day.
• When its time to wake up, your body
clock believes it’s only midnight and is
still producing the nighttime hormones.
DELAYED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER
As a result:::::
DELAYED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
DISORDER
Symptoms:::::
• Difficulty falling and staying asleep, and or
late night insomnia.
• A general lack of energy in the morning.
• An increase of energy/mood in the evening
or late at night.
• Difficulty concentrating, being alert, or
accomplishing tasks
• Some DCR sufferers oversleep and have
trouble getting up
ADVANCED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
DISORDER (ACR)
• opposite of DCR
• With ACR, your internal body clock is running faster
than a normal circadian rhythm.
ADVANCED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER
As a result:::::
ADVANCED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER
Symptoms:::::
• Early morning awakening and/or early
morning Insomnia
• Inconsistent sleep with one or more awake
periods during the night
• Lack of energy during the day, feeling tired
in the early afternoon and/or evening
• Alertness and ability to function may also
be diminished
• Some ACR sufferers may not notice a
sleep problem but lose energy and feel
tired or down in the afternoon or evening
time.
CALCIFICATION OF PINEAL
GLAND
This calcification process is caused by constant exposure to
substances like fluoride which build up in the body over
time.
• Toothpaste,
• public water systems,
• hormones,
• food additives,
• excess sugar and sweeteners in your diet or even regular
exposure to cell phones has been linked to the
phenomenon of calcifying the pineal gland.
CALCIFICATION OF PINEAL
GLAND
CORPUS PINEALE
Эпифиз. Дольки (окраска
гематоксилином и
эозином): 1 - долька; 2 –
соединительнотканные
междольковые септы; 3 -
эпифизарные конкреции; 4 -
кровеносные сосуды
PRODUCTS rich with
triptophan ( amino acid-
a substrate of
melatonin)):
chesse, yogurt,banana,
finics, milk, sesamum
.
70% of melatonin are secreted at
night; at the same time, the
injections of melatonin can
postpone ageing...
i.e, the one who sleeps less ages
fast..
MELATONIN increases immunity and
prevents tumors.
EPIPHYSIS & AGEING
EPIPHYSIS & AGEING
CONTROVERSIAL ::: THIRD
- EYE
CONTROVERSIAL ::: THIRD -
EYE
Many different cultures talk about our “third eye,” and modern
theories suggest that this may be a reference to the pineal.
Even more peculiar is the fact that pineal gland symbology can
be traced to many civilizations such as the Romans, Mexicans,
Egyptians, Babylonians and the Greeks.
WATER AGAMA :.
BULL FROG.
Third eye (теменной) — is
unpaired, light sensitive organ of
some FISHES , AMPHIBIANS
&REPTILES…
(8th centuryBC :: Ayurveda)
FUNCTIONS:
•Percepts intensity and direction of the light;
•Percepts magnetic field of the earth;
•Works as endocrine gland;
•Regulates daily and yearly carcadian rhythm of all other
endocrine glands;
•Participates in temperature regulation.
HAS: :: Retina, optic nerve and lens derivative
HAS NO: Iris, eyelids and eyeball muscles.
Development of third-eye
LESS SECRETION OF
MELATONIN::VITILIGAEXCESS SECRETION OF
MELATONIN ::
HYPERPIGMENTAITON
EFFECTS OF MELATONIN –
• Lack of melatonin causes
early PUBERTY
THANK-YOU 

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Pineal glad

  • 2. PINEAL GLAND?????? -a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain PHYSICAL CHARACTERSTICS :: • Color :: Reddish grey •It is larger in children, but shrinks with the onset of puberty •In adults, it weighs a bit more than 0.1 grams and is about 0.8 cm long •Lacks a blood-brain barrier, therefore, receives blood, oxygen, & nutrients through a rich vascular network
  • 3. EPONYMS..!!! • BIOLOGICAL CLOCK • EPIPHYSIS • EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI • CONARIUM • A THIRD-EYE
  • 4. WHY PINEAL GLAND Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name)
  • 5. The Pineal Gland . It is stimulated by nerves from the eyes. WHERE???? -attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain, beneath the posterior end of the corpus callosum
  • 7. FUNCTIONS OF PINEAL GLAND Melatonin: The Pineal Gland Hormone • Circadian Rhythm • Reproduction
  • 8. REPRODUCTION • blocks the secretion of gonadotropins (lH & FSH) from anterior pituitary gland. • These hormones aid in the proper development and functioning of the ovaries and testes.
  • 10. MELATONIN • special because its secretion is dictated by • Natural Sleeping Tablet
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  • 16. CICARDIAN CYCLE..!! Circadian rhythms are physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment.
  • 17. BIOLOGICAL CLOCK & CIRCADIAN CYCLE---- SAME?? • Related but not same..!!! • Our biological clocks drive our circadian rhythms.
  • 18. BIOLOGICAL CLOCK The biological clocks that control circadian rhythms are groupings of interacting molecules in cells throughout the body. A "master clock" in the brain coordinates all the body clocks so that they are
  • 19. MASTER CLOCK The "master clock" that controls circadian rhythms consists of a group of nerve cells in the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, or SCN. The SCN contains about 20,000 nerve cells and is located in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain just above where the optic nerves from the eyes cross.
  • 20. DISORDER..!!! JET LAG Jet lag occurs when travelers suffer from disrupted circadian rhythms. When you pass through different time zones, your body's clock will be different from your wristwatch. For example, if you fly in an airplane from California to New York, you "lose" 3 hours of time. So when you wake up at 7:00 a.m., your body still thinks it's 4:00 a.m., making you feel groggy and disoriented. Your body's clock will eventually reset itself, but this often takes a few days.
  • 21. DISORDERS..!! Delayed Circadian Rhythm Disorder • DCR constitutes a mismatch between you external and internal clocks. Your internal clock runs slower than a normal circadian rhythm which is a 24-hour period so your body doesn't 'wake up' until later in the morning or day. • When its time to wake up, your body clock believes it’s only midnight and is still producing the nighttime hormones.
  • 22. DELAYED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER As a result:::::
  • 23. DELAYED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER Symptoms::::: • Difficulty falling and staying asleep, and or late night insomnia. • A general lack of energy in the morning. • An increase of energy/mood in the evening or late at night. • Difficulty concentrating, being alert, or accomplishing tasks • Some DCR sufferers oversleep and have trouble getting up
  • 24. ADVANCED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER (ACR) • opposite of DCR • With ACR, your internal body clock is running faster than a normal circadian rhythm.
  • 25. ADVANCED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER As a result:::::
  • 26. ADVANCED CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDER Symptoms::::: • Early morning awakening and/or early morning Insomnia • Inconsistent sleep with one or more awake periods during the night • Lack of energy during the day, feeling tired in the early afternoon and/or evening • Alertness and ability to function may also be diminished • Some ACR sufferers may not notice a sleep problem but lose energy and feel tired or down in the afternoon or evening time.
  • 27. CALCIFICATION OF PINEAL GLAND This calcification process is caused by constant exposure to substances like fluoride which build up in the body over time. • Toothpaste, • public water systems, • hormones, • food additives, • excess sugar and sweeteners in your diet or even regular exposure to cell phones has been linked to the phenomenon of calcifying the pineal gland.
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  • 32. CORPUS PINEALE Эпифиз. Дольки (окраска гематоксилином и эозином): 1 - долька; 2 – соединительнотканные междольковые септы; 3 - эпифизарные конкреции; 4 - кровеносные сосуды
  • 33. PRODUCTS rich with triptophan ( amino acid- a substrate of melatonin)): chesse, yogurt,banana, finics, milk, sesamum .
  • 34. 70% of melatonin are secreted at night; at the same time, the injections of melatonin can postpone ageing... i.e, the one who sleeps less ages fast.. MELATONIN increases immunity and prevents tumors. EPIPHYSIS & AGEING EPIPHYSIS & AGEING
  • 36. CONTROVERSIAL ::: THIRD - EYE Many different cultures talk about our “third eye,” and modern theories suggest that this may be a reference to the pineal. Even more peculiar is the fact that pineal gland symbology can be traced to many civilizations such as the Romans, Mexicans, Egyptians, Babylonians and the Greeks.
  • 37. WATER AGAMA :. BULL FROG. Third eye (теменной) — is unpaired, light sensitive organ of some FISHES , AMPHIBIANS &REPTILES… (8th centuryBC :: Ayurveda) FUNCTIONS: •Percepts intensity and direction of the light; •Percepts magnetic field of the earth; •Works as endocrine gland; •Regulates daily and yearly carcadian rhythm of all other endocrine glands; •Participates in temperature regulation. HAS: :: Retina, optic nerve and lens derivative HAS NO: Iris, eyelids and eyeball muscles. Development of third-eye
  • 38. LESS SECRETION OF MELATONIN::VITILIGAEXCESS SECRETION OF MELATONIN :: HYPERPIGMENTAITON
  • 39. EFFECTS OF MELATONIN – • Lack of melatonin causes early PUBERTY