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GOOD
MORNING
PERIODONTAL
MICROSURGER
Y
CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• PRINCIPLES OF MICROSURGERY
• CLINICAL PHILOSOPHY
• HAND CONTROL AND
• MICROSURGICAL INSTRUMENTS
• HAND GRIPS
• MICROSURGICAL NEEDLES AND SUTURES
• MAGNIFICATION METHODS
• INDICATIONS IN PERIODONTAL SURGERY
• DRAWBACKS OF MICROSURGERY
• CASE PRESENTATIONS
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
• Periodontal microsurgery is the refinement of basic
surgical techniques made possible by the improvement
in visual acuity gained with the use of the surgical
microscope. (INT J MICRODENT 2009;1:13–24)
In 1979, Daniel defined microsurgery in broad terms as
surgery performed under magnification by the
microscope.
 In 1980, microsurgery was described by Serafin as a
methodology—a modification and refinement of
existing surgical techniques using magnification to
improve visualization, with applications to all
specialties.
PRINCIPLES OF
MICROSURGERY
As a treatment philosophy, microsurgery incorporates
three important principles:
1.Improvement of motor skills,thereby enhancing
surgical ability.
2.An emphasis on passive wound closure with exact
primary apposition of the wound edge.
3.The application of microsurgical instrumentation
and suturing to reduce tissue trauma.
Most dental treatment, historically, has been
rendered with the unaided eye.
Without the use of visual magnification, such
treatment is termed macroscopic.
 Treatment rendered with visual enhancement
supplied by the microscope is termed microscopic.
 Improved outcomes obtained from the use of
microscopic periodontal surgical procedures have
resulted in a shift toward periodontal microsurgery.
 Over the past two decades, periodontics has seen increasing
refinement of surgical procedures, requiring the development of
more intricate surgical and motor skills.
 The techniques used in periodontal plastic surgery, guided tissue
regeneration, cosmetic restorative crown lengthening, gingival
augmentation procedures, soft and hard tissue ridge augmentation,
osseous resection, and dental implant placement demand clinical
expertise beyond the range of normal visual acuity.
 Microsurgery represents an amplification of universally recognized
surgical principles in which gentle handling of soft and hard tissues
and extremely accurate wound closure are made possible through
magnification, allowing for well-planned and precisely executed
surgical procedures.
 The goal of the periodontist is to cause as little damage as possible to
tissues and to have healing occur by primary rather than secondary
intention.
 Healing by secondary intention occurs when the wound edges open
and heal more slowly and with more inflammation as granulation
tissue fills the wound.
 Microsurgery offers a more rapid and comfortable healing phase for
the patient.
CLINICAL PHILOSOPHY
 Consistent application of the philosophy and
techniques learned in basic microsurgery education is
necessary for the operator to attain a level of
experience and competence needed for various
periodontal surgical procedures.
 Effective periodontal microsurgery allows the
operator to consistently achieve clinical results that
were once thought to be unlikely.
 Becoming a clinically proficient periodontal
microsurgeon requires a willingness to adopt new
values and ideas.
Training with the microscope enhances the motor
skills, which can translate to improved surgical skills.
The methods of precise, delicate tissue handling,
wound closure, and suturing require concentration
and practice.
The development of new thought patterns
regarding surgical esthetics is necessary, and
attention must be paid to microanatomy, tissue
manipulation, and surgical craftsmanship.
HAND CONTROL
Physiologic Tremor
Physiologic tremor is the uncontrolled movement arising from
both the intended and unintended actions of our bodies.
Awareness of its effect is magnified by visual enhancement.
During microsurgery, physiologic tremor manifests as a
naturally occurring unwanted hand and finger movement.
To minimize tremors, a microsurgeon must have a relaxed
state of mind, good body comfort and posture, a well-
supported hand,and a stable instrument-holding position.
A microsurgeon’s chair is required to provide proper
arm and hand support.
The surgeon must be seated upright with the legs
extending forward and with both feet flat on the floor
so that the calf of each leg forms a right angle to the
thigh.
 Support of the ulnar surface of the forearm and wrist
is necessary to control or reduce tremor.
 The surgeon’s head should be held in a comfortable
upright position
During a surgical procedure, patient and chair
position must be adjusted to the surgeon and the
microscope.
In microsurgery, the hand should either directly
or indirectly rest on an immovable surface or
unwanted movements will occur.
Only the fingertips move.
All movements should be efficient and
economical, and should be made with a unity of
effort toward purposeful, deliberate motions.
Hand Grips
 The most commonly used precision grip in microsurgery is
the pen grip or internal precision grip, which gives greater
stability than any other hand grip.
 In the three-digit grip, an instrument is held exactly as a
pen would be held when writing.
The thumb and index and middle fingers are used as a tripod.
The forearm should be slightly supine, positioning the
knuckles away from you, so that the ulnar border of your
hand, wrist, and the elbow are all well supported.
When an instrument is held with the internal
precision grip, the instrument can be opened and
closed with very fine control.
 Any tremor resulting from the thumb or index
finger is minimized by the contact with the
supported, steady middle finger.
Regardless of the surgeon’s postural position, when
the hands are in an unsupported position or the
operator’s breath is held, the whole body becomes
rigid when trying to perform precision tasks.
Accurate, exact hand movements with instruments
of the correct length and design along with
precision hand grips are crucial to good
microsurgical results.
The microsurgeon’s position relative to the patient
is an important consideration.
With the patient’s head in the 12 o’clock position
infront of and perpendicular to your chest, the most
precise rotary suturing movement for a right-
handed person is from the 2 o’clock to the 7 o’clock
position, while the most precise movement for left-
handedpeople is from the 10 o’clock to the 4 o’clock
position.
Persistent practice of alternative positions around
the entire 360-degree axis ultimately results in
mastery of surgical skills necessary to render
successful microsurgical treatment in all areas of
the mouth.
MICROSURGICAL-
INSTRUMENTS
With microscopic magnification and the use of
microsurgical instruments, tissue trauma and
bleeding can be minimized.
 For high-precision movement, microsurgical
instruments must be approximately 15 cm in length.
For an average-sized hand, this provides adequate
length for an instrument held in a pen grip to rest in
the web between the thumb and index finger.
There are also subtle design features for these
instruments that help accomplish the desired
surgical results.
 Instruments should be circular in cross section to allow for a
smooth rotation movement.
 The working tips of microsurgical instruments are much smaller
than those of regular instruments.
 To provide consistent manipulation of tissues, needles, and
sutures, most microsurgical instruments are manufactured under
magnification to high tolerances.
 Needle holders and tissue forceps are made of titanium.
 Properly cared for, such instruments are resistant to distortion
from repeated use and sterilization, are nonmagnetized, and are
lighter than surgical stainless steel instruments.
 Shorter instruments, as well as instruments with a rectangular
cross-sectional design,do not allow as precise manipulation and
therefore are not ideal for microsurgery.
• Magnification enables dentists to use smaller
instrumentation with more precision.
• Although the variety of microsurgical instrumentation
designed for periodontal therapy is vast, the
instrumentation can be divided into the following
subgroups:
knives,
retractors,
scissors,
needle holders,
tying forceps,
 others.
• Periodontal microsurgical knives: 1- blade
breaker; 2-crescent; 3-minicrescent; 4-260°
spoon; 5- lamella, and 6- sclera
• Common characteristics of these knives are their extreme
sharpness and small size.
• This enables precise incisions and maneuvers in small areas .
• The blade-breaker knife has a handle onto which a piece of an
ophthalmic razor blade is affixed.
• This allows for infinite angulations of the blade. This knife is often
used in place of a no. 15 blade.
• The crescent knife can be used for intrasulcular procedures. It is
available with one-piece handles or as a removable blade.
• It can be used in connective tissue graft procedures to obtain the
donor graft, to tunnel under tissue, and to prepare the recipient
site.
Spoon knife shown in sulcular
undermining incision.
• The spoon knife is beveled on one side, allowing
the knife to track through the tissue adjacent to
bone.
• It is frequently used in microsurgical procedures
to undermine tissue, enhancing the placement of
a connective tissue graft.
• Retractors and elevators have been downsized.
• Scissors such as the micro–vannas tissue scissors
are used for removal of small fragments of tissue.
• Needle holders are also downsized from sizes
designed for conventional periodontal surgery.
• Tying forceps are an essential component of two-
hand microsurgical tying.
• They are available in two general styles: platform
and nonplatform.
• Several designs of both needle holders and tying
forceps are available.
• Microsurgical instrumentation can be made with
titanium or surgical stainless steel.
• Titanium instruments tend to be lighter, but are
more prone to deformation and are usually more
expensive.
• Stainless-steel instruments are prone to
magnetization, but there is a greater number and
wider variety of them.
MAGNIFICATION METHODS
LOUPES
• Simple
• Compound
• Prism
OPERATING MICROSCOPE
Loupes
Loupes are the most common form of magnification
used in dentistry.
Fundamentally, loupes are two monocular
microscopes with sideby- side lenses that are
angled to focus on an object.
• Simple loupes - Simple loupes consist of a pair of
single, positive, side-by-side meniscus lenses
• They have no practical dental application beyond
a magnification range of 1.5 diameters
Compound loupes
 To gain refracting power, magnification, working distance, and depth
of field, compound loupes use converging multiple lenses with
intervening air spaces.
 Such lenses can be adjusted to clinical needs without excessive
increase in size or weight.
 Compound lenses can be achromatic.
 The lenses consist of two glass pieces bonded together with clear
resin.
 The specific density of each piece counteracts the chromatic
aberration of the adjacent piece, making such lenses a desired
feature by dentists.
PRISM LOUPES
 Prism loupes contain Schmidt or rooftop prisms that lengthen the
light path through a series of mirror reflections within the loupes,
virtually folding the light so that the barrel of the loupe can be
shortened.
 These loupes are the most optically advanced type of loupe
magnification presently obtainable.
 Prism loupes produce better magnification, wider depths of field,
longer working distances, and larger fields of view than other types of
loupes.
LOUPE MAGNIFICATION
 Loupes with magnifications ranging from 1.5 to 10 can be
purchased from a number of vendors.
Those with magnifications of less than 4 are usually
inadequate for microdentistry or periodontal microsurgery.
 For most periodontal procedures, loupes of 4 to 5 provide
increased visual acuity with an effective combination of
magnification, field size, and depth of field.
Loupes of 4.5 magnification or greater need to be
thoroughly evaluated before purchasing, as their depth of
focus and narrow field size can make them awkward to use.
OPERATING MICROSCOPE
For the greatest flexibility and comfort in optical
magnification, the properly operating microscope is
vastly superior to magnifying loupes.
With instruction and practice, the operating microscope can
be simple to use.
 It is, however, much more expensive and initially more
difficult to use.
 Operating microscopes combine the magnification of loupes
with a magnification changer and a binocular viewing system.
The parallel binoculars protect against eyestrain and fatigue.
Operating microscopes incorporate fully coated
optics and achromatic lenses with high-resolution
and high-contrast stereoscopic vision.
Operating microscopes are designed on Galilean
principles.
Surgical microscopes use coaxial fiber-optic
illumination.
This type of light produces an adjustable, bright,
uniformly illuminated, shadow-free, circular spot
of light that is parallel to the optical viewing axis.
Microsurgical Needles And Sutures
Microsurgery has increased the Periodontists
options for finer needles and sutures.
 An appropriate combination of properly selected
needles and closure materials allows the surgeon to
precisely position the suture and to approximate
the tissue with as little trauma as possible while
eliminating dead space and preventing movement
of the wound.
The availability of smaller needles demands the
need of different types of finer sutures
An accepted surgical practice in existing condition is
selection of smallest sutures that adequately mend
the tissues.
Although 4-0 or 5-0 sutures are typically used in
Periodontics, in periodontal microsurgery 6-0 and 7-
0 sutures are appropriate.
SUTURES
One of the three basic premises of microsurgery is
attention to passive wound closure.
 The desired result is exact primary apposition of
the wound edge.
Ideally, the incisions should be almost invisible and
closed with precisely placed, small sutures with
minimal tissue damage and no bleeding
An ideal suture material is sterile, easy to handle,
minimally reactive in tissue, resistant to shrinkage
in tissues, and capable of holding securely when
knotted without fraying or cutting.
Ideally, the needle and the suture material should
be the same size.
Different-sized sutures. (top) 4-0 Vicryl on a FS-2
cutting needle; (bottom) 6-0 polypropylene on a KV-11 taper
cutting needle.
(top to bottom) 4-0 Vicryl, 6-0 polypropylene,
7-0 PDS-II, 8-0 nylon, 10-0 nylon.
(left to right) 8-0 nylon, 7-0 polypropylene,
6-0 polypropylene, 4-0 Vicryl.
Suture needle anatomy: 1, point; 2, body;
3, attachment.
 Microsurgery uses needles of a fine-gauge material that are small to
very small.
 Surgical needles are designed for maximum needle holder stability.
 Needle holder performance has a significant impact on the entire
suturing procedure.
 The surgeon must have the utmost control of the needle sitting in the
holder without the needle wobbling as it is passed through the tissue.
 Therefore, the needle holder must be appropriately sized for the
needle and suture selected.
Suture Geometry
• Suturing techniques are completely different in macrosurgery and
microsurgery.
The geometry of microsurgical suturing consists of the following
points:
1.Needle angle of entry and exit of slightly less than 90 degrees
2.Suture bite size of approximately 1.5 times the tissue thickness
3.Equal bite sizes (symmetry) on both sides of the wound
4.Needle passage perpendicular to the wound
Knot tying using the microscope is done using instrument ties,
with a microsurgical needle holder in the dominant hand and
a microsurgical tissue pick-up in the nondominant hand.
Only the working tips of the instruments are visible in the
microscopic field.
Microsurgery is therefore done by visual reference only, as
the breaking force of microsutures is often less than the
human threshold of touch.
Well-tied microsurgical suture knots are stable and resist
loosening, even under functional loads.
 The art of microscopically tying a good surgeon’s knot can
only be mastered with repeated laboratory practice under the
microscope
MICROSURGICAL INDICATIONS
IN PERIODONTAL SURGERY
– Horizontal augmentation
– Vertical augmentation
– Guided tissue regeneration (GTR)
– Guided bone regeneration (GBR) and other procedures
where increasing the amount of bone needs special
preparation forms of the soft tissue
– Accurate split thickness flaps
– Double papilla flaps
– Apical or coronal repositioned flaps
– Connective tissue grafts
– Pedicle or sliding flaps
In periodontics, the surgical operating
microscope, though useful in most areas of
periodontal therapy, is particularly useful in
mucogingival surgery, root preparation, and
crown-lengthening procedures.
Microsurgical techniques are especially beneficial
to mucogingival procedures.
As mentioned, principles of wound healing
require minimal dead space.
• Root preparation is an important modality in
periodontal therapy.
• Lindhe & Nyman (1984) have suggested the success of
periodontal therapy is due to the thoroughness of
debridement of the root surface.
• Data show that surgical access improves the ability to
remove calculus (Cobb 1996).
• Furthermore, research demonstrates that root
preparation is enhanced when performed under
illumination (Reinhardt et al. 1985).
• The surgical microscope provides fiber optic lighting
and magnification for calculus removal.
 Most published articles embracing the benefits of magnification in
dentistry have been anecdotal (Campbell 1989).
 A recently published article concluded that performing root-
coverage techniques microsurgically versus macrosurgically
substantially improved the vascularization of connective tissue
grafts and the percentage of additional root coverage (Burdhardt
& Lang 2005).
 There is a lack of studies in dentistry comparing the benefits of
crown lengthening or other surgical procedures via standard
versus microsurgical methods.
 Yet, it seems logical that if magnification is beneficial in prosthetics
and root coverage, the surgical microscope, with its magnification,
would aid practitioners in crown lengthening, root preparation,
and other periodontal surgical procedures.
APPLICATIONS IN
MUCOGINGIVAL SURGERY
• Periodontal microsurgery has proven to be an
effective means of improving the predictability of
gingival transplantation procedures used in
treating recession with less operative trauma and
discomfort.
• Correct diagnosis, with microsurgical techniques,
makes complete root coverage extremely
predictable in class I and class II marginal tissue
recession defects with a variety of procedures.
• The partial root coverage results achieved in class III
and class IV marginal recession with conventional
surgery can also be greatly enhanced through the
use of microsurgery.
• Microsurgical principles and methodology
application has made all gingival transplant
procedures extremely reliable.
• The use of microsurgical approach makes even
papillary reconstruction a realistic possibility.
Improved Root Visualisation
• Lindhe and co-workers (1984) suggested that the
critical determinant of the success of periodontal
therapy is the thoroughness of debridement of the
root surface rather than the choice of grafting
modality.
• Because stereomicroscopy is used to evaluate
residual calculus on extracted teeth, it seems logical
that a surgical operating microscope can enhance
the operator’s ability to see and remove calculus in
vivo.
Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) For Regeneration
• MIS was introduced in 1999 by Harrel.
• The salient difference between the minimally
invasive approach and more traditional approaches
for regeneration is in the use of much smaller
incisions to gain surgical access and debride the
periodontal defect prior to placing the bone graft
and membrane.
• Contraindications of MIS
o Generalized horizontal bone loss
o Multiple interconnected vertical defects.
Microsurgery In Implant Therapy
All phases of implant treatment may be performed
using a microscope.
One of the novel applications of microsurgery is in
the sinus lift procedure. The surgical microscope
can aid in visualization of the sinus membrane.
 Magnification achieved by the surgical microscope
is instrumental in implant site development and
placement.
DRAWBACKS OF
MICROSURGERY
As we upgrade our surgical maneuvers with the aid of
microsurgical concepts there are a few shortcomings
of this modus operandi which need to be considered
prior to its application.
It is much more demanding and technique sensitive,
the cost incurred to establish a microsurgical set-up is
also high.
Magnification systems used also pose some difficulties
including restricted area of vision, loss of depth of field
as magnification increases and loss of visual reference
points.
An experienced team approach mandates
microsurgery and is time consuming to develop.
Physiologic tremor control for finer movements
intra-operatively and a steep learning curve are
required for clinical proficiency.
Cases
• Microsurgical graft
CONCLUSIONS
Microsurgical periodontics is technique-sensitive and
more demanding than periodontal macrosurgery, but it
results in more rapid healing because it is less invasive and
less traumatic.
The improved visual acuity and ergonomics provide
significant advantages to those who take the time to
become proficient in microsurgical principles and
procedures.
The operating microscope allows the surgeon to
practice enhanced, precise, delicate surgical
procedures that have important healing processes
and outcomes for patients.
Periodontal microsurgery and periodontal plastic
microscopic surgery provide a natural evolution in
the progressionof periodontics.
It is a skill that requires practice to achieve proficiency.
The small scale of microsurgery presents special
challenges in dexterity and perception.
 Its execution is technique sensitive and more
demanding than are conventional periodontal
procedures.
Microsurgery offers new possibilities to improve
periodontal care in a variety of ways.
REFERENCES
Leonard S. Tibbetts, DDS, msd,dennis shanelec, DDS
Principles and practice ofPeriodontal microsurgery.
Tibbetts LS, Shanelec DA. An overview of periodontal
microsurgery. Current opinion in Periodontology
1994:187 – 193.
Serafin D. Microsurgery: Past, present and future.
Plast Reconstr Surg 1980;66:781–785.
Shanelec D. Principles of periodontal plastic surgery.
In: Rose L, Mealey B, Genco R, Cohen D (eds).
Periodontics: Medicine, Surgery, and Implants. St Louis:
Mosby, 2004.
Ghousia akbari et almicrosurgery: a clinical
philosophy for surgical craftsmanship.
Dr. Prabhati gupta et al, periodontal microsurgery –
a review ,iosr journal of dental and medical sciences
(iosr-jdms)
"PERIODONTAL - MICROSURGERY"

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"PERIODONTAL - MICROSURGERY"

  • 3. CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION • PRINCIPLES OF MICROSURGERY • CLINICAL PHILOSOPHY • HAND CONTROL AND • MICROSURGICAL INSTRUMENTS • HAND GRIPS • MICROSURGICAL NEEDLES AND SUTURES • MAGNIFICATION METHODS • INDICATIONS IN PERIODONTAL SURGERY • DRAWBACKS OF MICROSURGERY • CASE PRESENTATIONS • CONCLUSION • REFERENCES
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • Periodontal microsurgery is the refinement of basic surgical techniques made possible by the improvement in visual acuity gained with the use of the surgical microscope. (INT J MICRODENT 2009;1:13–24) In 1979, Daniel defined microsurgery in broad terms as surgery performed under magnification by the microscope.  In 1980, microsurgery was described by Serafin as a methodology—a modification and refinement of existing surgical techniques using magnification to improve visualization, with applications to all specialties.
  • 5. PRINCIPLES OF MICROSURGERY As a treatment philosophy, microsurgery incorporates three important principles: 1.Improvement of motor skills,thereby enhancing surgical ability. 2.An emphasis on passive wound closure with exact primary apposition of the wound edge. 3.The application of microsurgical instrumentation and suturing to reduce tissue trauma.
  • 6. Most dental treatment, historically, has been rendered with the unaided eye. Without the use of visual magnification, such treatment is termed macroscopic.  Treatment rendered with visual enhancement supplied by the microscope is termed microscopic.  Improved outcomes obtained from the use of microscopic periodontal surgical procedures have resulted in a shift toward periodontal microsurgery.
  • 7.  Over the past two decades, periodontics has seen increasing refinement of surgical procedures, requiring the development of more intricate surgical and motor skills.  The techniques used in periodontal plastic surgery, guided tissue regeneration, cosmetic restorative crown lengthening, gingival augmentation procedures, soft and hard tissue ridge augmentation, osseous resection, and dental implant placement demand clinical expertise beyond the range of normal visual acuity.  Microsurgery represents an amplification of universally recognized surgical principles in which gentle handling of soft and hard tissues and extremely accurate wound closure are made possible through magnification, allowing for well-planned and precisely executed surgical procedures.
  • 8.  The goal of the periodontist is to cause as little damage as possible to tissues and to have healing occur by primary rather than secondary intention.  Healing by secondary intention occurs when the wound edges open and heal more slowly and with more inflammation as granulation tissue fills the wound.  Microsurgery offers a more rapid and comfortable healing phase for the patient.
  • 9. CLINICAL PHILOSOPHY  Consistent application of the philosophy and techniques learned in basic microsurgery education is necessary for the operator to attain a level of experience and competence needed for various periodontal surgical procedures.  Effective periodontal microsurgery allows the operator to consistently achieve clinical results that were once thought to be unlikely.  Becoming a clinically proficient periodontal microsurgeon requires a willingness to adopt new values and ideas.
  • 10.
  • 11. Training with the microscope enhances the motor skills, which can translate to improved surgical skills. The methods of precise, delicate tissue handling, wound closure, and suturing require concentration and practice. The development of new thought patterns regarding surgical esthetics is necessary, and attention must be paid to microanatomy, tissue manipulation, and surgical craftsmanship.
  • 12. HAND CONTROL Physiologic Tremor Physiologic tremor is the uncontrolled movement arising from both the intended and unintended actions of our bodies. Awareness of its effect is magnified by visual enhancement. During microsurgery, physiologic tremor manifests as a naturally occurring unwanted hand and finger movement. To minimize tremors, a microsurgeon must have a relaxed state of mind, good body comfort and posture, a well- supported hand,and a stable instrument-holding position.
  • 13. A microsurgeon’s chair is required to provide proper arm and hand support. The surgeon must be seated upright with the legs extending forward and with both feet flat on the floor so that the calf of each leg forms a right angle to the thigh.  Support of the ulnar surface of the forearm and wrist is necessary to control or reduce tremor.  The surgeon’s head should be held in a comfortable upright position
  • 14.
  • 15. During a surgical procedure, patient and chair position must be adjusted to the surgeon and the microscope. In microsurgery, the hand should either directly or indirectly rest on an immovable surface or unwanted movements will occur. Only the fingertips move. All movements should be efficient and economical, and should be made with a unity of effort toward purposeful, deliberate motions.
  • 16. Hand Grips  The most commonly used precision grip in microsurgery is the pen grip or internal precision grip, which gives greater stability than any other hand grip.  In the three-digit grip, an instrument is held exactly as a pen would be held when writing. The thumb and index and middle fingers are used as a tripod. The forearm should be slightly supine, positioning the knuckles away from you, so that the ulnar border of your hand, wrist, and the elbow are all well supported.
  • 17. When an instrument is held with the internal precision grip, the instrument can be opened and closed with very fine control.  Any tremor resulting from the thumb or index finger is minimized by the contact with the supported, steady middle finger.
  • 18. Regardless of the surgeon’s postural position, when the hands are in an unsupported position or the operator’s breath is held, the whole body becomes rigid when trying to perform precision tasks. Accurate, exact hand movements with instruments of the correct length and design along with precision hand grips are crucial to good microsurgical results.
  • 19. The microsurgeon’s position relative to the patient is an important consideration. With the patient’s head in the 12 o’clock position infront of and perpendicular to your chest, the most precise rotary suturing movement for a right- handed person is from the 2 o’clock to the 7 o’clock position, while the most precise movement for left- handedpeople is from the 10 o’clock to the 4 o’clock position.
  • 20. Persistent practice of alternative positions around the entire 360-degree axis ultimately results in mastery of surgical skills necessary to render successful microsurgical treatment in all areas of the mouth.
  • 21. MICROSURGICAL- INSTRUMENTS With microscopic magnification and the use of microsurgical instruments, tissue trauma and bleeding can be minimized.  For high-precision movement, microsurgical instruments must be approximately 15 cm in length. For an average-sized hand, this provides adequate length for an instrument held in a pen grip to rest in the web between the thumb and index finger. There are also subtle design features for these instruments that help accomplish the desired surgical results.
  • 22.  Instruments should be circular in cross section to allow for a smooth rotation movement.  The working tips of microsurgical instruments are much smaller than those of regular instruments.  To provide consistent manipulation of tissues, needles, and sutures, most microsurgical instruments are manufactured under magnification to high tolerances.  Needle holders and tissue forceps are made of titanium.  Properly cared for, such instruments are resistant to distortion from repeated use and sterilization, are nonmagnetized, and are lighter than surgical stainless steel instruments.  Shorter instruments, as well as instruments with a rectangular cross-sectional design,do not allow as precise manipulation and therefore are not ideal for microsurgery.
  • 23. • Magnification enables dentists to use smaller instrumentation with more precision. • Although the variety of microsurgical instrumentation designed for periodontal therapy is vast, the instrumentation can be divided into the following subgroups: knives, retractors, scissors, needle holders, tying forceps,  others.
  • 24. • Periodontal microsurgical knives: 1- blade breaker; 2-crescent; 3-minicrescent; 4-260° spoon; 5- lamella, and 6- sclera
  • 25. • Common characteristics of these knives are their extreme sharpness and small size. • This enables precise incisions and maneuvers in small areas . • The blade-breaker knife has a handle onto which a piece of an ophthalmic razor blade is affixed. • This allows for infinite angulations of the blade. This knife is often used in place of a no. 15 blade. • The crescent knife can be used for intrasulcular procedures. It is available with one-piece handles or as a removable blade. • It can be used in connective tissue graft procedures to obtain the donor graft, to tunnel under tissue, and to prepare the recipient site.
  • 26. Spoon knife shown in sulcular undermining incision.
  • 27. • The spoon knife is beveled on one side, allowing the knife to track through the tissue adjacent to bone. • It is frequently used in microsurgical procedures to undermine tissue, enhancing the placement of a connective tissue graft. • Retractors and elevators have been downsized. • Scissors such as the micro–vannas tissue scissors are used for removal of small fragments of tissue.
  • 28. • Needle holders are also downsized from sizes designed for conventional periodontal surgery. • Tying forceps are an essential component of two- hand microsurgical tying. • They are available in two general styles: platform and nonplatform. • Several designs of both needle holders and tying forceps are available.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. • Microsurgical instrumentation can be made with titanium or surgical stainless steel. • Titanium instruments tend to be lighter, but are more prone to deformation and are usually more expensive. • Stainless-steel instruments are prone to magnetization, but there is a greater number and wider variety of them.
  • 32. MAGNIFICATION METHODS LOUPES • Simple • Compound • Prism OPERATING MICROSCOPE
  • 33. Loupes Loupes are the most common form of magnification used in dentistry. Fundamentally, loupes are two monocular microscopes with sideby- side lenses that are angled to focus on an object.
  • 34. • Simple loupes - Simple loupes consist of a pair of single, positive, side-by-side meniscus lenses • They have no practical dental application beyond a magnification range of 1.5 diameters
  • 35. Compound loupes  To gain refracting power, magnification, working distance, and depth of field, compound loupes use converging multiple lenses with intervening air spaces.  Such lenses can be adjusted to clinical needs without excessive increase in size or weight.  Compound lenses can be achromatic.  The lenses consist of two glass pieces bonded together with clear resin.  The specific density of each piece counteracts the chromatic aberration of the adjacent piece, making such lenses a desired feature by dentists.
  • 36. PRISM LOUPES  Prism loupes contain Schmidt or rooftop prisms that lengthen the light path through a series of mirror reflections within the loupes, virtually folding the light so that the barrel of the loupe can be shortened.  These loupes are the most optically advanced type of loupe magnification presently obtainable.  Prism loupes produce better magnification, wider depths of field, longer working distances, and larger fields of view than other types of loupes.
  • 37. LOUPE MAGNIFICATION  Loupes with magnifications ranging from 1.5 to 10 can be purchased from a number of vendors. Those with magnifications of less than 4 are usually inadequate for microdentistry or periodontal microsurgery.  For most periodontal procedures, loupes of 4 to 5 provide increased visual acuity with an effective combination of magnification, field size, and depth of field. Loupes of 4.5 magnification or greater need to be thoroughly evaluated before purchasing, as their depth of focus and narrow field size can make them awkward to use.
  • 38. OPERATING MICROSCOPE For the greatest flexibility and comfort in optical magnification, the properly operating microscope is vastly superior to magnifying loupes. With instruction and practice, the operating microscope can be simple to use.  It is, however, much more expensive and initially more difficult to use.  Operating microscopes combine the magnification of loupes with a magnification changer and a binocular viewing system. The parallel binoculars protect against eyestrain and fatigue.
  • 39.
  • 40. Operating microscopes incorporate fully coated optics and achromatic lenses with high-resolution and high-contrast stereoscopic vision. Operating microscopes are designed on Galilean principles.
  • 41. Surgical microscopes use coaxial fiber-optic illumination. This type of light produces an adjustable, bright, uniformly illuminated, shadow-free, circular spot of light that is parallel to the optical viewing axis.
  • 42.
  • 43. Microsurgical Needles And Sutures Microsurgery has increased the Periodontists options for finer needles and sutures.  An appropriate combination of properly selected needles and closure materials allows the surgeon to precisely position the suture and to approximate the tissue with as little trauma as possible while eliminating dead space and preventing movement of the wound.
  • 44. The availability of smaller needles demands the need of different types of finer sutures An accepted surgical practice in existing condition is selection of smallest sutures that adequately mend the tissues. Although 4-0 or 5-0 sutures are typically used in Periodontics, in periodontal microsurgery 6-0 and 7- 0 sutures are appropriate.
  • 45. SUTURES One of the three basic premises of microsurgery is attention to passive wound closure.  The desired result is exact primary apposition of the wound edge. Ideally, the incisions should be almost invisible and closed with precisely placed, small sutures with minimal tissue damage and no bleeding
  • 46. An ideal suture material is sterile, easy to handle, minimally reactive in tissue, resistant to shrinkage in tissues, and capable of holding securely when knotted without fraying or cutting. Ideally, the needle and the suture material should be the same size.
  • 47. Different-sized sutures. (top) 4-0 Vicryl on a FS-2 cutting needle; (bottom) 6-0 polypropylene on a KV-11 taper cutting needle.
  • 48. (top to bottom) 4-0 Vicryl, 6-0 polypropylene, 7-0 PDS-II, 8-0 nylon, 10-0 nylon.
  • 49. (left to right) 8-0 nylon, 7-0 polypropylene, 6-0 polypropylene, 4-0 Vicryl.
  • 50. Suture needle anatomy: 1, point; 2, body; 3, attachment.
  • 51.  Microsurgery uses needles of a fine-gauge material that are small to very small.  Surgical needles are designed for maximum needle holder stability.  Needle holder performance has a significant impact on the entire suturing procedure.  The surgeon must have the utmost control of the needle sitting in the holder without the needle wobbling as it is passed through the tissue.  Therefore, the needle holder must be appropriately sized for the needle and suture selected.
  • 52. Suture Geometry • Suturing techniques are completely different in macrosurgery and microsurgery. The geometry of microsurgical suturing consists of the following points: 1.Needle angle of entry and exit of slightly less than 90 degrees 2.Suture bite size of approximately 1.5 times the tissue thickness 3.Equal bite sizes (symmetry) on both sides of the wound 4.Needle passage perpendicular to the wound
  • 53. Knot tying using the microscope is done using instrument ties, with a microsurgical needle holder in the dominant hand and a microsurgical tissue pick-up in the nondominant hand. Only the working tips of the instruments are visible in the microscopic field. Microsurgery is therefore done by visual reference only, as the breaking force of microsutures is often less than the human threshold of touch. Well-tied microsurgical suture knots are stable and resist loosening, even under functional loads.  The art of microscopically tying a good surgeon’s knot can only be mastered with repeated laboratory practice under the microscope
  • 54. MICROSURGICAL INDICATIONS IN PERIODONTAL SURGERY – Horizontal augmentation – Vertical augmentation – Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) – Guided bone regeneration (GBR) and other procedures where increasing the amount of bone needs special preparation forms of the soft tissue – Accurate split thickness flaps – Double papilla flaps – Apical or coronal repositioned flaps – Connective tissue grafts – Pedicle or sliding flaps
  • 55. In periodontics, the surgical operating microscope, though useful in most areas of periodontal therapy, is particularly useful in mucogingival surgery, root preparation, and crown-lengthening procedures. Microsurgical techniques are especially beneficial to mucogingival procedures. As mentioned, principles of wound healing require minimal dead space.
  • 56. • Root preparation is an important modality in periodontal therapy. • Lindhe & Nyman (1984) have suggested the success of periodontal therapy is due to the thoroughness of debridement of the root surface. • Data show that surgical access improves the ability to remove calculus (Cobb 1996). • Furthermore, research demonstrates that root preparation is enhanced when performed under illumination (Reinhardt et al. 1985). • The surgical microscope provides fiber optic lighting and magnification for calculus removal.
  • 57.  Most published articles embracing the benefits of magnification in dentistry have been anecdotal (Campbell 1989).  A recently published article concluded that performing root- coverage techniques microsurgically versus macrosurgically substantially improved the vascularization of connective tissue grafts and the percentage of additional root coverage (Burdhardt & Lang 2005).  There is a lack of studies in dentistry comparing the benefits of crown lengthening or other surgical procedures via standard versus microsurgical methods.  Yet, it seems logical that if magnification is beneficial in prosthetics and root coverage, the surgical microscope, with its magnification, would aid practitioners in crown lengthening, root preparation, and other periodontal surgical procedures.
  • 58. APPLICATIONS IN MUCOGINGIVAL SURGERY • Periodontal microsurgery has proven to be an effective means of improving the predictability of gingival transplantation procedures used in treating recession with less operative trauma and discomfort. • Correct diagnosis, with microsurgical techniques, makes complete root coverage extremely predictable in class I and class II marginal tissue recession defects with a variety of procedures.
  • 59. • The partial root coverage results achieved in class III and class IV marginal recession with conventional surgery can also be greatly enhanced through the use of microsurgery. • Microsurgical principles and methodology application has made all gingival transplant procedures extremely reliable. • The use of microsurgical approach makes even papillary reconstruction a realistic possibility.
  • 60.
  • 61. Improved Root Visualisation • Lindhe and co-workers (1984) suggested that the critical determinant of the success of periodontal therapy is the thoroughness of debridement of the root surface rather than the choice of grafting modality. • Because stereomicroscopy is used to evaluate residual calculus on extracted teeth, it seems logical that a surgical operating microscope can enhance the operator’s ability to see and remove calculus in vivo.
  • 62. Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) For Regeneration • MIS was introduced in 1999 by Harrel. • The salient difference between the minimally invasive approach and more traditional approaches for regeneration is in the use of much smaller incisions to gain surgical access and debride the periodontal defect prior to placing the bone graft and membrane. • Contraindications of MIS o Generalized horizontal bone loss o Multiple interconnected vertical defects.
  • 63. Microsurgery In Implant Therapy All phases of implant treatment may be performed using a microscope. One of the novel applications of microsurgery is in the sinus lift procedure. The surgical microscope can aid in visualization of the sinus membrane.  Magnification achieved by the surgical microscope is instrumental in implant site development and placement.
  • 64. DRAWBACKS OF MICROSURGERY As we upgrade our surgical maneuvers with the aid of microsurgical concepts there are a few shortcomings of this modus operandi which need to be considered prior to its application. It is much more demanding and technique sensitive, the cost incurred to establish a microsurgical set-up is also high. Magnification systems used also pose some difficulties including restricted area of vision, loss of depth of field as magnification increases and loss of visual reference points.
  • 65. An experienced team approach mandates microsurgery and is time consuming to develop. Physiologic tremor control for finer movements intra-operatively and a steep learning curve are required for clinical proficiency.
  • 67.
  • 68. CONCLUSIONS Microsurgical periodontics is technique-sensitive and more demanding than periodontal macrosurgery, but it results in more rapid healing because it is less invasive and less traumatic. The improved visual acuity and ergonomics provide significant advantages to those who take the time to become proficient in microsurgical principles and procedures.
  • 69. The operating microscope allows the surgeon to practice enhanced, precise, delicate surgical procedures that have important healing processes and outcomes for patients. Periodontal microsurgery and periodontal plastic microscopic surgery provide a natural evolution in the progressionof periodontics.
  • 70. It is a skill that requires practice to achieve proficiency. The small scale of microsurgery presents special challenges in dexterity and perception.  Its execution is technique sensitive and more demanding than are conventional periodontal procedures. Microsurgery offers new possibilities to improve periodontal care in a variety of ways.
  • 71. REFERENCES Leonard S. Tibbetts, DDS, msd,dennis shanelec, DDS Principles and practice ofPeriodontal microsurgery. Tibbetts LS, Shanelec DA. An overview of periodontal microsurgery. Current opinion in Periodontology 1994:187 – 193. Serafin D. Microsurgery: Past, present and future. Plast Reconstr Surg 1980;66:781–785. Shanelec D. Principles of periodontal plastic surgery. In: Rose L, Mealey B, Genco R, Cohen D (eds). Periodontics: Medicine, Surgery, and Implants. St Louis: Mosby, 2004.
  • 72. Ghousia akbari et almicrosurgery: a clinical philosophy for surgical craftsmanship. Dr. Prabhati gupta et al, periodontal microsurgery – a review ,iosr journal of dental and medical sciences (iosr-jdms)