Sheep production powerpoint


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Sheep production powerpoint

  1. 1. Common Diseases& Health Issues of Sheep & Goats 1
  2. 2. Economic Importance The economic loss to the sheep and goat industries due to disease and parasites through death, loss of condition, inefficient utilization of feed and carcass Image courtesy of Wipenn Hill Farms condemnation is extremely high. 2
  3. 3. What Should a healthy sheep/goat look like?  Relaxed, chewing their cud  Able to walk without discomfortPhoto courtesy of Maple Hollow Farm  Vocal sounds  Ear placement  Attentive and alert Image # 1 3
  4. 4. Diseases associated with lambs and kids Enterotoxemia Soremouth Epididymitis White Muscle Disease Urinary Calculi Image courtesy of Wipenn Hill Farms 4
  5. 5. Enterotoxemia Enterotoxemia – Often seen with lambs nursing heavy ewes or recently weaned lambs on lush pasture or excess amounts of feed. Disease will often affect the largest and most vigorous lamb in the flock. Control – Easily prevented with vaccination 5
  6. 6. Soremouth Soremouth is a common skin disease affecting sheep and goats. It is a highly contagious infection that can also produce painful human infections. The virus causes scab formation on the skin, usually around the mouth, nostrils, eyes, mammary gland and vulva. Treatment is usually unrewarding. The disease will usually run its course in 1 to 4 weeks. Hard to vaccinate for unless specific type of soremouth is known. Could cause a outbreak in your flock if you vaccinate. Usually you will get soremouth if you show animals at fairs. 6
  7. 7. SoremouthImage # 2 Image # 3 7
  8. 8. Epididymitis Epididymitis means inflammation of the tubular portion of the testical. Severely affected rams will often show discomfort and could have swelling in the testes area. Epididymitis may cause infertility in rams and bucks. The damage is usually permanent. It is the number one ram fertility problem seen in the sheep and goat industry. Epididymitis is contagious and is transmitted during breeding. Prevention is to buy virgin or disease-free rams and bucks. 8
  9. 9. White Muscle Disease White muscle disease is a degeneration of the skeletal and muscle systems of lambs and kids. It is caused by a deficiency of selenium, vitamin E, or both and can be a problem wherever selenium levels in the soil are low or the diet is deficient in selenium. Symptoms are stiffness of the hind legs with an arched back and tucked in flanks. If dietary levels of selenium are inadequate, lambs or kids can be given an injection of selenium and vitamin E shortly at birth. Dietary supplementation of selenium is usually preferred to selenium injections. 9
  10. 10. White Muscle Disease Image # 4 Dragging of hind legs, often an indicator 10
  11. 11. Urinary Calculi (Waterbelly) Urinary calculi or “water belly” is a disease of wethers and intact males. It is characterized by the formation of calculi (stones) within the urinary tract. This causes retention of urine, abdominal pain, distention and rupture of the urethra or bladder. The most common cause of urinary calculi is feeding rations with high phosphorus levels. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the ration should be at least 2:1. The addition of ammonium chloride to the ration will aid in preventing urinary calculi. It is also important that animals have an ample supply of clean, potable water. The addition of salt to the ration will increase water intake and decrease stone formation. 11
  12. 12. Urinary Calculi or“Waterbelly” Image # 5 Notice the belly of the sheep is ballooned 12
  13. 13. Diseases Associated with Lambing and Kidding Pregnancy Toxemia Milk Fever Mastitis Prolapsing Abortion Image # 6 13
  14. 14. Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis) that affects Pregnancy toxemia or “ketosis” is a disease ewes and does during late gestation. It often afflicts ewes or does that are thin, over fat, older, and/or carrying multiple fetuses. It is caused by an inadequate intake of energy during late pregnancy, when the majority of fetal growth is occurring. Treatment is to increase the blood sugar supply to the body by administering glucose or propylene glycol or molasses. Pregnancy toxemia can be prevented by providing adequate energy to ewes during late gestation. Adequate feeder space is also necessary to ensure all ewes are able to consume enough feed. 14
  15. 15. Pregnancy Toxemia or “Ketosis” Photo courtesy of Scott Meyers Pregnancy Toxemia and Milk Fever have the same symptoms 15
  16. 16. Milk Fever (Hypocalcemia) Milk fever or “hypocalcemia” is a disease affecting pregnant ewes and does near birth when their calcium requirements are the highest. It is most commonly caused by an inadequate intake of calcium, but can also be caused by a ewes or does inability to mobilize calcium reserves for lambing and kidding. Milk fever presents similar symptoms as pregnancy toxemia but can be distinguished from it by the response to calcium therapy. Ewes and does in the early stages of milk fever can be administered calcium. Milk fever can be prevented by providing proper levels of calcium in the diets, especially during late gestation. 16
  17. 17. Mastitis Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland (udder) which is usually caused by a bacterial infection. There are two types of mastitis: Acute and Chronic. Acute mastitis often results in udders being discolored, dark, swollen and very warm. The affected ewe or doe may be reluctant to walk, may hold up one rear foot, and may not permit her lambs or kids to nurse. Those with chronic mastitis often go undetected. Mastitis is treated with intramammary antibiotics and injection antibiotics. There is no vaccine for mastitis. It is best prevented by good management and sanitation. 17
  18. 18. MastitisTreatment (intramammary) Extreme Case of Mastitis Images # 7-8 18
  19. 19. WARNING: Graphic ContentThe following images and or content may be disturbing to some viewers. Viewer discretion is advised 19
  20. 20. Prolapsing Uterine prolapse Vaginal Rectalprolapse prolapse Images # 9 – 12 Prolapse starting 20
  21. 21. Rectal Prolapse Rectal prolapse is the protrusion of the rectal tissue through the exterior of the body. It usually begins as a small round area that sticks out when the lamb or kid lays down or coughs. In extreme cases, the intestines can pass through the opening and the disease can be fatal. There are many factors that affect the occurrence of rectal prolapses. This includes genetics, short tail docking, coughing, weather, stress, and feeding concentrate diets. Usually, lambs or kids with prolapsed rectums are prematurely slaughtered or sent to market. It is possible to repair a rectal prolapse by amputating the prolapsed part of the rectum. 21
  22. 22. Uterine Prolapse Uterine prolapse is when the uterus is turned inside out and pushed through the birth canal by the strainings of the ewe or doe. It may occur immediately after lambing/kidding or several days later. A uterine prolapse is a life- threatening condition. The uterus should be cleaned with a warm, soapy, disinfectant solution prior to replacement and should be replaced before the tissues become dry or chilled. Affected ewes should be given antibiotics. An animal should not be culled because of a uterine prolapse. 22
  23. 23. Vaginal Prolapse Vaginal prolapses are most commonly observed during the last month of pregnancy or shortly after lambing/kidding. Many factors have been linked in the cause of vaginal prolapse, such as hormonal and metabolic imbalances, overfat/overthin body condition, bulky feeds or lack of exercise. Vaginal prolapses often reoccur in future pregnancies. The exposed vagina of affected ewes or does should be washed with soapy disinfectant solution and forced back into the ewe. A "spoon" can be inserted and secured in the animal to prevent further prolapsing. Affected ewes and their offspring should probably not be kept in the flock for breeding animals due to the possibility of passing unwanted trait on to offspring. 23
  24. 24. Vaginal Prolapse Spoon Image # 13 Image # 14Strings are tied to the wool or hair towardsthe top of the rear once spoon is inserted inthe vagina. 24
  25. 25. Abortion Abortion is when a pregnancy is terminated and the mother loses her lambs/kids or gives birth to weak or deformed animal that dies shortly after birth. There are both infectious and non- infectious causes of abortion. As a precaution, pregnant women should not handle fetuses or placental fluids. 25
  26. 26. WARNING: Graphic ContentThe following images and or content may be disturbing to some viewers. Viewer discretion is advised 26
  27. 27. AbortionImage # 15 Image # 16 27
  28. 28. Diseases Associated with Production Sheep and Goats Abscesses Listeriosis Bloat Pneumonia Images # 17 - 19 28
  29. 29. Abscesses Caseous lymphadenitis is the technical name for the disease of sheep and goats that is often referred to as CL or contagious abscesses. This disease is a very common infection in sheep and goats in the USA. Large abscesses can be opened and drained (collecting as much of the drainage as possible), but the animal should be isolated in an area that can be easily disinfected until there is no more drainage. Frequently, the abscess will reappear in a few weeks to a few months. Selling of the animal may be required. 29
  30. 30. Bloat Bloat occurs when rumen gas production exceeds the rate of gas elimination. Gas then accumulates causing disruption in the rumen. The skin on the left side of the animal behind the last rib may appear swollen. Bloat can be a medical emergency, and timely intervention may be necessary to prevent death. Bloat is a common cause of sudden death in livestock. It usually results from nutritional causes. 30
  31. 31. Listeriosis (circling disease) Listeria monocytogenes, the bacteria that causes listeriosis is widely distributed in nature and is found in soil, feedstuffs, and feces from healthy animals. It is most commonly associated with the feeding of moldy silage or spoiled hay, but because the organism lives naturally in the environment, listeriosis may occur sporadically. Sheep with the neurological form of the disease become depressed and disoriented. They may walk in circles with a head tilt and facial paralysis. Mortality is high and treatment (high doses of antibiotics) is generally not effective. 31
  32. 32. Pneumonia Pneumonia is a respiratory complex with no single agent being solely responsible for the disease. Affected animals become depressed and go off feed. They may cough and show some respiratory distress. Temperatures are usually over 104°F. The disease may be acute with sudden deaths or take a course of several days. Pneumonia is treated with antibiotics. 32
  33. 33. Scrapies Images # 20-21 33
  34. 34. Scrapies Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system (i.e. brain and spinal cord) of sheep and goats.1 Is caused by a prion protein which accumulates and damages infected cells. 2 Prions are resistant to normal sterilization processes and does not induce an immune response in affected animals, which causes this disease to be lethal. 2 34
  35. 35. History of Scrapies Scrapie is the oldest known TSE. First recognized in Great Britain and Western Europe over 250 years ago. It was first discovered in the US in 1947 in Michigan from a flock imported from British Canada 2 35
  36. 36. Scrapies The most common method of transmission is from ewe to lamb through placental fluids. Other methods of exposure include oral and ocular contact, milk from infected ewes, and environmental contamination. The infective agent, prion protein, can survive in the environment for years; the longest reported duration was 16 years. 2 36
  37. 37. Scrapies Signs and symptoms appear between 2-5 years after infection. On average, infected animals tend to show signs of onset at 3-4 years. 2 Symptoms include: ○ Nervousness or aggression ○ Intense rubbing/scraping ○ Tremors ○ Star gazing ○ Weight loss without loss of appetite ○ Wool pulling ○ Biting of feet and limbs ○ Death 3 37
  38. 38. Program Status in the US A Scrapie eradication program was first developed in 1952 In 2001, the National Scrapie Eradication Program (NSEP) was created by the USDA to cause a substantial reduction in Scrapie by 2010 and the complete eradication by 2017. This program has worked with state, industry and producer involvement. 5 38
  39. 39. Hoof and foot care Foot rot, foot scald Images # 22 -24 39
  40. 40. Foot Rot Footrot is one of the most economically devastating diseases in the sheep and goat industry. It is caused by bacteria that can only live in the animals hoof and with bacteria that is a normal inhabitant of soil and sheep manure. Lameness in one or more feet is the most common symptom of footrot, though not all lame sheep have footrot. Footrot has a characteristic foul odor. Footrot can be controlled and/or eradicated by a combination of hoof trimming, vaccination, foot bathing, soaking and culling. Zinc sulfate is considered to be the most effective foot rot treatment. Footrot is highly contagious. 40
  41. 41. Foot Scald Foot scald causes the tissues between the sheeps toes to become blanched or white, or red and swelled. It is caused by a soil bacteria that is present in most environments and manifests itself during wet conditions. It is easier to treat than foot rot. Placing sheep in a dry area away from mud may clear the condition. Individual animals can be treated with Koppertox. Groups of animals may be treated with a zinc sulfate foot bath. 41
  42. 42. Image # 25 Image courtesy of Poverty Point FarmA trimmed hoof on the right and an A tilt table untrimmed hoof on the left Image # 26 Common type of hoof trimmers Image courtesy of Mount Ascot Alley way set up for foot baths 42
  43. 43. Management is key! Use foot baths, avoid muddy areas and lots, allow plenty of exercise, treat and trim hooves often Avoid foot baths with copper solutions Isolate infected animals/cull Bad feet can ruin a flock or herd! 43
  44. 44. Management of Internal and External Parasites Parasites problems are found throughout the entire U.S. Parasites can affect goats and sheep at all ages Damage is most severe to the young and old The key is to have sheep in healthy condition so they can have natural resistance to parasite loads 44
  45. 45. Internal Parasites Roundworms, tapeworms and coccidia Many different types of internal parasites that affect sheep and goats As a producer it is important to focus on IPM – Integrated pest management Good Management, Pasture Rest and Rotation, Multi-species Grazing, Proper Anthelmintic Use 45
  46. 46. Internal ParasitesImage # 27 Image # 29Tapeworm Round worm Image # 28 46
  47. 47. Clinical Signs Images # 30-32 47
  48. 48. Parasite Cycle Image # 33 48
  49. 49. FAMACHA  The FAMACHA system was developed due to the emergence of drug- resistant worms.  The system utilizes an eye anemia guide to evaluate the eyelid color of a sheep or goat to determine the severity of parasite infection and theImage # 34 need for deworming. 49
  50. 50. External Parasites Flies, ticks, lice Ticks and lice can be effectively controlled by dipping, spraying or jetting with approved insecticide, normally one application will be effective. Flies can also be controlled with jetting and other measures taken to reduce fly populations 50
  51. 51. Spraying or “Jetting” for External Parasites Photo courtesy of Mount Ascot 51
  52. 52. External ParasitesFly Tick Sheep Lice Images # 35-37 52
  53. 53. Copper Toxicity Sheep are unique in that they accumulate copper in the liver more readily than other farm animals. As a result, they are very susceptible to Cu toxicity (poisoning). Affected sheep are lethargic and anemic. They may grind their teeth incessantly and experience extreme thirst. Urine is a bloody color. Death usually occurs 1 to 2 days after the onset of clinical symptoms. 53
  54. 54. Copper Toxicity Don’t feed goat rations to sheep. Sheep rations can be fed to goats however. Watch the copper levels in mineral blocks or salt mixes. Avoid foot baths with copper due to toxicity issue. Also avoid copper because of it being hard on equipment and disposal of it can be difficult. 54
  55. 55. Biosecurity Measures Inspect for soundness Isolate new sheep or goats for at least 2 weeks before putting them in with other animals on your farm or before being turned out to pasture. This period will provide you with an opportunity to detect a disease problem. Limit access to your farm and flock since some disease can be spread by contaminated footwear and vehicles. By limiting access to your farm and animals you can limit the risk of introducing and spreading diseases. Preventative health management can be very useful if you use vaccination programs along with good management. 55
  56. 56. Management is key  Adequate clean water supply  Planned facilities that allow for frequent cleaning  Disease and health problems of sheepPhoto courtesy of Maple Hollow Farm cannot be controlled or prevented if they are not identified 56
  57. 57. Management is key Avoid stress! Many diseases often appear as a result of stress. Every effort should be made to maintain sheep and goats in a thrifty, healthy condition Biosecurity Seek professional help and advice before major problems develop 57
  58. 58. Common Diseases & Health Issues of Sheep & Goats Phil Wise, Jimmy Lowe, Ethan Hull, Sydney Warshaw Photo courtesy of Mount Ascot 58
  59. 59. References Image # 1 - "ARS Image Gallery." ARS : Home. Web. 26 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 14 - "Always Learning New Tricks « On the Shores of Carpenter Creek." On the Shores of Carpenter Creek. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 6 - "ARS Image Gallery." ARS : Home. Web. 26 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 25 - "ASC-129 SHEEP FOOT CARE AND DISEASES." Learning, Discovery, Service | in the College of Agriculture. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 27 - Buy Tapeworm Eggs. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 33 - Dalton, Dr Clive. "January 2009." Woolshed 1. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 28 - "Microscopes." Able Oaks Ranch Alpacas. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <>. 59
  60. 60. References Image # 13 - "Prolapse Spoon." Farm and Smallholding Supplies -. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 29 - "Raccoon Roundworm: Infections, Symptoms, & Prevention." The Inquisitr | News. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <>. Images # 20,21 - "The Rationale for Ridding U.S. of Scrapie - May 1, 2002." American Veterinary Medical Association. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <>. Images # 2-4,7-12,17-19, 22-24, 30-32, 34-37 - "Sheep 201: Sheep Diseases A-Z." Sheep 101 Home Page. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. < z.html>. Image # 15, 16 - "Sheep Diseases." IOL. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 26 - "Sheep Show Supplies II." SCOTTDALE SUPPLY. Web. 22 Apr. 2011. <>. Image # 5 - "Urinary Calculi." Home Page. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. <>. 60