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Non Woven
▪ Shivam
▪ Akansha Choudhary
▪ N Sarmista
▪ Tanya Raj
▪ Abhishek Kumar
Introduction To Non Woven
Definition
Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like
material made from staple fibre (short)
and long fibres (continuous long), bonded
together by chemical, mechanical, heat or
solvent treatment. The term is used in
the textile manufacturing industry to
denote fabrics, such as felt, which are
neither woven nor knitted.
3
History
In the 19th century, (when England was the leading textile producing
country), realizing that large amounts of fiber were wasted as trim, a
textile engineer named Garnett developed a special carding device to
shred this waste material back to fibrous form. This fiber was used as
filling material for pillows. The Garnett Machine, though greatly
modified, today still retains his name and is a major component in the
non-woven industry. Later on, manufacturers in Northern England began
binding these fibers mechanically (using needles) and chemically (using
glue) into butts. These were the precursors of today's non-wovens.
4
Functional Non Wovens
1. PLA(Polymer Lactic Acid Nonwoven
Fabric)
2. Blac
3. Flame retardant
4. PTFE-coated (Polytetrafluoroethylene)
5. Anti-static
6. Anti-bacteria
5
6
Absorbency
Wash ability
Stretch
Strength
SterilitySoftness
Resilience
Liquid repellency
Filtering
Flame retardancy
Cushioning
Bacterial barrier
Non
Woven
Non Woven Characteristics
 May look paper like, felt like, or similar to
that of woven fabrics.
 May have a soft, resilient hand, or they may
be hard, stiff, or broadly with little pliability.
 May be as thin as tissue paper or many
times thicker.
 Porosity may range from low tear and
burst strength to very high tensile strength.
7
Non Woven Characteristics
 May be translucent or opaque.
 May be fabricated by gluing, heat bonding,
or sewing.
 Drapability of this type of fabrics varies
from good to none at all.
 Some fabrics have excellent launderability;
others have none. Some may be dry-
cleaned.
8
China
68%
India
6%
Japan
10%
Korea
7%
Taiwan
5%
Others
4%
Non Woven Production
Process of
Fabric
Manufacturing
Weaving
Interlacing of
Yarn
Yarn
Knitting
Interlocking of
Yarn loops
Yarn
Non
Wovens
Interlocking of
Fibres
Fibre
Fabric Production Method Rate of Fabric Production
Weaving 1 m/min
Knitting 2 m/min
Nonwoven 100 m/min
Non Woven Fabrics
11
Conventional
fabric
manufacture
Non woven
fabric
manufacture
Non Woven Fabrics
▪ Fabric basically made of web of fibres
and not of yarns
▪ Web may be made of staple fibres,
filaments or films
▪ Yarn manufacture process eliminated
▪ Higher speed of production
▪ Less labour intensive
▪ Low energy requirement
▪ Higher degree of automation
▪ Fabrics can be engineered to give a
wide variety of properties
▪ However their aesthetic properties
are such that they are not in direct
competition with conventional fabrics
in apparel applications
▪ Main areas of growth of nonwovens
are in technical textile applications
like geotextiles, filtration textiles,
medical textiles etc.
12
Classification of Non Woven
Non
Woven
Spunlace
d
Heat
sealing
Pump
airflow
in net
Heat
sealing
Spunbon
ded
Melt-
blown
Accupun
cture
Woven
Hydrop
hillic
1. Spunlaced Non Woven
Spunlaced technology is to spray high-
pressure micro-flow to a layer or
multilayer fiber network, so that the
fiber intertwined with each other, so
that the fiber network can be
strengthened with a certain strength.
15
2. Heat Sealing Non Woven
Thermal bonded non-woven fabric is the
fiber network in the addition of fibrous
or powdered hot-melt bonded
reinforcement materials, fiber nets and
then through the heating and melting
cooling to strengthen the cloth.
16
3. Pulp airflow into the net
The airflow into the net Non-woven fabric
can also be called dust-free paper, dry
paper non-woven fabrics.
It is the use of airflow into the network
technology to open pine pulp fiberboard
into a single fiber state, and then use the
Airflow method to make the fiber
agglutination in the net, the fiber net
reinforced into cloth.
17
4. Wet Non Woven
WET Non-woven cloth is to be placed
in the water medium fiber raw materials
open into a single fiber, at the same time
make different fiber raw materials
mixed, made of fiber slurry, slurry
transport to the network mechanism,
fiber in the wet state into a net and then
reinforced into cloth.
18
5. Spunbonded Non Woven
Spunbonded Non-woven fabric is in the
polymer has been squeezed out,
stretching and the formation of
continuous filament, filament laying into
a net, fiber nets after their own
adhesion, thermal bonding, chemical
bonding or mechanical strengthening
methods, so that the fiber net into Non-
woven fabrics.
19
6. Melt-blown Non Woven
Melt-blown non-woven fabric process:
Polymer Feeding---melt extrusion---fiber
formation---fiber cooling---into a mesh--
-reinforced into cloth.
20
7. Acupuncture Non Woven
Acupuncture Non-woven fabric is a kind
of dry non-woven, acupuncture non-
woven fabric is the use of needle
puncture effect, the fluffy fiber mesh to
strengthen the cloth.
21
8. Sewing Non Woven
Sewing Non-woven fabric is a dry non-
woven fabric, sewing method is the use
of warp-knitted coil structure on the
fiber net, yarn layer, non-woven
materials (such as plastic sheet, plastic
thin metal foil, etc.) or their combination
of reinforcement to make non-woven
fabrics.
22
9. Hydrophillic Non Woven
Mainly used in the production of medical
and sanitary materials in order to obtain
better feel and do not scratch the skin.
Like sanitary napkins, sanitary gaskets is
the use of hydrophilic Non-woven fabric
hydrophilic function.
23
Applications of Non Woven
25
NonWoven
Applications
Sportech
Geotech
Mobiltech
Filtration
Medtech
Protech
Medical
Surgical Gowns, Protective
Clothing, Disinfection Cloth,
Masks, Diapers, Household
Wipes, Wet Wipes, Magic
Towels, Soft Towels, Beauty
Products, Sanitary Napkins,
Health Care Mats, And
Disposable Hygiene Fabrics.
26
Applications
27
Applications
Surgical Mask
Respiratory Mask
Disposable Medical Kit
Apron
Home
Non Woven Wallpaper,
Tablecloths, Bed Sheets,
Bedspreads.
28
Applications
29
Applications
Designer carpets Beddings
Clothing
Lining, Adhesive Lining, Flakes,
Stereotypes Cotton, All Kinds
Of Synthetic Leather Fabric.
30
Applications
31
Applications
Swimwear
Sleep wear
Diving Suit
32
Firefighting suit
Military Apparel
Bullet-proof vest
Applications
Industrial
Reinforcing Materials, Polishing
Materials, Filter Materials,
Insulation Materials, Cement
Bags, Geotextiles, Covering
Cloth.
33
Applications
34
Geo textiles fabric
for roadways or
flyover construction Industrial
clothing
Geo textile fabric
Applications
Agricultural
Crop Protective Fabric,
Nursery Cloth, Irrigation Cloth,
Insulation Curtains.
35
Applications
Others
Space Cotton, Insulation
Materials, Suction Felt, Smoke
Filter, Bags, Shoes.
36
Applications
Non Woven Manufacturing
Process
Fiber Selection
Fibers
Web Formation
Dry Laid
Bonding
Thermal
Finishing
Chemical Mechanical
Chemical
Finishing
Mechanical
Finishing
Wet Laid
Bonding
Polymers
Direct Laid
Spunbond
Bonding
Meltblown
Bonding
Introduction
Nonwoven fabrics are made by bonding or interlocking fibers or
filaments by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or solvent means.
The three main stages involving production of non-woven are:
▪ Web formation
▪ Web bonding
▪ Finishing treatments
39
Web Formation
▪ A nonwoven fabric is basically a web of fibers held together in some
way.
▪ The web may be made of staple fibres or filaments, or from
portions of polymer film.
▪ This again depends on two process-
1. Fiber to fabric(carded, air laid, wet laid)
2. Polymer to fabric(spun bond, melt blown)
40
The Process of Carding
▪ Carding is a mechanical process that opens bales of staple fibre, and
loosens them evenly to create a web bed.
▪ Carded webs are usually thin but stronger when pulled lengthwise
due to greater friction acting lengthwise.
▪ It is a relatively slow and more expensive method to convert fibres.
41
42
Diagram of a
Carding Machine
Air-laid Process
▪ This manufacturing technology produces a web from short fibres.
▪ It is much similar to carding process but instead of using a wire
cover roll to remove the fibers from the cylinder, a wall of air blows
them off.
▪ The web when bonded will produce a fabric of equal strength
properties in all directions.
43
44
Diagram of an
Air-laid Machine
Wet-laid Process
▪ In this process, staple fibers of up to 12 mm fiber length, very often
mixed with viscose or wood pulp, are suspended in water, using
large tanks.
▪ Afterwards the water-fiber dispersion is pumped and continuously
deposited on a forming wire.
▪ To distinguish wetlaid nonwovens from wetlaid papers more than
30% by mass of its fibrous content is made up of fibers
45
Wet-laid Machine
Spun-bond/Spun laid Non Wovens
▪ Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors
or can be directed with air streams.
▪ This technique leads to faster belt speeds, and cheaper costs.
▪ These are bonded by either resin or thermally.
▪ Several variants of spun bond are available in market.
47
Spun-bond machine
Melt-Blown
▪ These are produced by extruding melted polymer fibres through a
spin net.
▪ Then, they are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the
fibres.
▪ The resultant web is collected into rolls and subsequently
converted to finished products.
49
Melt-blown machine
Spun-bond vs Melt-blown
▪ Spun-bond has been
combined with melt-blown
nonwovens, conforming
them into a layered product
called SMS (spun-melt-spun).
▪ Melt-blown nonwovens have
extremely fine fiber diameters
but are not strong fabrics.
SMS fabrics, made completely
from PP are water-repellent
and fine enough to serve as
disposable fabrics.
51
52
Bonding of Non Woven Fabrics
▪ Bonding plays an importantrole when manufacturing nonwovens.
The loose cohesion of the fibers is treated in one or more steps- to
form a more solid type of web, the nonwoven.
▪ Non-woven fabric bonding can be classified in three different
technologies-
▪ Mechanical bonding
▪ Chemical bonding
▪ Thermal bonding
53
54
Non Woven
Bonding
Mechanical
Needle
Punching
Hydroentanglement
Chemical Thermal
Calendar
Bonding
Mechanical Bonding
▪ The strengthening of the web is achieved by inter-fibre friction as a
result of the physical entanglement of the fibres.
▪ There are two main types of mechanical bonding:
▪ Needle punching
▪ Hydroentanglement
55
Needle Punching
▪ Fibres which have no directional frictional properties and need to
be mechanically entangled in order to form felts.
▪ This is done using barbed needles.
▪ The products of needle felting are used for carpets, under felts,
upholstery, and blankets.
▪ The barbed needle tangles together some fibres from each layer of
the web to make a stronger web.
56
57
Hydroentanglement
▪ Hydroentanglement is commonly applied to carded or wet-laid
webs and uses fine, high pressure water jets to cause the fibres to
interlace.
▪ It is sometimes referred to as spun-lacing, as the arrangement of
jets can also be used to give a wide variety of aesthetically pleasing
effects.
▪ The water jet pressure used has a direct bearing on the strength of
the web.
58
59
Process of Hydroentanglement
Chemical Bonding
▪ It is also known as adhesive bonding.
▪ The adhesive can be applied to the web as a printed pattern or as a
sprinkling of powder.
▪ The properties of an adhesive-bonded nonwoven depend to quite a
large extent on the properties of the adhesive polymer used.
▪ Commonly used adhesives are polyvinyl acetate (PVA glue)
polyacrylonitrile, PVC.
60
61
Adhesive Bonding: A cellulosic wiper, with the adhesive is
applied in colour stripes and resin-impregnated fiberglass used
to reinforce pipes.
Thermal Bonding
▪ When a web of thermoplastic fibres or filament is heated, the fibres cross
over each other at many points, there are many rigid welding spots in
nonwoven fabric.
▪ This makes heat-bonded fabrics rather stiff and inextensible
▪ Thermoplastic fibres with lower melting point are blended in the web with
fibers with higher melting point.
▪ On heating, only the low melting point fibers melt.
▪ This way, weld points are formed and Such melt-welded fabrics are called
Melded fabrics.
62
63
Calendar Bonding
▪ Most common thermal bonding
▪ Web passed between two heated rolls –
▪ One or both are heated internally.
▪ One or both may be Embossed (mark/design).
▪ Heating via :- conduction
▪ Cooling via :- convection.
64
Finishing
▪ Nonwovensmay be given one or more of a variety of finishing processes
as a means of enhancingfabric performance or aesthetic properties.
▪ It can be classified into two types- chemical and mechanical finishing.
▪ Chemical finishing involves the application of chemical agents as coatings
to fabric surfaces or the impregnation of fabrics with chemical additives
or fillers.
▪ Mechanicalfinishing involves altering the texture of fabric surfaces by
physically reorienting or shaping fibers on or near the fabric surface.
65
“ Thank You!
▪ Shivam
▪ Akansha Choudhary
▪ N Sarmista
▪ Tanya Raj
▪ Abhishek Kumar
66

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Non woven fabrics - Non woven technology

  • 1. Non Woven ▪ Shivam ▪ Akansha Choudhary ▪ N Sarmista ▪ Tanya Raj ▪ Abhishek Kumar
  • 3. Definition Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like material made from staple fibre (short) and long fibres (continuous long), bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted. 3
  • 4. History In the 19th century, (when England was the leading textile producing country), realizing that large amounts of fiber were wasted as trim, a textile engineer named Garnett developed a special carding device to shred this waste material back to fibrous form. This fiber was used as filling material for pillows. The Garnett Machine, though greatly modified, today still retains his name and is a major component in the non-woven industry. Later on, manufacturers in Northern England began binding these fibers mechanically (using needles) and chemically (using glue) into butts. These were the precursors of today's non-wovens. 4
  • 5. Functional Non Wovens 1. PLA(Polymer Lactic Acid Nonwoven Fabric) 2. Blac 3. Flame retardant 4. PTFE-coated (Polytetrafluoroethylene) 5. Anti-static 6. Anti-bacteria 5
  • 7. Non Woven Characteristics  May look paper like, felt like, or similar to that of woven fabrics.  May have a soft, resilient hand, or they may be hard, stiff, or broadly with little pliability.  May be as thin as tissue paper or many times thicker.  Porosity may range from low tear and burst strength to very high tensile strength. 7
  • 8. Non Woven Characteristics  May be translucent or opaque.  May be fabricated by gluing, heat bonding, or sewing.  Drapability of this type of fabrics varies from good to none at all.  Some fabrics have excellent launderability; others have none. Some may be dry- cleaned. 8
  • 10. Process of Fabric Manufacturing Weaving Interlacing of Yarn Yarn Knitting Interlocking of Yarn loops Yarn Non Wovens Interlocking of Fibres Fibre Fabric Production Method Rate of Fabric Production Weaving 1 m/min Knitting 2 m/min Nonwoven 100 m/min
  • 12. Non Woven Fabrics ▪ Fabric basically made of web of fibres and not of yarns ▪ Web may be made of staple fibres, filaments or films ▪ Yarn manufacture process eliminated ▪ Higher speed of production ▪ Less labour intensive ▪ Low energy requirement ▪ Higher degree of automation ▪ Fabrics can be engineered to give a wide variety of properties ▪ However their aesthetic properties are such that they are not in direct competition with conventional fabrics in apparel applications ▪ Main areas of growth of nonwovens are in technical textile applications like geotextiles, filtration textiles, medical textiles etc. 12
  • 15. 1. Spunlaced Non Woven Spunlaced technology is to spray high- pressure micro-flow to a layer or multilayer fiber network, so that the fiber intertwined with each other, so that the fiber network can be strengthened with a certain strength. 15
  • 16. 2. Heat Sealing Non Woven Thermal bonded non-woven fabric is the fiber network in the addition of fibrous or powdered hot-melt bonded reinforcement materials, fiber nets and then through the heating and melting cooling to strengthen the cloth. 16
  • 17. 3. Pulp airflow into the net The airflow into the net Non-woven fabric can also be called dust-free paper, dry paper non-woven fabrics. It is the use of airflow into the network technology to open pine pulp fiberboard into a single fiber state, and then use the Airflow method to make the fiber agglutination in the net, the fiber net reinforced into cloth. 17
  • 18. 4. Wet Non Woven WET Non-woven cloth is to be placed in the water medium fiber raw materials open into a single fiber, at the same time make different fiber raw materials mixed, made of fiber slurry, slurry transport to the network mechanism, fiber in the wet state into a net and then reinforced into cloth. 18
  • 19. 5. Spunbonded Non Woven Spunbonded Non-woven fabric is in the polymer has been squeezed out, stretching and the formation of continuous filament, filament laying into a net, fiber nets after their own adhesion, thermal bonding, chemical bonding or mechanical strengthening methods, so that the fiber net into Non- woven fabrics. 19
  • 20. 6. Melt-blown Non Woven Melt-blown non-woven fabric process: Polymer Feeding---melt extrusion---fiber formation---fiber cooling---into a mesh-- -reinforced into cloth. 20
  • 21. 7. Acupuncture Non Woven Acupuncture Non-woven fabric is a kind of dry non-woven, acupuncture non- woven fabric is the use of needle puncture effect, the fluffy fiber mesh to strengthen the cloth. 21
  • 22. 8. Sewing Non Woven Sewing Non-woven fabric is a dry non- woven fabric, sewing method is the use of warp-knitted coil structure on the fiber net, yarn layer, non-woven materials (such as plastic sheet, plastic thin metal foil, etc.) or their combination of reinforcement to make non-woven fabrics. 22
  • 23. 9. Hydrophillic Non Woven Mainly used in the production of medical and sanitary materials in order to obtain better feel and do not scratch the skin. Like sanitary napkins, sanitary gaskets is the use of hydrophilic Non-woven fabric hydrophilic function. 23
  • 26. Medical Surgical Gowns, Protective Clothing, Disinfection Cloth, Masks, Diapers, Household Wipes, Wet Wipes, Magic Towels, Soft Towels, Beauty Products, Sanitary Napkins, Health Care Mats, And Disposable Hygiene Fabrics. 26 Applications
  • 28. Home Non Woven Wallpaper, Tablecloths, Bed Sheets, Bedspreads. 28 Applications
  • 30. Clothing Lining, Adhesive Lining, Flakes, Stereotypes Cotton, All Kinds Of Synthetic Leather Fabric. 30 Applications
  • 33. Industrial Reinforcing Materials, Polishing Materials, Filter Materials, Insulation Materials, Cement Bags, Geotextiles, Covering Cloth. 33 Applications
  • 34. 34 Geo textiles fabric for roadways or flyover construction Industrial clothing Geo textile fabric Applications
  • 35. Agricultural Crop Protective Fabric, Nursery Cloth, Irrigation Cloth, Insulation Curtains. 35 Applications
  • 36. Others Space Cotton, Insulation Materials, Suction Felt, Smoke Filter, Bags, Shoes. 36 Applications
  • 38. Fiber Selection Fibers Web Formation Dry Laid Bonding Thermal Finishing Chemical Mechanical Chemical Finishing Mechanical Finishing Wet Laid Bonding Polymers Direct Laid Spunbond Bonding Meltblown Bonding
  • 39. Introduction Nonwoven fabrics are made by bonding or interlocking fibers or filaments by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or solvent means. The three main stages involving production of non-woven are: ▪ Web formation ▪ Web bonding ▪ Finishing treatments 39
  • 40. Web Formation ▪ A nonwoven fabric is basically a web of fibers held together in some way. ▪ The web may be made of staple fibres or filaments, or from portions of polymer film. ▪ This again depends on two process- 1. Fiber to fabric(carded, air laid, wet laid) 2. Polymer to fabric(spun bond, melt blown) 40
  • 41. The Process of Carding ▪ Carding is a mechanical process that opens bales of staple fibre, and loosens them evenly to create a web bed. ▪ Carded webs are usually thin but stronger when pulled lengthwise due to greater friction acting lengthwise. ▪ It is a relatively slow and more expensive method to convert fibres. 41
  • 43. Air-laid Process ▪ This manufacturing technology produces a web from short fibres. ▪ It is much similar to carding process but instead of using a wire cover roll to remove the fibers from the cylinder, a wall of air blows them off. ▪ The web when bonded will produce a fabric of equal strength properties in all directions. 43
  • 45. Wet-laid Process ▪ In this process, staple fibers of up to 12 mm fiber length, very often mixed with viscose or wood pulp, are suspended in water, using large tanks. ▪ Afterwards the water-fiber dispersion is pumped and continuously deposited on a forming wire. ▪ To distinguish wetlaid nonwovens from wetlaid papers more than 30% by mass of its fibrous content is made up of fibers 45
  • 47. Spun-bond/Spun laid Non Wovens ▪ Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or can be directed with air streams. ▪ This technique leads to faster belt speeds, and cheaper costs. ▪ These are bonded by either resin or thermally. ▪ Several variants of spun bond are available in market. 47
  • 49. Melt-Blown ▪ These are produced by extruding melted polymer fibres through a spin net. ▪ Then, they are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the fibres. ▪ The resultant web is collected into rolls and subsequently converted to finished products. 49
  • 51. Spun-bond vs Melt-blown ▪ Spun-bond has been combined with melt-blown nonwovens, conforming them into a layered product called SMS (spun-melt-spun). ▪ Melt-blown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. SMS fabrics, made completely from PP are water-repellent and fine enough to serve as disposable fabrics. 51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. Bonding of Non Woven Fabrics ▪ Bonding plays an importantrole when manufacturing nonwovens. The loose cohesion of the fibers is treated in one or more steps- to form a more solid type of web, the nonwoven. ▪ Non-woven fabric bonding can be classified in three different technologies- ▪ Mechanical bonding ▪ Chemical bonding ▪ Thermal bonding 53
  • 55. Mechanical Bonding ▪ The strengthening of the web is achieved by inter-fibre friction as a result of the physical entanglement of the fibres. ▪ There are two main types of mechanical bonding: ▪ Needle punching ▪ Hydroentanglement 55
  • 56. Needle Punching ▪ Fibres which have no directional frictional properties and need to be mechanically entangled in order to form felts. ▪ This is done using barbed needles. ▪ The products of needle felting are used for carpets, under felts, upholstery, and blankets. ▪ The barbed needle tangles together some fibres from each layer of the web to make a stronger web. 56
  • 57. 57
  • 58. Hydroentanglement ▪ Hydroentanglement is commonly applied to carded or wet-laid webs and uses fine, high pressure water jets to cause the fibres to interlace. ▪ It is sometimes referred to as spun-lacing, as the arrangement of jets can also be used to give a wide variety of aesthetically pleasing effects. ▪ The water jet pressure used has a direct bearing on the strength of the web. 58
  • 60. Chemical Bonding ▪ It is also known as adhesive bonding. ▪ The adhesive can be applied to the web as a printed pattern or as a sprinkling of powder. ▪ The properties of an adhesive-bonded nonwoven depend to quite a large extent on the properties of the adhesive polymer used. ▪ Commonly used adhesives are polyvinyl acetate (PVA glue) polyacrylonitrile, PVC. 60
  • 61. 61 Adhesive Bonding: A cellulosic wiper, with the adhesive is applied in colour stripes and resin-impregnated fiberglass used to reinforce pipes.
  • 62. Thermal Bonding ▪ When a web of thermoplastic fibres or filament is heated, the fibres cross over each other at many points, there are many rigid welding spots in nonwoven fabric. ▪ This makes heat-bonded fabrics rather stiff and inextensible ▪ Thermoplastic fibres with lower melting point are blended in the web with fibers with higher melting point. ▪ On heating, only the low melting point fibers melt. ▪ This way, weld points are formed and Such melt-welded fabrics are called Melded fabrics. 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. Calendar Bonding ▪ Most common thermal bonding ▪ Web passed between two heated rolls – ▪ One or both are heated internally. ▪ One or both may be Embossed (mark/design). ▪ Heating via :- conduction ▪ Cooling via :- convection. 64
  • 65. Finishing ▪ Nonwovensmay be given one or more of a variety of finishing processes as a means of enhancingfabric performance or aesthetic properties. ▪ It can be classified into two types- chemical and mechanical finishing. ▪ Chemical finishing involves the application of chemical agents as coatings to fabric surfaces or the impregnation of fabrics with chemical additives or fillers. ▪ Mechanicalfinishing involves altering the texture of fabric surfaces by physically reorienting or shaping fibers on or near the fabric surface. 65
  • 66. “ Thank You! ▪ Shivam ▪ Akansha Choudhary ▪ N Sarmista ▪ Tanya Raj ▪ Abhishek Kumar 66