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Managing Herd Health<br />A comprehensive overview for the small ruminant<br />David Taylor – Certified Meat Goat Quality ...
Overview<br /><ul><li>Herd Health Management</li></ul>Four components:<br />Good husbandry<br />Proper Nutrition<br />Prop...
Observing Your Herd/Flock<br />Daily observation of animal behavior<br />Observation of feces<br />Observation of feed and...
Basic Sheep Physiology<br />Body Temperature: 100.9° F-103.8° F <br />Pulse/ heart rate: 70 - 80 beats per minute <br />Re...
Basic Goat Physiology<br />Body Temperature: 103 - 104° F <br />Pulse/ heart rate: 70 – 90 beats per minute <br />Respirat...
Healthy Vs. Sick<br />
Keeping Your Herd/Flock Healthy<br />Good husbandry<br />Proper Nutrition<br />Proper medicine<br />Biosecurity<br />
Key Management Point:<br />A properly managed, healthy herd is a key to profitability.<br />
Good Husbandry<br />Know the nature of the beast:<br />What they like to eat<br />How they prefer to eat<br />What company...
Know the differences<br />Grazers<br />Browsers<br />
Avoid Overcrowding<br /> Issues:<br />Pecking order<br />Bullying<br />Respiratory problems<br />Rapid spread of contagiou...
Proper Ventilation<br />Improper ventilation:<br />Ammonia build-up<br />Irritates lungs<br />Pre-disposes animals to resp...
Clean, Dry Bedding<br />Dirty, wet bedding or wet, muddy ground:<br />Medium for bacterial growth<br />Foot rot<br />Foot ...
Controlling Parasite loads<br />Avoid overcrowding<br />Avoid overgrazing – rotate pastures<br />Keep herds/ flocks off of...
Coccidia<br />Single-celled organism<br />Leading cause of economic loss in sheep and goats.<br />Causes diarrhea/ soft st...
Coccidia treatment options:<br />
Key Management Point:<br /><ul><li>Good Animal Husbandry contributes to a productive, profitable herd.</li></li></ul><li>P...
Feed Goats: Goat feedFeed Sheep: Sheep feed<br />Sheep are sensitive to copper. Copper toxicity can kill them. Sheep feeds...
Quality Forage<br />Key to profitability<br />Difficult to make up for losses in productivity from poor quality forage/ ha...
Key Management Point:<br />A proper, balanced nutrition program is a key to profitability.<br />
Proper Medicine<br />Majority of medical care done by producer:<br />Preventative medicine<br />Vaccinations<br />Parasite...
Record Keeping Software<br />www.lionedge.com<br />
Basic Vaccine Protocol<br />Clostridium perfringins types C and D and tetanus<br />2 cc subcutaneously at 8 and 12 weeks o...
Recognizing Early Signs of Disease<br />Ears down/ out to the side<br />Slightly drooped head<br />Spacey look in the eyes...
Veterinary Medicine<br />Role of the Veterinarian:<br />Diagnose and treat disease<br />Consultation on:<br />Nutrition<br...
Key Management Point:<br />Proper medical practices by the producer and a good working relationship with a qualified veter...
Biosecurity<br />Proper Aseptic techniques<br />Clean/ disinfect wounds and areas prior to treatment<br />One needle per a...
Biosecurity<br />Keep a closed herd<br />Quarantine new and/or sick animals<br />Limit visitors to your farm<br />Use disp...
Key Management Point:<br />A proper plan for biosecurity will protect you and your herd/flock. This enables you to keep yo...
Meat Goat Herd Health Calendar<br />January<br /> Evaluate pasture and forage conditions.<br />Monitor body conditions of ...
June <br />Begin looking for replacement bucks with good conformation, structural correctness, muscling, and a high weight...
Barren female: missed two seasons in a row.
Bad teats or udders: too big or too small (mastitis).
Bad mouths: over- or undershot jaw.
Structural defects: bad feet and legs or back.
Bad testicles: too small or infected (epididymitis).
Unthriftiness: due to old age or disease.</li></ul>Taken from Goat Medicine, 2nd Edition by Mary C. Smith, DVM and David M...
September<br />Flush under-conditioned does.<br />Treat for lice if necessary. <br />October<br />Turn out bucks with does...
Meat Goat Management Wheel<br />Available  from University of Missouri Extension<br />
Common Infections and Diseases in Sheep and Goats<br />
Upper Respiratory Infections and Pneumonia<br />Most common ailment<br />Symptoms:<br />Coughing, sneezing, mucopurulent (...
Chlamydiosis	<br />Major cause of abortion<br />Causes late-term abortions, still-births, and weak kids<br />Bacteria spre...
Toxoplasmosis<br />Second major cause of abortion<br />Cats are primary hosts passing oocysts or infective eggs in their s...
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)<br />Caused by a retrovirus<br />Transmitted through colostrum and milk<br />Can caus...
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)<br />Four Forms:<br />CNS Form (Central Nervous System)<br />Affects kids 2-4 months ...
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)<br />Prevention:<br />No treatment is available<br />Periodic blood test for CAE<br /...
Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />
Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Caused by Corynebacteriumpseudotuberculosis<br />Can live for long periods of time in soil...
Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Occasionally, internal lymph nodes are affected and results in a wasting syndrome.<br />On...
Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Treatment:<br />This disease can affect humans - gloves should be worn. <br />Antibiotics ...
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Meat Goat Management David Taylor

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Presentation on the proper management of meat goat and sheep herds.

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Meat Goat Management David Taylor

  1. 1. Managing Herd Health<br />A comprehensive overview for the small ruminant<br />David Taylor – Certified Meat Goat Quality Producer<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br /><ul><li>Herd Health Management</li></ul>Four components:<br />Good husbandry<br />Proper Nutrition<br />Proper medicine<br />Biosecurity<br />Monthly Management Actions<br />Common Diseases and Infections<br />
  3. 3. Observing Your Herd/Flock<br />Daily observation of animal behavior<br />Observation of feces<br />Observation of feed and water intake<br />
  4. 4. Basic Sheep Physiology<br />Body Temperature: 100.9° F-103.8° F <br />Pulse/ heart rate: 70 - 80 beats per minute <br />Respiration rate: 12 - 20 breaths per minute <br />Rumen movements: 1 – 2 per minute<br />Puberty: 5-7 months<br />Estrus ("heat") cycle: 18 days <br />Estrus (standing heat): 28 hours <br />Gestation (length of pregnancy): 145 days <br />Breeding season: August through January <br />
  5. 5. Basic Goat Physiology<br />Body Temperature: 103 - 104° F <br />Pulse/ heart rate: 70 – 90 beats per minute <br />Respiration Rate:12 – 20 breaths per minute <br />Rumen movements: 1 – 2 per minute<br /> Puberty: 4 – 10 months<br /> Estrous (“Heat”) cycle: 21 days<br /> Estrus (standing heat): 12 – 48 hours <br />Gestation (length of pregnancy): 150 days<br />Breeding season: August through January<br />
  6. 6. Healthy Vs. Sick<br />
  7. 7. Keeping Your Herd/Flock Healthy<br />Good husbandry<br />Proper Nutrition<br />Proper medicine<br />Biosecurity<br />
  8. 8. Key Management Point:<br />A properly managed, healthy herd is a key to profitability.<br />
  9. 9. Good Husbandry<br />Know the nature of the beast:<br />What they like to eat<br />How they prefer to eat<br />What company they prefer<br />
  10. 10. Know the differences<br />Grazers<br />Browsers<br />
  11. 11. Avoid Overcrowding<br /> Issues:<br />Pecking order<br />Bullying<br />Respiratory problems<br />Rapid spread of contagious diseases<br />Increased parasite populations<br />
  12. 12. Proper Ventilation<br />Improper ventilation:<br />Ammonia build-up<br />Irritates lungs<br />Pre-disposes animals to respiratory infections<br />Doesn’t allow proper air movement<br />Wet, humid air<br />Increased fly populations<br />Mold buildup<br />Constantly damp ground<br />
  13. 13. Clean, Dry Bedding<br />Dirty, wet bedding or wet, muddy ground:<br />Medium for bacterial growth<br />Foot rot<br />Foot scald<br />Mastitis<br />Would you want to sleep in a wet bed?<br />
  14. 14. Controlling Parasite loads<br />Avoid overcrowding<br />Avoid overgrazing – rotate pastures<br />Keep herds/ flocks off of pastures until morning dew dries<br />Keep feed and hay off of the ground<br />Perform periodic fecal egg counts<br />Deworm only when necessary <br />
  15. 15. Coccidia<br />Single-celled organism<br />Leading cause of economic loss in sheep and goats.<br />Causes diarrhea/ soft stool<br />Decreased feed conversion and productivity<br />
  16. 16. Coccidia treatment options:<br />
  17. 17. Key Management Point:<br /><ul><li>Good Animal Husbandry contributes to a productive, profitable herd.</li></li></ul><li>Proper Nutrition<br />6 basic nutrients:<br />Water*<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids (fats)<br />Proteins<br />Vitamins<br />Minerals<br />Deficiency in any of theses areas will lead to decreased productivity and performance.<br />*most important and essential nutrient for life. Keep water fresh & clean for optimal intake.<br />
  18. 18. Feed Goats: Goat feedFeed Sheep: Sheep feed<br />Sheep are sensitive to copper. Copper toxicity can kill them. Sheep feeds are lower in copper than other feeds.<br />Typical feed requirements are 1-2 pounds per head/ day<br />
  19. 19. Quality Forage<br />Key to profitability<br />Difficult to make up for losses in productivity from poor quality forage/ hay.<br />Buy the good stuff!<br />
  20. 20. Key Management Point:<br />A proper, balanced nutrition program is a key to profitability.<br />
  21. 21. Proper Medicine<br />Majority of medical care done by producer:<br />Preventative medicine<br />Vaccinations<br />Parasite control<br />Castrations<br />Disbudding<br />Tail docking<br />Assist with parturition<br />Administer prescribed medications <br />KEEPING ON-FARM HERD HEALTH RECORDS<br />
  22. 22. Record Keeping Software<br />www.lionedge.com<br />
  23. 23. Basic Vaccine Protocol<br />Clostridium perfringins types C and D and tetanus<br />2 cc subcutaneously at 8 and 12 weeks of age for kids & lambs<br />Yearly booster usually one month prior to parturition<br />
  24. 24. Recognizing Early Signs of Disease<br />Ears down/ out to the side<br />Slightly drooped head<br />Spacey look in the eyes<br />Ruffled coat<br />Standing hunched<br />Decreased appetite<br />Not interacting with other animals (off on their own)<br />
  25. 25. Veterinary Medicine<br />Role of the Veterinarian:<br />Diagnose and treat disease<br />Consultation on:<br />Nutrition<br />Biosecurity<br />Husbandry practices<br />Performs surgical procedures<br />Develops customized vaccination protocols<br />Parasite diagnosis and control recommendations<br />
  26. 26. Key Management Point:<br />Proper medical practices by the producer and a good working relationship with a qualified veterinarian are keys to profitability.<br />
  27. 27. Biosecurity<br />Proper Aseptic techniques<br />Clean/ disinfect wounds and areas prior to treatment<br />One needle per animal<br />Disinfect tattooing and castrating equipment between animals<br />Wearing gloves<br />
  28. 28. Biosecurity<br />Keep a closed herd<br />Quarantine new and/or sick animals<br />Limit visitors to your farm<br />Use disposable boots for visitors<br />Don’t wear your barn clothes and shoes to other farms<br />
  29. 29. Key Management Point:<br />A proper plan for biosecurity will protect you and your herd/flock. This enables you to keep your herd/flock, a key to profitability.<br />
  30. 30. Meat Goat Herd Health Calendar<br />January<br /> Evaluate pasture and forage conditions.<br />Monitor body conditions of does; supplement if necessary.<br />Prepare for kidding.<br />February <br />Sort pregnant from open does.<br />Begin feeding pregnant does.<br />Evaluate does and bucks; sell unsound or inferior animals.<br />Monitor internal parasites (FAMACHA). Treat as needed.<br /> Inspect for and treat external parasites.<br />March <br />Begin kidding; check teats for milk flow; identify kids.<br />April<br />Finish kidding.<br />Continue to supplement lactating does.<br />May <br />Consider weaning small, stunted kids.<br />Discontinue supplement feeding to does.<br />Monitor internal parasites through fecal samples.<br />Castrate unwanted bucks.<br />Taken from Goat Medicine, 2nd Edition by Mary C. Smith, DVM and David M. Sherman, DVM <br />
  31. 31. June <br />Begin looking for replacement bucks with good conformation, structural correctness, muscling, and a high weight per day of age.<br />Vaccinate kids.<br />July <br />Continue selecting replacement bucks.<br />Vaccinate kids.<br />August<br />Treat for internal and external parasites.<br />Select replacement does and bucks.<br />Wean kids<br />Evaluate does and bucks; sell unsound and inferior animals.<br /><ul><li>Criteria for culling:
  32. 32. Barren female: missed two seasons in a row.
  33. 33. Bad teats or udders: too big or too small (mastitis).
  34. 34. Bad mouths: over- or undershot jaw.
  35. 35. Structural defects: bad feet and legs or back.
  36. 36. Bad testicles: too small or infected (epididymitis).
  37. 37. Unthriftiness: due to old age or disease.</li></ul>Taken from Goat Medicine, 2nd Edition by Mary C. Smith, DVM and David M. Sherman, DVM <br />
  38. 38. September<br />Flush under-conditioned does.<br />Treat for lice if necessary. <br />October<br />Turn out bucks with does; breeding ratio 1 buck/ 20 to 25 does, depending on pasture size and breeding conditions<br />Continue to flush does for two to three weeks after buck turnout.<br />November <br />Evaluate pasture and forage conditions.<br />Determine does’ body conditions and plan winter supplemental feeding program.<br />Monitor internal parasites through fecal samples. If heavy, treat after first hard freeze.<br />December <br />Remove bucks and feed to regain body condition.<br />Evaluate pasture and forage conditions.<br />Watch body conditions of does; supplement if necessary.<br />Check for lice and use a pour-on lice treatment if needed.<br />Taken from Goat Medicine, 2nd Edition by Mary C. Smith, DVM and David M. Sherman, DVM <br />
  39. 39. Meat Goat Management Wheel<br />Available from University of Missouri Extension<br />
  40. 40. Common Infections and Diseases in Sheep and Goats<br />
  41. 41. Upper Respiratory Infections and Pneumonia<br />Most common ailment<br />Symptoms:<br />Coughing, sneezing, mucopurulent (yellow-greenish) nasal discharge, sometimes fever<br />Can be caused by moldy, dusty hay and/or environment, overcrowding, damp/wet living space, stress from moving and/or changes in nutrition.<br />Treatment:<br />Oxytetracycline<br />Nuflor® Injectable Solution<br />
  42. 42. Chlamydiosis <br />Major cause of abortion<br />Causes late-term abortions, still-births, and weak kids<br />Bacteria spread through urine and feces<br />Treatment:<br />Remove all sick and abortive does from herd for three weeks to clear infection<br />Treat herd with Tetracycline to prevent further infections<br />Remove and burn all fetal and placental tissues<br />WEAR LATEX GLOVES WHEN HANDLING TISSUES; can affect humans and cause miscarriages.<br />
  43. 43. Toxoplasmosis<br />Second major cause of abortion<br />Cats are primary hosts passing oocysts or infective eggs in their stool<br />Causes white, rice grain-like lesions on the cotyledons of the placenta<br />Treatment:<br />Remove all abortive does from herd for four weeks<br />Remove and burn all aborted tissues<br />Dispose of all feed possible possibly contaminated by cat feces<br />Prevent cats from defecating on feed and hay<br />
  44. 44. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)<br />Caused by a retrovirus<br />Transmitted through colostrum and milk<br />Can cause decreased productivity in a herd<br />
  45. 45. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)<br />Four Forms:<br />CNS Form (Central Nervous System)<br />Affects kids 2-4 months of age<br />Weakness, ataxia, cannot stand<br />Arthritic Form<br />Affects adults<br />Most common form seen<br />Swollen joints, then can’t walk<br />Pneumonia Form<br />Causes pneumonia in late pregnancy when doe is stressed<br />Mastitic Form<br />“Hard Bag”<br />Udder is swollen and firm but contains little milk<br />
  46. 46. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)<br />Prevention:<br />No treatment is available<br />Periodic blood test for CAE<br />Bring in only CAE-negative animals into herd<br />Bottle/bucket raise kids on heat-treated colostrum and pasteurized milk<br />165° F for 15 seconds kills the virus<br />
  47. 47. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />
  48. 48. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Caused by Corynebacteriumpseudotuberculosis<br />Can live for long periods of time in soil, extremely difficult to eradicate<br />The most commonly seen sign is an enlargement of one or more of the lymph nodes. The enlarged lymph nodes are very thick-walled and filled with thick, greenish pus<br />
  49. 49. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Occasionally, internal lymph nodes are affected and results in a wasting syndrome.<br />Once a sheep or goat is infected, it remains infected for life.<br />Transmitted orally and by direct contact with skin.<br />Some animals are resistant, others are very susceptible<br />Location of lymph nodes<br />
  50. 50. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Treatment:<br />This disease can affect humans - gloves should be worn. <br />Antibiotics are not effective<br />Affected animals should be isolated and abscesses opened and drained away from the herd and grazing areas.<br /> All pus and discharge should be caught and disposed of to prevent spread.<br />Isolate affected animal(s) from the herd until the opened abscess is completely healed.<br />Animals with multiple abscesses should be culled.<br />Commercial vaccines are available; custom vaccines can be made from organisms in your herd.<br />Two initial vaccines and then annual boosters.<br />
  51. 51. Contagious Ecthyma, Sore Mouth, Orf<br />Caused by a pox virus<br />Causes sores around mouth and lips, sometimes on teats, vulva, face and legs<br />Extremely painful<br />Can cause decreased appetite due to pain.<br />
  52. 52. Contagious Ecthyma, Sore Mouth, Orf<br />Spread by direct contact with infected animal, and by indirect contact of scabs and saliva in the environment<br />Scabs can be infective in environment for up to one year<br />Animals can develop some immunity<br />Not complete immunity<br />Repeat outbreaks may occur<br />
  53. 53. Contagious Ecthyma, Sore Mouth, Orf<br />Treatment:<br />Contagious to humans – wear gloves when treating animals<br />Clean and disinfect affected areas with chlorhexidine solution<br />Apply antibiotic ointment to lesions to prevent secondary bacterial infections<br />Make sure animal continues to eat; use pain medications as needed. <br />Vaccines are available for problem herds.<br />
  54. 54. Ringworm<br />Fungal Infection<br />Contracted through direct contact with infected animals and from environment contaminated with fungal spores<br />Itchy, circular patches of hair loss<br />Will affect humans - WEAR GLOVES WHEN TREATING ANIMALS<br />Treatment:<br />Topical 2% iodine<br />1% Miconazole spray<br />2% Chlorhexidine ointment<br />3% Captans<br />
  55. 55. Recommended Resources<br />Available through Langston University Goat & Research Extension<br />http://www.luresext.edu/goats/mgph.html<br />

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