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 Learning- Definition
 Features of learning
 Learning Cycle
 Factors influencing learning
 Significance of Learning in OB
 Theories of learning
 Learning and OB Modification
 Steps in Behavior Modification
Definitions: Learning is:
“a persisting change in human performance or
performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result
of the learner’s interaction with the environment.
“the relatively permanent change in a person’s
knowledge or behavior due to experience.”
“Learning is a change in behavior as a result of
experience or practice and the acquisition of
knowledge”.
Features of Learning
 Involves change in behavior
 Must be relative permanent; not
temporary
 Continuous process
 Must be based on some form of practice
or experience
 Practice or experience must be
reinforced in order for learning to occur.
 Learning involves change either good or
bad.
Learning Cycle
Stimulus(Source
of Motivation)
Response
(Reaction of
learner towards
the stimulus)
Motivation
(Drive to
encourage
Individual to
learn)
Rewards
(Transparent and
predictive incentive to
satisfy the motive)
Factors influencing learning
behavior
 Environmental Factors
 Social Factors
 Physiological Factors
 Psychological Factors
 Learning Methods
 Learning materials and content
Significance of Learning in
OB
 Helps to understand and predict
human behavior at work
 Helps to manage diversity
 Helps to maintain TQM
 Helps to adapt changing
technology
 Facilities organizational change
and development
Theory of Learning
 Behavioristic Theory
◦ Classical conditioning
◦ Operant conditioning
 Cognitive Learning
 Social Learning
Behaviorism Theories
Confined to observable and measurable
behavior
 Classical Conditioning – Ivan P.
Pavlov
 Operant Conditioning - Skinner
Classical conditioning
 is defined as a process in which a formerly
neutral stimuli, when paired with an
unconditioned stimulus, becomes a
conditioned stimulus that elicits (leads to) a
conditioned response thus S-R connection is
learnt.
 Classical conditioning is based on the
premise that a physical event termed as a
stimulus that initially does not lead to a
particular response gradually acquires the
capacity to lead to that response as a result
of repeated pairing with an unconditioned
stimulus.
 This is important in reactions such as fear,
prejudice, taste, aversion.
Operant conditioning
is also known as instrumental
conditioning . It is a learning process in
which behavior is sensitive to, or
controlled by its outcomes.
 Behavior is a function of its
consequences.
 Our behavior process certain
consequences and how we behave in
the future will depend on what those
consequences are.
 Operant conditioning emphasizes on
Cognitive learning theory
 The cognitive theory defines human
behavior as a dynamic, and reciprocal
interaction of personal factors,
behavior, and the environment.
strongly emphasis on one’s cognitions.
It refers to the power and ability of
knowing.
This theory suggests that the mind is an
active force that construct’s one’s
reality is formed by the interaction of
the environment and one’s cognitions.
Cognitivism in the Classroom
 Inquiry-oriented
projects
 Opportunities for
the testing of
hypotheses
 Curiosity
encouraged
 Staged scaffolding
Social Learning Theory (SLT)
 Grew out of Cognitivism
 Albert Bandura (1973)
 This theory states that we learn not just
from first hand experience, but also
from watching others or by hearing
about something.
 Such observational learning stresses the
importance of models in our lives.
Social Learning Theory
Four interrelated processes establish and
strengthen identification with the model:
1. Children want to be like the model
2. Children believe they are like the
model
3. Children experience emotions like
those the model is feeling.
4. Children act like the model.
Social Learning Theory
Through identification, children come to
believe they have the same
characteristics as the model.
When they identify with a nurturant and
competent model, children feel pleased and
proud.
When they identify with an inadequate model,
children feel unhappy and insecure.
SLT in the Classroom
 Collaborative
learning and group
work
 Modeling responses
and expectations
 Opportunities to
observe experts in
action
Critiques of Social Learning
Theory
 Does not take into account individuality,
context, and experience as mediating
factors
 Suggests students learn best as passive
receivers of sensory stimuli, as opposed
to being active learners
 Emotions and motivation not considered
important or connected to learning
Social Constructivism in the
Classroom
 Journaling
 Experiential
activities
 Personal focus
 Collaborative &
cooperative
learning
Learning and OB Modification
 OB Modification is used to understand
the behavior of human being more
effectively and used to improve,
eliminate or modify undesirable behavior
to get organizational effectiveness.
 Behavioral modification focus in;
◦ Improving employee productivity,
◦ Reducing absenteeism and lateness,
◦ Reducing accident rates,
◦ Improving employee discipline,
◦ Developing training and development
programs.
◦ Improving industrial relations
Steps in Behavior Modification
 Identify Critical behavior
 Develop Benchmark to identify
desirable and undesirable behavior
 Analyze Behavioral consequence
 Implement Intervention strategy
 Evaluate Performance change
THANK YOU

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Organizational Behavior: Learning and its theories

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  • 2. Content  Learning- Definition  Features of learning  Learning Cycle  Factors influencing learning  Significance of Learning in OB  Theories of learning  Learning and OB Modification  Steps in Behavior Modification
  • 3. Definitions: Learning is: “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result of the learner’s interaction with the environment. “the relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience.” “Learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience or practice and the acquisition of knowledge”.
  • 4. Features of Learning  Involves change in behavior  Must be relative permanent; not temporary  Continuous process  Must be based on some form of practice or experience  Practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur.  Learning involves change either good or bad.
  • 5. Learning Cycle Stimulus(Source of Motivation) Response (Reaction of learner towards the stimulus) Motivation (Drive to encourage Individual to learn) Rewards (Transparent and predictive incentive to satisfy the motive)
  • 6. Factors influencing learning behavior  Environmental Factors  Social Factors  Physiological Factors  Psychological Factors  Learning Methods  Learning materials and content
  • 7. Significance of Learning in OB  Helps to understand and predict human behavior at work  Helps to manage diversity  Helps to maintain TQM  Helps to adapt changing technology  Facilities organizational change and development
  • 8. Theory of Learning  Behavioristic Theory ◦ Classical conditioning ◦ Operant conditioning  Cognitive Learning  Social Learning
  • 9. Behaviorism Theories Confined to observable and measurable behavior  Classical Conditioning – Ivan P. Pavlov  Operant Conditioning - Skinner
  • 10. Classical conditioning  is defined as a process in which a formerly neutral stimuli, when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits (leads to) a conditioned response thus S-R connection is learnt.  Classical conditioning is based on the premise that a physical event termed as a stimulus that initially does not lead to a particular response gradually acquires the capacity to lead to that response as a result of repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.  This is important in reactions such as fear, prejudice, taste, aversion.
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  • 12. Operant conditioning is also known as instrumental conditioning . It is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its outcomes.  Behavior is a function of its consequences.  Our behavior process certain consequences and how we behave in the future will depend on what those consequences are.  Operant conditioning emphasizes on
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  • 15. Cognitive learning theory  The cognitive theory defines human behavior as a dynamic, and reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behavior, and the environment. strongly emphasis on one’s cognitions. It refers to the power and ability of knowing. This theory suggests that the mind is an active force that construct’s one’s reality is formed by the interaction of the environment and one’s cognitions.
  • 16. Cognitivism in the Classroom  Inquiry-oriented projects  Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses  Curiosity encouraged  Staged scaffolding
  • 17. Social Learning Theory (SLT)  Grew out of Cognitivism  Albert Bandura (1973)  This theory states that we learn not just from first hand experience, but also from watching others or by hearing about something.  Such observational learning stresses the importance of models in our lives.
  • 18. Social Learning Theory Four interrelated processes establish and strengthen identification with the model: 1. Children want to be like the model 2. Children believe they are like the model 3. Children experience emotions like those the model is feeling. 4. Children act like the model.
  • 19. Social Learning Theory Through identification, children come to believe they have the same characteristics as the model. When they identify with a nurturant and competent model, children feel pleased and proud. When they identify with an inadequate model, children feel unhappy and insecure.
  • 20. SLT in the Classroom  Collaborative learning and group work  Modeling responses and expectations  Opportunities to observe experts in action
  • 21. Critiques of Social Learning Theory  Does not take into account individuality, context, and experience as mediating factors  Suggests students learn best as passive receivers of sensory stimuli, as opposed to being active learners  Emotions and motivation not considered important or connected to learning
  • 22. Social Constructivism in the Classroom  Journaling  Experiential activities  Personal focus  Collaborative & cooperative learning
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  • 24. Learning and OB Modification  OB Modification is used to understand the behavior of human being more effectively and used to improve, eliminate or modify undesirable behavior to get organizational effectiveness.  Behavioral modification focus in; ◦ Improving employee productivity, ◦ Reducing absenteeism and lateness, ◦ Reducing accident rates, ◦ Improving employee discipline, ◦ Developing training and development programs. ◦ Improving industrial relations
  • 25. Steps in Behavior Modification  Identify Critical behavior  Develop Benchmark to identify desirable and undesirable behavior  Analyze Behavioral consequence  Implement Intervention strategy  Evaluate Performance change