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SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar SeriesSmall Ruminant Program
2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar SeriesJan 13		I.   Late GestationJan 20		II.  VaccinationsFeb 3			III. ParturitionFeb 10		IV. Neonatal CareFeb 17		V.  LactationFeb 24		VI. Weaning
Neonatal careCare of newborns (day 0-14)http://www.slideshare.net/schoenian/neonatal
What factors affect neonatal survival?OffspringBirth weight    #1 factor!SexBirth typeBehavior (vigor)Dam factorsBody condition score   #2ParityMaternal behaviorColostrum accumulation  #3
Factors affecting with neonatal survivalEnvironmental factorsLambing/kidding systemWeatherManagementNutrition during pregnancyEase of birthSanitationCrowdingGeneticsBreedSire
SourWhen death losses occurSpooner Agricultural Research Center (Wisconsin) -  dairy sheepSource:  Lamb mortality and causes:  A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station
When death losses occurNational Sheep Health Survey  -  all  sheep  operationsSource:  USDA APHIS NAHSM
What causes neonates to die?U.S. Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, Idaho:  range sheep, shed-lambed
Causes of deathSpooner Agricultural Research Station (Wisconsin):  dairy sheepSource:  Lamb mortality and causes:  A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station
Causes of death in neonatesSmall ruminants in JordanSource:  Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (2007)
Clip, dip, strip, and sipClip navel cord  (if necessary)Dip navel cord in gentle iodine, chlorhexidine, or betadine.Strip teats to remove wax plugs and open up teats for baby to nurse easier.Make sure lambs and kids nurse.
ColostrumAll newborn mammals require colostrum for optimal healthThick, yellowish first milk that dam produces after parturition (for the first 24 hours).Rich in energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.Has laxative qualities.Contains maternal antibodiesLarge protein molecules that can only be absorbed by neonate during the first 24 to 36 hours after birth.Absorption by neonate is most efficient the first few hours after birth.Baby should consume 10% of its body weight in colostrum.
Colostrum sources
Common problems of the neonateHypothermiaStarvationDiarrhea (scours)PneumoniaFloppy kid syndrome
HypothermiaCaused by excessive body heat loss and reduced heat production.
Neonates are unable to regulate their body temperature during their first 36 hours.
Energy is required to generate heat.CausesInadequate colostrumDam rejectionMastitisTeats too large or close to groundInadequate milk productionJoint injury or illnessSoremouthDifficult birthSmall, weak babyCan’t compete with siblingsSymptomsLethargicHead downWeakEmpty stomachHypothermiaGlucose injectionTube feed colostrumFeed milk replacerArtificially rearStarvationTreatment
Tips for tube feeding lambs and kidsUse clean equipmentMeasure how far the tube needs to go inHold baby between your knees in upright position.Dip tube in clean water.Gentle advance tube towards back of animal’s mouthThe animal should swallow as the tube is advanced.  It will still be able to bleat and cry.http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1998/eb1998.pdf
Tips for tube feeding lambs and kidsFeel the tube on the left side of the animal’s neck.Fill syringe with warm milk.Do not force milk with plunger.Let fluid trickle in via gravity.Squeeze end of tube when pulling tube out.Frequent meals are better than big meals2-3 ounces  at a timehttp://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1998/eb1998.pdf
Intraperitoneal injectionSuspend baby by front legsIntroduce 1-in, 20-g needle through body wall  1 inch to the side of the navel and 1 inch caudal.Point needle towards tailSlowly inject solution into body cavity.
CausesEnvironmental Unsanitary conditionsUnclean waterInfected fecesBacterialE. coli - “watery” mouthSalmonellaCryptospordiaGiardiaClostridium perfringins type CViralRotavirusNeonatal scoursSymptomsGauntDepressedWet, rear legsDehydration
TreatmentOral electrolytesOral antibiotics[Rx] SpectinomycinAdequate colostrum intakeGood sanitationCD-T vaccinationsNeonatal scoursPreventionWatery mouth (NADIS UK)
Causative organismsPasteurellahemolyticaParainfluenza virus-3SymptomsElevated body temperatureLabored breathingDepressedDroopy earsTreat early with injectable antibiotics[Rx] LA-200[Rx] Naxcel/Excenel[Rx] Nuflor[Rx] Micotil (NOT GOATS)PreventionProper ventilationAdequate colostrum intakeVaccination of damsBacterial pneumoniaTreatment
CauseUnknownMetabolic acidosisElevated D-lactate levelsSymptomsNormal at birthSymptoms develop 3 to 10 days of ageWeaknessLateral recumbencyNo muscle toneLoss of nursing reflexEarly detectionCorrect acid/base status of kidOral bicarbonate (baking soda)	½ to 1 tsp. in 1 cup of waterElectrolytesFloppy kid syndromeTreatment
Slime Scent/odorSkinStanchionCross-fostering or grafting
Artificial rearing lambs and kidsWhy?Dam diesDam doesn’t have milkDam doesn’t have enough milkPoor milk producerGeneticsPoor nutritionDiseaseLarge litterDam rejects babyBaby is weak.Dairy enterprisePrevent CAE and OPP
Which baby should you choose for artificial rearing?Old recommendationRemove the largest, most aggressive baby for artificial rearing.New recommendationRemove the smallest weakest baby for artificial rearing.Select lambs/kids 2 to 6 hours after birth for artificial rearing.
How to rear lambs and kids artificiallyMake sure baby gets adequate colostrum.Let baby nurse dam for first four to six hours.Tube feed colostrumFeed the right milk replacer for optimal performance	Sheep milk contains more fat.Follow instructions on bag.MixingFeeding amountFeeding frequencyAfter first few days, feed milk replacer cold.
How to rear lambs and kids artificiallyHand-feed or use self-feeder.Keep feeding equipment clean.Start offering solid food when the lamb or kid is a few days old.High quality lamb or kid starterSoybean mealVaccinate for CD-T at 4 and 8 weeks of age.
Weaning orphansUsually 4 to 8 weeksBetter to wean on weight than age.Common rules of thumbMinimum of 20 lbs. 2.5 x birth weightLamb or kids should be eating solid food and doing well.Lamb:  0.5 lb. creep feed dailyWean abruptly.After weaning, keep lamb or kid on starter diet; do not wean onto lush pasture.
When to feed heat-treated/pasteurized colostrum or milkTo prevent CAETo prevent OPPTo kids that have recovered from floppy kid syndromeHeat at 130-135ºF (56ºC) for 1 hourAntibodies will be destroyed at 140ºF (60ºC)
Common management practicesThese practices are not done on all farmsEar taggingBefore baby leaves jugWeighingAt day 0 or 1Docking1 to 7 days of ageNo later than 6 weeksCastration 1 to 7 days of ageNo later than 6 weeksDisbudding3 days to 2 weeks
WHY?HealthReduce risk of fly strikeHygieneEasier to shear/crutchEasier to observe udderEasier to assist lambingMarket preferenceTails reduce dressing percentageCleanliness at harvestSome breeds don’t require dockingHair sheepShort or rat-tailed sheepLow incidence of dagginess.Short-wool breedsAnimal welfare concernsDockingShortening the length of the tailWHY  NOT?
Length of docked tailRecommendationU.S.Distal end of caudal tail fold.EuropeCover female’s vulvaCover male’s anusShow lambs are usually docked shorter (for appearance)
WHY?	ManagementPrevent unwanted pregnanciesControl behaviorSell as pets or grazersMarket preferenceTraditional marketsCustomer preferenceMarket older animalsTraditionBetter growthBetter carcassBigger carcassMarket at a young ageMarket preferenceEthnic marketsAnimal welfareCastratingTesticles are removed or their function is inhibitedWHY NOT?
Tools for docking and castratingElectric dockerEmasculatorAll-in-oneElastratorBurdizzo® EmasculatomeScalpelKnife
ProsDocking and castrating with an elastratorQuickEasyBloodlessInexpensive toolLess painful than surgical castration with knifeIncreased risk of tetanusPainfulCan reduce pain by giving an local anesthetic or combining use with BurdizzoIt is less painful to make a “short-scrotum” male.ConsCuts off blood supply to tail and/or testicles
Bands should be applied at 1 to 7 days of age (definitely before 6 weeks of age)ProsCan dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)Less painful than other methods.Less reliableRequires more skillMore expensive toolDocking and castrating with a BurdizzoConsCrushes spermatic cords inside testicles, thus stopping blood supply, eventually causing atrophy of the testicles.
Use in conjunction with elastrator to minimize pain during docking and castrating
Use small-size BurdizzoProsCan dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)Less painful than other methods.Less reliableRequires more skillMore expensive toolDocking and castrating with an emasculatorConsCrushes arteries before severing them.ProsInexpensiveMost reliable method of castration (1 + 1 = 2)BloodyGreatest potential for infection and fly infestation.Most painful method of castrationSurgical castrationTools:  knife, scalpel, all-in-oneConsCut off bottom one-third of sac, with a parallel cut to the ground.Pull testicle down away from the body until the cord breaks.Do not cut cords (may sever by scraping with a scalpel).Repeat for other testicle.Minimize pain and stress by performing on young animals only.Use antiseptic to prevent infection.
ProsLess chance of infectionCan dock older lambsProbably most humane method of tail dockingRequires electricityRequires more physical effortMore expensive toolUsing an electric dockerConsCuts and cauterizes tail.WHY?WHY NOT?Personal preferenceSafetyAnimalsHumansManagementClose confinementFeedersFencesHandlingShow or registration requirementsPersonal preferenceHandlingLoss of “handles” Goats not handled frequently.Natural part of goatBreed characterWeaponsWelfare (pain)DisbuddingPolled trait is linked to infertility in goats:   polled x polled horned
Disbudding goatsWhen?1 to 3 weeks of ageHorns grow differentlyIdeal time is just as horn is coming through skinToolsDisbudding boxDisbudding ironClippers (optional)How?[Vx] Numb region around the horn buds with an anesthetic.Carefully press dehorner onto the buds for 8 to 15 seconds.Twist tool to cut through skin to the skull.If the procedure is done correctly, you should see a copper-colored ring around the horn bud.
Thank you for your attention.  Any questions?Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.comSmall Ruminant Program
Thank you for your attention. Questions?Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.comSmall Ruminant Program

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Neonatal Care

  • 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar SeriesSmall Ruminant Program
  • 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar SeriesJan 13 I. Late GestationJan 20 II. VaccinationsFeb 3 III. ParturitionFeb 10 IV. Neonatal CareFeb 17 V. LactationFeb 24 VI. Weaning
  • 3. Neonatal careCare of newborns (day 0-14)http://www.slideshare.net/schoenian/neonatal
  • 4. What factors affect neonatal survival?OffspringBirth weight #1 factor!SexBirth typeBehavior (vigor)Dam factorsBody condition score #2ParityMaternal behaviorColostrum accumulation #3
  • 5. Factors affecting with neonatal survivalEnvironmental factorsLambing/kidding systemWeatherManagementNutrition during pregnancyEase of birthSanitationCrowdingGeneticsBreedSire
  • 6. SourWhen death losses occurSpooner Agricultural Research Center (Wisconsin) - dairy sheepSource: Lamb mortality and causes: A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station
  • 7. When death losses occurNational Sheep Health Survey - all sheep operationsSource: USDA APHIS NAHSM
  • 8. What causes neonates to die?U.S. Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, Idaho: range sheep, shed-lambed
  • 9. Causes of deathSpooner Agricultural Research Station (Wisconsin): dairy sheepSource: Lamb mortality and causes: A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station
  • 10. Causes of death in neonatesSmall ruminants in JordanSource: Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (2007)
  • 11. Clip, dip, strip, and sipClip navel cord (if necessary)Dip navel cord in gentle iodine, chlorhexidine, or betadine.Strip teats to remove wax plugs and open up teats for baby to nurse easier.Make sure lambs and kids nurse.
  • 12. ColostrumAll newborn mammals require colostrum for optimal healthThick, yellowish first milk that dam produces after parturition (for the first 24 hours).Rich in energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.Has laxative qualities.Contains maternal antibodiesLarge protein molecules that can only be absorbed by neonate during the first 24 to 36 hours after birth.Absorption by neonate is most efficient the first few hours after birth.Baby should consume 10% of its body weight in colostrum.
  • 14. Common problems of the neonateHypothermiaStarvationDiarrhea (scours)PneumoniaFloppy kid syndrome
  • 15. HypothermiaCaused by excessive body heat loss and reduced heat production.
  • 16. Neonates are unable to regulate their body temperature during their first 36 hours.
  • 17. Energy is required to generate heat.CausesInadequate colostrumDam rejectionMastitisTeats too large or close to groundInadequate milk productionJoint injury or illnessSoremouthDifficult birthSmall, weak babyCan’t compete with siblingsSymptomsLethargicHead downWeakEmpty stomachHypothermiaGlucose injectionTube feed colostrumFeed milk replacerArtificially rearStarvationTreatment
  • 18. Tips for tube feeding lambs and kidsUse clean equipmentMeasure how far the tube needs to go inHold baby between your knees in upright position.Dip tube in clean water.Gentle advance tube towards back of animal’s mouthThe animal should swallow as the tube is advanced. It will still be able to bleat and cry.http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1998/eb1998.pdf
  • 19. Tips for tube feeding lambs and kidsFeel the tube on the left side of the animal’s neck.Fill syringe with warm milk.Do not force milk with plunger.Let fluid trickle in via gravity.Squeeze end of tube when pulling tube out.Frequent meals are better than big meals2-3 ounces at a timehttp://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1998/eb1998.pdf
  • 20. Intraperitoneal injectionSuspend baby by front legsIntroduce 1-in, 20-g needle through body wall 1 inch to the side of the navel and 1 inch caudal.Point needle towards tailSlowly inject solution into body cavity.
  • 21. CausesEnvironmental Unsanitary conditionsUnclean waterInfected fecesBacterialE. coli - “watery” mouthSalmonellaCryptospordiaGiardiaClostridium perfringins type CViralRotavirusNeonatal scoursSymptomsGauntDepressedWet, rear legsDehydration
  • 22. TreatmentOral electrolytesOral antibiotics[Rx] SpectinomycinAdequate colostrum intakeGood sanitationCD-T vaccinationsNeonatal scoursPreventionWatery mouth (NADIS UK)
  • 23. Causative organismsPasteurellahemolyticaParainfluenza virus-3SymptomsElevated body temperatureLabored breathingDepressedDroopy earsTreat early with injectable antibiotics[Rx] LA-200[Rx] Naxcel/Excenel[Rx] Nuflor[Rx] Micotil (NOT GOATS)PreventionProper ventilationAdequate colostrum intakeVaccination of damsBacterial pneumoniaTreatment
  • 24. CauseUnknownMetabolic acidosisElevated D-lactate levelsSymptomsNormal at birthSymptoms develop 3 to 10 days of ageWeaknessLateral recumbencyNo muscle toneLoss of nursing reflexEarly detectionCorrect acid/base status of kidOral bicarbonate (baking soda) ½ to 1 tsp. in 1 cup of waterElectrolytesFloppy kid syndromeTreatment
  • 26. Artificial rearing lambs and kidsWhy?Dam diesDam doesn’t have milkDam doesn’t have enough milkPoor milk producerGeneticsPoor nutritionDiseaseLarge litterDam rejects babyBaby is weak.Dairy enterprisePrevent CAE and OPP
  • 27. Which baby should you choose for artificial rearing?Old recommendationRemove the largest, most aggressive baby for artificial rearing.New recommendationRemove the smallest weakest baby for artificial rearing.Select lambs/kids 2 to 6 hours after birth for artificial rearing.
  • 28. How to rear lambs and kids artificiallyMake sure baby gets adequate colostrum.Let baby nurse dam for first four to six hours.Tube feed colostrumFeed the right milk replacer for optimal performance Sheep milk contains more fat.Follow instructions on bag.MixingFeeding amountFeeding frequencyAfter first few days, feed milk replacer cold.
  • 29. How to rear lambs and kids artificiallyHand-feed or use self-feeder.Keep feeding equipment clean.Start offering solid food when the lamb or kid is a few days old.High quality lamb or kid starterSoybean mealVaccinate for CD-T at 4 and 8 weeks of age.
  • 30. Weaning orphansUsually 4 to 8 weeksBetter to wean on weight than age.Common rules of thumbMinimum of 20 lbs. 2.5 x birth weightLamb or kids should be eating solid food and doing well.Lamb: 0.5 lb. creep feed dailyWean abruptly.After weaning, keep lamb or kid on starter diet; do not wean onto lush pasture.
  • 31. When to feed heat-treated/pasteurized colostrum or milkTo prevent CAETo prevent OPPTo kids that have recovered from floppy kid syndromeHeat at 130-135ºF (56ºC) for 1 hourAntibodies will be destroyed at 140ºF (60ºC)
  • 32. Common management practicesThese practices are not done on all farmsEar taggingBefore baby leaves jugWeighingAt day 0 or 1Docking1 to 7 days of ageNo later than 6 weeksCastration 1 to 7 days of ageNo later than 6 weeksDisbudding3 days to 2 weeks
  • 33. WHY?HealthReduce risk of fly strikeHygieneEasier to shear/crutchEasier to observe udderEasier to assist lambingMarket preferenceTails reduce dressing percentageCleanliness at harvestSome breeds don’t require dockingHair sheepShort or rat-tailed sheepLow incidence of dagginess.Short-wool breedsAnimal welfare concernsDockingShortening the length of the tailWHY NOT?
  • 34. Length of docked tailRecommendationU.S.Distal end of caudal tail fold.EuropeCover female’s vulvaCover male’s anusShow lambs are usually docked shorter (for appearance)
  • 35. WHY? ManagementPrevent unwanted pregnanciesControl behaviorSell as pets or grazersMarket preferenceTraditional marketsCustomer preferenceMarket older animalsTraditionBetter growthBetter carcassBigger carcassMarket at a young ageMarket preferenceEthnic marketsAnimal welfareCastratingTesticles are removed or their function is inhibitedWHY NOT?
  • 36. Tools for docking and castratingElectric dockerEmasculatorAll-in-oneElastratorBurdizzo® EmasculatomeScalpelKnife
  • 37. ProsDocking and castrating with an elastratorQuickEasyBloodlessInexpensive toolLess painful than surgical castration with knifeIncreased risk of tetanusPainfulCan reduce pain by giving an local anesthetic or combining use with BurdizzoIt is less painful to make a “short-scrotum” male.ConsCuts off blood supply to tail and/or testicles
  • 38. Bands should be applied at 1 to 7 days of age (definitely before 6 weeks of age)ProsCan dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)Less painful than other methods.Less reliableRequires more skillMore expensive toolDocking and castrating with a BurdizzoConsCrushes spermatic cords inside testicles, thus stopping blood supply, eventually causing atrophy of the testicles.
  • 39. Use in conjunction with elastrator to minimize pain during docking and castrating
  • 40. Use small-size BurdizzoProsCan dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)Less painful than other methods.Less reliableRequires more skillMore expensive toolDocking and castrating with an emasculatorConsCrushes arteries before severing them.ProsInexpensiveMost reliable method of castration (1 + 1 = 2)BloodyGreatest potential for infection and fly infestation.Most painful method of castrationSurgical castrationTools: knife, scalpel, all-in-oneConsCut off bottom one-third of sac, with a parallel cut to the ground.Pull testicle down away from the body until the cord breaks.Do not cut cords (may sever by scraping with a scalpel).Repeat for other testicle.Minimize pain and stress by performing on young animals only.Use antiseptic to prevent infection.
  • 41. ProsLess chance of infectionCan dock older lambsProbably most humane method of tail dockingRequires electricityRequires more physical effortMore expensive toolUsing an electric dockerConsCuts and cauterizes tail.WHY?WHY NOT?Personal preferenceSafetyAnimalsHumansManagementClose confinementFeedersFencesHandlingShow or registration requirementsPersonal preferenceHandlingLoss of “handles” Goats not handled frequently.Natural part of goatBreed characterWeaponsWelfare (pain)DisbuddingPolled trait is linked to infertility in goats: polled x polled horned
  • 42. Disbudding goatsWhen?1 to 3 weeks of ageHorns grow differentlyIdeal time is just as horn is coming through skinToolsDisbudding boxDisbudding ironClippers (optional)How?[Vx] Numb region around the horn buds with an anesthetic.Carefully press dehorner onto the buds for 8 to 15 seconds.Twist tool to cut through skin to the skull.If the procedure is done correctly, you should see a copper-colored ring around the horn bud.
  • 43. Thank you for your attention. Any questions?Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.comSmall Ruminant Program
  • 44. Thank you for your attention. Questions?Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.comSmall Ruminant Program