The Five Point Check®


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The presentation was prepared for the 2013 National Goat Conference in Greensboro, North Carolina.

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The Five Point Check®

  1. 1. The Five Point Check® SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy nē ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center –
  2. 2. Background • Anthelmintic resistance (AR) • Targeted selective treatment (TST)
  3. 3. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) • When deworming fails to achieve expected results. 1. When deworming fails to alleviate clinical symptoms.  Death  Production loss 2. When deworming fails to reduce fecal egg count by 95 percent or more.
  4. 4. Anthelmintic resistance • Is widespread and well-documented (especially in southeastern U.S.). • Varies by species, geographic location, and individual farm. • Is affected by past deworming and grazing practices. . . . is inevitable! No treatment is 100% effective.
  5. 5. Percent farms with anthelmintic resistance 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Benzimidazole Ivermectin Cydectin Levamisole Mid-Atlantic (n=33) Southern (n=46) Source: Howell et al (2008). O’Brien (2010).
  6. 6. Practices which accelerate drug resistance 1) FREQUENT DEWORMING 2) Underdosing 3) Injecting dewormers 4) Pouring on dewormers 5) Feeding dewormers 6) “Persistent activity” dewormers 7) Putting dewormer in mouth 8) Dosing on full stomach 9) Deworming when infection levels (in animal and on pasture) are low. 10) Putting treated animals on clean pastures. 11) Treating everyone. 12) Improper use and storage of dewormers
  7. 7. How do you know which anthelmintics work on your farm? Anthelmintic didn’t work (?) Anthelmintic worked (?)
  8. 8. You should test for anthelmintic resistance every 2-3 years Fecal egg count reduction test Drenchrite® larval assay
  9. 9. Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) • Collect fecal samples (> 200 epg) at time of anthelmintic treatment and 7 to 14 days later. • Calculate % reduction in fecal egg counts (epg). Buck #325 2,650 epg on 6/27 (F1) Dewormed with levamisole 200 epg on 7/11 (F2) FECR calculation [(F1-F2)/F1] x 100 [(2650-200)/2650] x 100 = 92.5% FECR
  10. 10. Drenchrite® Assay • Prepare and send pooled fecal sample (> 350-500 epg) from at least 10 animals to parasitology lab (e.g. Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab @ University of Georgia) where eggs are isolated, incubated, and allow to hatch and develop into 3rd stage larvae. • Tests all three classes of anthelmintics simultaneously • Also identifies worm species.
  11. 11.   95-100% effective. Small number of resistant worms may be present. 80-95% effective. Treatment is effective, but resistance is increasing. Less than 80%. Production losses become apparent as effectiveness of dewormer moves closer to zero. Anthelmintic failure. Animals die. Adapted from Wormer Resistance “The need for change” Meat Promotion Wales How effective are your dewormers?
  12. 12. Targeted selective treatment (TST) Identifies those animals which require treatment. Identifies which animals would benefit from treatment.
  13. 13. Targeted selective treatment (TST) • For TST to be viable, there must be practical tool(s) that producers can use to make deworming decisions. • The first tool developed was the FAMACHA© system. • The Five Point Check© is an extension of the FAMACHA system.
  14. 14. FAMACHA© System Clinical category Color PCV Tx recommendation 1 Red > 28 No 2 Red-pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? 4 Pink-white 13-17 Yes 5 White < 12 Yes
  15. 15. Five Point Check© (5) • Addresses limitations of FAMACHA©. • Extension of TST to determine need for deworming for all internal parasites that affect sheep and goats. • Especially useful when deciding whether or not to deworm FAMACHA 3’s. • Involves 5 check points on the animal: eye, back, tail, jaw, and nose. • Developed for sheep. – Replace nose checkpoint with coat condition.
  16. 16. Check Point Observation Possibilities 1. EYE Anemia 1-5 (FAMACHA© card) Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Liver fluke Hook worms Other worms and causes 2. BACK Body condition score 1-5 (BCS card) Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Nodular worm Other worms and causes 3. TAIL Fecal soiling (1-5) Dag score card Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Nodular worm (Oesophagostomum) Other worms and causes 4. JAW Soft swelling “Bottle jaw” 1-5 Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Liver fluke Hook worms Other worms and causes 5. NOSE Discharge 1-5 Nasal botfly Lungworms Pneumonia Other causes 5. COAT Coat condition 1-3 Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Coccidia (Eimeria) External parasites Other causes
  17. 17. # 1 Eye - ocular membranes • Anemia is caused by blood-feeding parasites, such as Haemonchus, hookworms, and liver flukes. Coccidiosis can also cause anemia. • Anemia (packed cell volume) is estimated by evaluating the color of the lower eyelid and comparing it to the colors on the FAMACHA© guide. Category Color PCV Tx 1 Red > 28 No 2 Red-pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? 4 Pink-white 13-17 Yes 5 White < 12 Yes
  18. 18. #2 - Back - Body condition score (BCS) • Many worms can cause a loss of body condition. • Poor or declining body condition can also be a sign of age, poor nutrition, or other diseases. • Animals also vary in their ability to carry and hold body condition.
  19. 19. Body condition scoring (BCS) • Is used to determine how fat or thin an animal is. • Cannot be determined by simply looking at an animal. • Is accomplished by feeling for the amount of fat and muscle over the back, ribs, and loin. • Is one of the most useful management practices. Should be done on a regular basis.
  20. 20. Body Condition Scoring Goats Score Spineous process Rib cage Loin eye 1 Very thin Easy to see and feel, sharp Easy to feel and can feel under No fat covering 2 Thin Easy to feel, but smooth Smooth, slightly rounded, need to use slight pressure to feel Smooth, even fat cover 3 Good condition Smooth and rounded Smooth, even feel Smooth, even fat cover 4 Fat Can feel with firm pressure, no points can be felt Individual ribs cannot be felt, but can still feel indent between ribs Thick fat 5 Obese Smooth, no individual vertebra can be felt Individual ribs cannot be felt. No separation of ribs felt. Thick fat covering, may be lumpy and “jiggly” Source:
  21. 21. Langston University resources on body condition scoring Card (similar to FAMACHA card) Factsheet YouTube video
  22. 22. #3 - Tail - dag score • The hindquarters of the animal are assessed to determine dag score or degree of fecal soiling. • Many worms can cause scours (diarrhea). • Stress and diet are other causes of diarrhea.
  23. 23. What are dags? • Dried feces left dangling on the wool on a sheep’s rear end.
  24. 24. Dag scoring Score Description Action 0 No fecal soiling at all. No indication for treatment/action. None 1 Very slight soiling on edge of tail/on each side None 2 Slight soiling on edge of tail/on each side Usually none 3 Moderate soiling, dag formation Consider treatment/action 4 Severe soiling, severe dag formation Treatment recommended 5 Very severe, watering diarrhea extending to hocks. Treatment essential Source: University of Pretoria
  25. 25. #4 - Bottle jaw (submandibular subcutaneous edema) • An accumulation of fluid (swelling) under the lower jaw of a sheep, goat, or calf. • Usually a result of anemia (blood loss). • Occurs primarily due to the infestation of barber pole worms (Haemonchus contortus) or other blood- feeding parasites.
  26. 26. #5 - Coat condition • The condition of a goat’s hair coat can be indicative of its overall health and thriftiness. • At the Western Maryland Research & Education Center, we use a scoring system of 1-3, where 2 is average coat quality.
  27. 27. Other factors to consider …especially when deciding whether to deworm FAMACHA 3’s • Scores of other goats • Fecal consistency • Weight gain • Fecal egg count • Risk of reinfection • Frequency of FAMACHA© scoring and Five Point Check©
  28. 28. Which dewormer to use FAMACHA© 4 or 5 Most effective dewormer FAMACHA© 3 - High risk Most effective dewormer FAMACHA© 3 - Low risk Less effective dewormer Multiple drug resistance Drugs from 2 or 3 anthelmintic classes Quarantine drench Albendazole + moxidectin + levamisole (Valbazen® + Cydectin® + Prohibit®) Tapeworms Fenbendazole or Albendazole (SafeGuard® or Valbazen®) Tapeworms tend to be non-pathogenic and there is no evidence to suggest a treatment benefit (sheep). Liver fluke Albendazole (Valbazen®) Meningeal worm Fenbendazole + ivermectin (SafeGuard® + Ivomec®) Nasal bots and other external parasites Ivermectin (Ivomec® drench)
  29. 29. American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC)
  30. 30. Thank you for your attention.