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MGNREGA : An Overview
MAJOR GUIDE:
DR. S. R. PATEL
Officer on Special Duty,
College of Agriculture,
AAU, Jabugam- 391 155
MINOR GUIDE:
DR. K.M. GEDIYA
Associate Professor, BTRS,
AAU, Anand- 388 110
Speaker Name: Alkesh Patel
Reg. No.: 04-2630-2015
2
Contents
• What is MGNREGA?
• Mandate & Objectives
• Salient features
• A Paradigm Shift
• Key Stakeholders of MGNREGA & Their Responsibilities
• Registration & Employment Eligibility
• Works and their execution
• Implementing Agencies, Monitoring & Sanctioning of Work
• Project Completion Report
• Performance & Impact of MGNREGA
• Effect on Agriculture
• Constraints
• Conclusion
3
The act was enacted on 25th August 2005 as a National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA).
Previous Employment Guarantee Schemes (EGS) like Sampoorna
Grameen Rozgar Yojna(SGRY) or Universal Rural Employment
Programme and National Food For Work Programme (NFFWP)-
both SGRY and NFFWP were merged with NREGA.
NREGA was first launched at Anantpur district of Andhra
Pradesh in February 2006 .
INTRODUCTION
4
The act has been extended in phases, in the 1st phase, it
covered 200 backward districts of the country.
 The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred
days of employment in every financial year to adult member
of any rural household willing to do public work related
unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of
Rs.100/day.
5
All the manual wages are provided by the central government .
The unemployment allowance is to be borne by state
government.
Some percentage of administration cost is shared by central
government
Currently 625 districts are covered under this scheme.
(Source: www.nrega.nic.in)
6
Aug 2005 Feb 2006 Apr 2007 Apr 2008 Oct 2008
16 Feb
2009
Oct 2009
NREGA
legalized
Came into
force in
200
districts
130 more
districts
included
Universali
zation
of the
scheme
Wage
transaction
through
banks/post
offices
MOU
with the
postal
dept.
Name
changed to
MGNREGA
Time line for MGNREGA
7
Mandate
The mandate of the Act is to provide 100 days of
guaranteed wage employment in a financial year (FY)
to every rural household whose adult members are
willing to do unskilled manual work
8
Objectives
1) Social Protection
2) Livelihood Security
3) Strengthening rural development works India
4) Empowerment
5) Anti-poverty and Livelihoods Initiatives
6) Strengthening Panchayati Raj Institution
9
Salient Features
1) Registration
2) Job card
3) Application for works
4) Unemployment allowance
5) Provision of work
6) Wages
7) Timely payment
8) Planning
9) Cost sharing
10) Worksite Management
11) Transparency and Accountability
10
A Paradigm Shift
• MGNREGA marks a paradigm (ideal) shift from previous wage
employment programmes through its rights-based framework that
provides a legal guarantee of wage employment, and its measures for
empowerment of stakeholders.
• It is also marked by its scale; and with an approximate annual
expenditure of Rs 40,000 crore ($6.7 billion), is the biggest public
works programme in the world.
• It has an integrated natural resource management and livelihoods
generation perspective.
• The transparency and accountability mechanisms under MGNREGA
create a scope for unprecedented accountability of performance,
especially towards immediate stakeholders.
11
Other unique aspects are:
• A bottom-up, people-centred planning exercise
• A demand-driven programme
• A legal provisions for allowances and compensation
• It overcomes problems of targeting through its self-
targeting mechanism of beneficiary selection
• With GPs implementing 50 per cent of the works in
terms of cost, it empowers grassroots democratic
institutions
• A completely transparent MIS system
• Social audit - a new feature
12
Ministry of Rural
Development
Gram Sabha
PRI, specially the
Gram panchayat
District
programme
coordinator
Programme officers
at block level
State
government
Wage seekers
13
Development Plan
 Every Gram panchayat shall prepare a development plan and
maintain a shelf of works and forward it to the Programed Officer
for scrutiny and preliminary approval prior to the commencement
of the year in which it is proposed.
The Development Plan will include the following components:
1. Assessment of labour demand
2. Identification of works to meet the estimated labour demand
3. Estimated Cost of works and wages
4. Benefits expected in terms of employment generated and
physical improvements (Water conservation, land productivity).
14
Registration And Employment Eligibility
NREGA Household: The National Rural Employment
Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) will be open to all rural households
in the areas notified by the Central Government. The entitlement
of 100 days of guaranteed employment in a financial year is in
terms of a household. This entitlement of 100 days per year can
be shared within the household; more than one person in a
household can be employed.
 All adult members of the household who register may apply
for work. To register, they have to:
Be local residents
Be willing to do unskilled manual work
Apply as a household at the local Gram Panchayat
15
Works And Their Execution
Types of work under the scheme:
 Flood control and protection works including drainage in water logged
areas
 Rural connectivity to provide all weather access. Other works notified
by the Central/State Government
 Water conservation and Water harvesting .
 Drought proofing(A forestation and tree plantation)
 Irrigation canals.
 Provision of irrigation facility to land owned by SC/ST/beneficiaries
under Indira Aawas-Yozna .
 Renovation of traditional water bodies, De-silting of tanks
 Land development
16
17
List of works allowed under MGNREGA
Sr.no Types of work Fisheries-related works
Watershed-related works 18 Fisheries in seasonal water bodes on public land
1 Countour trenches Works in costal area
2 Contour bunds 19 Fish drying yards
3 Boulder checks 20 Belt vegetation
4 Farm building 21 Construction of storm water drains for coastal protection
5 Gabion structures Rural drinking water related works
6 Underground dykes 22 Soak pits
7 Earthen dams 23 Recharge pits
8 Dugout farm ponds 24 Rural sanitation related works
9 Stop dams 25 Individual household
Watershed-related work in mountain regions 26 School toilets
10 Springshed development 27 Solid and liquid waste management
Agriculture related works Flood management – related works
11 NADEP composting 28 Deepening and repair of flood channels
12 Vermi-composting 29 Chaur renovation
13 Liquid bio-manures Irrigation command-related works
Livestock-related works 30 Rehabilitation of minors, sub minors and field channels
14 Poultry
15 Goat shelter
16 Azolla as cattle – feed suplement
17
Construction of pucca floor tank and fodder trough for
cattle
17
Work Execution
 Before starting a work, the Gram Panchayat shall inform the Programme
Officer, so that the Programme Officer may issue the required muster rolls.
 Workers attendance and the wages paid will be shown against each name with
the signature/thumb impression of the worker.
 Numbered Muster rolls will be maintained on the work site. No kachcha
muster roll is to be used.
 All work must be executed by the workers who have job cards and who have
demanded work.
 No person below the age of 18 should be permitted to work under NREGA
projects.
18
Implementing Agencies
 The Gram Panchayat is the single most important agency for executing
works as the Act mandates earmarking a minimum of 50 per cent of the works
in terms of costs to be executed by the Gram Panchayat. This statutory
minimum, up to hundred percent of the work may be allotted to the Gram
Panchayat in the annual Self of Projects.
 The other Implementing Agencies are
• Intermediate and District Panchayats,
• Line Departments of the Government,
• Public Sector Undertakings of the Central and State Governments,
• Cooperative Societies,
• NGOs and Self-Help Groups.
19
Monitoring
The Gram Sabha will monitor all the works at the village
level as well as the employment provided to each person
who has applied for work. It will also monitor the
registration and issue of job cards and the timely payment
of wages.
20
Sanctioning of Work
 All works will be required to obtain Administrative Sanction and
Technical Sanction in advance, by December of the year preceding the
proposed implementation.
 The Gram Panchayats are generally the appropriate authorities
empowered to ‘start’ works (by issuing work orders) and to allocate
employment among persons who have applied for work.
 The Programme Officer shall also act as the authority empowered to
‘start’ works, If the demand for employment is either received by the
Programme Officer or referred to it by the Gram Panchayat.
21
Records to be maintained
Sr.
No.
Name of Register
Level at which Register is to be
maintained
1 Muster Roll Issue Register Programme Officer at the Block level
2 Muster Roll Receipt Register Gram Panchayat
3 Muster Roll Receipt Register Implementing Agency other than Gram Panchayat
4 Job Card Application Register Gram Panchayat/ Programme Officer
5 Job Card Register Gram Panchayat/ Programme Officer
6 Employment Register Gram Panchayat/ Programme Officer
7 Works Register
Programme Officer/Gram Panchayat/other
Implementing Agencies
8 Assets Register
Programme Officer/Gram Panchayat/other
Implementing Agencies
9 Complaint Register
Programme Officer/DPC/ Gram Panchayats/ other
Implementing Agencies
10
Monthly Allotment and Utilization Certificate
Watch Register
DPC/ Programme Officer/ Gram
Panchayat/Other Implementing Agencies
22
Project Completion Report
 Project Completion Report (PCR) should be prepared as per the prescribed
format in the Works Register and the details entered there in should be verified
by a senior officer.
 A photograph of the completed work should be taken as a record of the work
and attached to PCR.
 PCR should be placed in the file pertaining to the work in the office of the
Implementing Agency. This would serve as a record of verification of
completion of work.
23
24
25
6.15%
36.93%
2.13%
12.20%
4.10%
8.79%
14.08%
Land Development Category IV Work
Micro Irrigation Work Drought Proofing
Renovation of treditional water bodies Water Conservation
Rural Sanitation Rural Connectivity
Source :www.nrega.nic.in
Figure 1: Works Taken up in FY 2016-2017 in India
26
FY 14-15
FY 13-14
FY 12-13
FY 11-12
Total job cards
issued
Total job cards
(SC)
Total job cards
(ST)
Total households
demanded work
Total households
provided work
FY 14-15 1272.096 273.778 173.095 464.858 413.379
FY 13-14 1315.986 280.691 179.127 518.0145 479.29228
FY 12-13 1303.266 277.359 177.72 514.58984 498.87678
FY 11-12 1247.623 258.045 170.625 511.28994 506.45132
Figure 2: An overview of the performance of
MGNREGA on demand (data as on 5 may 2015)
FY 14-15 FY 13-14 FY 12-13 FY 11-12
Source :www.nrega.nic.in
27
Particulars 2006-2007 2015-2016
Total no. of job cards(cr.) 3.78 13.14
Total no. of workers(cr.) 8.35 27.6
SC workers as %of total workers 22.95 19.59
ST workers as % of total workers 32.98 15.22
Approved labour budget(cr.) 110 220.67
Person days generated (cr.) 90.15 160.38
Total wage rate / day per person(Rs.) 69 156
% of men worked 34.56 48.38
% of women worked 36.40 51.62
Wages(cr.) 58,42.37 25032.01
Table 1: Implementation overview of MGNREGA 2006-2007 and
2015-2016
Source :www.nrega.nic.in
28
Sr.no Year Buget outlay(cr.) Central release(cr.)
1 2006-2007 11300 8640.85
2 2007-2008 12000 12610.39
3 2008-2009 30,000 29939.60
4 2009-2010 39100 33506.61
5 2010-2011 37000 35768.95
6 2011-2012 35500 29189.77
7 2013-2014 33000 23579.18
8 2014-2015 38552 22078.98
9 2015-2016 34699 23900.11
Table 2: Budget under MGNREGA
Source :www.nrega.nic.in
29
Year
Funds
Availability
(Rs. crore)
Total
Expenditure
(Rs. crore)
Employment Number of works
No. of
HHs.
(crore)
Person
days
(crore)
Taken
(lakh)
Completed
(lakh)
2006-07 11300.00 8823.25 2.10 90.50 8.35 3.97
2007-08 19278.78 15858.44 3.39 143.68 17.81 8.20
2008-09 37361.40 27250.68 4.51 216.32 27.25 12.14
2009-10 49653.06 37971.19 5.26 283.32 46.03 20.97
Table 3:Employment generated under MGNREGA in India from 2006-07
to 2009-10
Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat
30
District
Central
release
Total
funds
available
with
O.B.
Expenditure
against total
available
fund
(%)
Expenditure
on wages
(%)
Expenditure
on material
(%)
Administrativ
e expenditure
(%)
Anand 429.12 640.27 55.80 73.36 15.40 10.92
Kheda 1082.80 1934.24 87.13 66.05 31.54 2.39
Vadodara 2907.62 3308.54 90.44 69.41 28.02 2.13
Ahmedabad 1126.71 1329.46 52.75 80.25 9.90 9.27
Panchmahal 3770.80 4552.37 104.98 66.75 30.57 2.46
Dahod 6303.18 7240.77 95.37 76.36 22.52 1.06
All Gujarat 50027.46 63598.07 77.20 76.30 20.46 2.73
Table 4: Fund availability and utilization for MGNREGA in Gujarat state 2009-10
Rs.in lakh
Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat
31
Type of Works B.K. Dahod Navsari Jamnagar
Surendra
nagar
All over
Gujarat State
Rural
Connectivity
comp. 4 (17.4) 1 (0.6) 60 (47.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 396 (13.1)
On go. 1181(13.9) 677 (2.7) 650 (18.3) 609 (10.8) 187 (5.7) 19197 (12.1)
Total
1185
(14.0)
678 (2.7) 710 (19.3) 609 (10.8) 187 (5.7) 19593 (12.2)
Flood
Control
Comp. 0 (0.0) 11(6.7) 5 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 126 (4.2)
On go. 55 (0.6)
2912
(11.8)
250 (7.0) 35 (0.6) 440 (13.5) 12258 (7.8)
Total 55 (0.6)
2923
(11.8)
255 (6.9) 35 (0.6) 440 (13.5) 12384 (7.7)
Water
Conservation
And Water
Harvesting
Comp. 13 (56.5) 32 (19.6) 0 (0.0) 1(100.0) 0 (0.0) 1897 (62.8)
On go.
5526
(65.3)
4462
(18.1)
1268 (35.6) 4071 (72.2) 2283 (69.8) 70021 (44.3)
Total
5539
(65.2)
4494
(18.1)
1268 (34.4) 4072 (72.2) 2283 (69.8) 71918 (44.6)
Micro
Irrigation
comp. 0 (0.0) 1(0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 18 (0.6)
On go. 63 (0.7) 92 (0.4) 157 (4.4) 12 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 1918 (1.2)
Total 63 (0.7) 93 (0.4) 157 (4.3) 12 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 1936 (1.2)
Table 5:Total number of works completed/progress under MGNREGA 2010-2011 in
Gujarat
32
Land
development
Comp.
0
(0.0)
97
(59.5)
61
(48.4)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
204 (6.8)
On go.
211
(2.5)
13603
(55.2)
557
(15.7)
283
(5.0)
5
(0.2)
25620
(16.2)
Total
211
(2.5)
13700
(55.2)
618
(16.8)
283
(5.0)
5
(0.2)
25824
(16.0)
Renovation of
Traditional
Water
Bodies
Comp.
3
(13.0)
13
(8.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
94
(3.1)
On go.
697
(8.2)
1585
(6.4)
170
(4.8)
127
(2.3)
85
(2.6)
8626 (5.5)
Total
700
(8.2)
1598
(6.4)
170
(4.6)
127
(2.3)
85
(2.6)
8720 (5.4)
Total Works
Comp.
23
(100)
163 (100) 126 (100)
1
(100)
0
(100)
3021 (100)
On go.
8468
(100)
24664
(100)
3557(100) 5642(100)
3271
(100)
158103
(100)
Total
8491
(100)
24827
(100)
3683 (100) 5643 (100)
3271
(100)
161124
(100)
Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat
33
34
Particulars No. of person days worked in a year
On own-farm Outside own-
farm
Under MGNREGA
programme
Total
Before MGNREGA 61.68 112.04 - 173.72
After MGNREGA 61.68 108.87 32.41 201.82
(30.39) (53.64) (15.97) (100)
Net change - -3.17 32.41 29.24
Per cent change - 2.8 - 16.83
t-value (paired-t) 1.4068 Ns 1.1570 Ns - 6.1191***
Table: 7 Impact of MGNREGA on employment of the beneficiaries
Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka
Note: *** indicate significance at 10 per cent levels
n=120
35
NS= Non-Significance
Particulars
Annual income (in Rs)
Agriculture Non-agriculture From MGNREGA
Programme
Total
Before MGNREGA 21,422 10,185 31,607
After MGNREGA 21,400 10,084 2,775 34,467
(62.95) (29.25) (8.05) (100)
Net change -22 -101 2775 2,860
Per cent change 0.10 0.99 - 9.04
t-value (paired- t) 1.4109 Ns 0.9684 Ns - 11.8506***
Table 8: Impact of MGNREGA on income of beneficiaries
Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka
NS= Non-Significance
Note: *** indicate significance at 10 per cent levels
n=120
36
Crop
Labour
required
(labour
days/acre)
Labour
availability
before
MNREGA
implementati
on(labour
days/acre)
Labour
availability
after
MNREGA
implementati
on(labour
days/acre)
Labour
scarcity
before
MNREGA
implementati
on(%)
Labour
scarcity
after
MNREGA
implement
ation(%)
Labour
scarcity
due to
MNREGA
implement
ation(%)
Sunflower 7.9 5.4 3.5 31.64 55.69 24.05
Ragi 10.3 6 3.5 41.74 66.01 24.27
Cotton 6.8 4.1 4.1 39.76 39.76 0.00
Chick pea 7.1 4.3 2.3 39.43 67.60 27.83
Chilli 12 8.3 5.4 30.83 53.33 22.50
Tomato 12.8 7.8 4.2 39.06 67.15 28.90
Table 9: Crop wise scarcity due to implementation of MGNREGA in
Karnataka in 2011
Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka
n=120
37
Agricultural
Operations
Wage rate
(Rs/person/day)
Labour scarcity due
to MNREGA (%)
Weeding 60 52.6
Sowing 80 30.5
Harvesting 96 12.0
Propping 100 9.1
Inter cultivation 120 0.0
Spraying 150 0.0
Cotton picking 200 0.0
Table 10: Labour scarcity in agriculture due to implementation of
MGNREGA in Karnataka
Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka
n=120
38
Caste 2006 2008
OBC 50.69 (%) 24.54 (%)
SC 25.37 (%) 19.15(%)
ST 30.00 (%) n.a
LAND CATEGORY
LANDLESS 32.74 (%) 19.23 (%)
MARGINAL 40.82 (%) 33.33 (%)
SMALL 33.33 (%) 33.33 (%)
TOTAL 34.73 (%) 22.55 (%)
Table 11: Reduction in Migration of rural labour after MGNREGA
implementation in Bihar
Mahendra Dev (2011) Mumbai
39
Activity
Wage rates ( Rs./day)
Before MNREGA (2005) 2009
Male Female Male Female
Prevailing Agricultural Wages 81(100.00) 64 (100.00) 127 (157.76) 112 (175.59)
Prevailing Non Agricultural
Wages
80 (100.00) 65 (100.00) 150 (188.05) 110 (170.54)
Construction 120 (100.00) 80 (100.00) 185 (154.81) 125 (156.50)
Mining 185 (100.00) 120 (100.00) 230 (124.32) 150 (125.00)
Other
skilled
work
Electrician 40 (100.00) 60 (150.00)
Plumber 150 (100.00) 246 (164.00)
Pump-set boring 225 (100.00) 350 (155.56)
Table 12: Effects of MGNREGA on wage rates in study villages in Gujarat
Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat
40
Level of women
Empowerment
Participants(N=60) Non-Participants(N=40)
Total
Number of
Respondents
Percentage
Number of
Respondents
Percentage
High 19 31.6 2 5 21
Medium 31 51.67 29 72.50 60
Low 10 16.67 9 22.50 19
Table 13: Classification of women among the categories on the empowerment index in
Mysore district
Vanitha and Murthy (2011) Karnataka
41
Sr. No . Particulars Number Per cent
A . Food habits
1. Expenditure on food items increased 55 45.83
2. Frequency of non-vegetarian foods taken/month 25 20.83
3. Number of times tea or coffee taken/moth/head 20 16.67
4. No. of eggs taken/month/head 10 8.33
B . Dressing pattern
1. Types of dress used 17 14.17
2. No. of sets of dresses possessed increased 21 17.50
3. Amount spent on dressing is increased 32 26.67
C . Income and savings
1. Income/month increased 87 72.50
2. Debts cleared 45 37.50
3. Savings increased 29 24.17
D . Education to children
1. Children sent to local school 17 14.17
2. Children sent to school outside the village 20 16.67
E . Housing
1. Own house/rented house/dwelling in landlords farm shed 9 7.50
2. Renovated the house 5 4.17
3. Family with household latrine/without latrine 12 10.00
Table 14: Socio-economic impact encountered by the beneficiaries as a result of MGNREGS (n= 120)
Cont…42
F. Personal changes
1. Outside contact increased 26 21.67
2. Gained respect from village 18 15.00
3. Gained respect from family members 40 33.33
4. Expenditure on ceremonies increased 23 19.17
5. Expenditure on festivals incresd 21 17.50
6 Expenditure on children’s education increased 35 29.17
7 Opened account in bank/post office 54 45.00
8. Household appliances purchased 30 25.00
G. Contact with development personnel
1. Block development officer 85 70.83
2. Bank officer 15 12.50
3. Village president 45 37.50
4. A.O. 25 23.33
5. Official form insurance 35 29.17
H. Social Participation
1. Membership in one organization 25 20.83
I. Media participation
1. Cable TV subscription 45 37.50
J. Migration
1. Establishment of MGNREGS help in preventing you or your family members to migrate to other
villages/ town for work
44 36.67
Mohanraj and Karthikeyan (2012) Tamil Nadu
43
Particulars MGNREGA beneficiaries (n=60) MGNREGA non- beneficiaries (n=60)
Migration in total number of
households
46 (76.66) 52 (86.70)
Total members of households migrated
Male members of the households 55 (56.12) 62 (59.61)
Female members of the household 43 (43.88) 42 (40.39)
Total members of the households 98 (100.00) 104 (100.00)
Duration of migration
1 to 3 months 04 (08.70) 00 (00.00)
4 to 7 months 38 (82.60) 06 (11.54)
7 to 9 months 04 (08.70) 38 (73.08)
10 to 12 months 00 (00.00) 08 (15.98)
Total 46 (100) 52 (100.00)
Reasons for migration
Building construction 18 (39.13) 13 (25.00)
Road construction 14 (30.13) 18 (34.62)
Agriculture work 04 (08.70) 06 (11.54)
Industrial work 10 (21.73) 15 (28.85)
Total 46 (100.00) 52 (100.00)
Table 15: Impact of MGNREGA on Migration
(Note: Figures within the parentheses indicate percentage to total)
Macwan (2014) Anand44
Sources of income MGNREGA
beneficiaries (n=60)
MGNREGA non-
beneficiaries (n=60)
Difference t-value
Agriculture 22612.16 (30.24) 25399.58 (37.94) -2787.50 1.02
Agriculture labour 3302.71 (4.41) 3720.00 (5.55) -417.28 0.25
Non- agriculture
labour
22607.50 (30.23) 27341.66 (40.84) -4734.16 3.66*
Livestock 20699.53 (27.68) 10473.50 (15.64) 10226.03 3.56*
MGNREGA wages 5558.78 (7.43) 0 (0) - -
Total 74780.61 (100) 66934.75 (100) 7845.86 2.12*
Table 16: Source-wise income of the sample households (Rs/year)
*Indicate significance at 5 per cent level
(Note: Figures within the parentheses indicate percentage to total)
Macwan (2014) Anand
45
Sr.
No.
Crops Labour required
(labour-
days/acre/year)
Labour
availability after
MGNREGA
(labour-
days/acre/year)
Labour scarcity after
MGNREGA
implementation
(labour-
days/acre/ye
ar)
(%)
1. Kharif crops
Maize 24.07 15.70 8.37 34.77
Pigeon pea 20.84 13.38 7.46 35.79
2. Rabi crops
Gram 20.73 14.13 6.60 31.83
Wheat 19.50 12.17 7.32 37.54
Average 35.10
Table 17: Crop-wise labour scarcity after implementation of MGNREGA in
Dahod district
Macwan (2014) Anand
46
Socio-economic
strata
Beneficiaries
2007-08 2013-14 Percentage Change
Poor 29(36.25) 10(12.50) 23.75*
Medium 27(33.75) 26(32.50) 1.25*
Good 24(30.00) 44(55.00) 15.00*
Kharkwal and Kumar (2015) Uttarakhand
Table 18: Distribution of households into different socio-economic strata
based on value of socio-economic index
n=80
Note: * Significant at 5% level of significance
47
Sr.
No.
Particulars Before
MGNREGA
After
MGNREGA
Absolute
change
%
change
1 Annual mean income (Rs.) 6904.0 7855.0 951.0 13.8
2 No. of workers per family 2.0 3.0 1.0 50.0
3 No. of working days per person per
year
190.0 211.0 21.0 11.1
4 Job satisfaction (per cent) 30.7 76.2 45.5 148.2
5 Bank account opened (per cent) 14.6 96.3 81.7 559.6
6 Migration of workers (per cent of
beneficiaries)
43.4 22.0 -21.4 - 49.3
Table 19: Impact of MGNREGA in Sample Districts
MURTHY (2015) KARNATAKA
48
49
District (state) No. of
villages
reporting
increase in
irrigated
area
Increase in
irrigated
area (ha)*
No. of villages
reporting
increase in
the number of
days of water
availability
Increase in the
average number
of days of water
availability*
Medak
(Andhra pradesh)
4 12.4 - 57.0 10 13-88 days
Chitradurga
(Karnataka)
8 1.7 - 44.1 5 5-45 days
Dhar
(Madhya pradesh)
10 0.9 - 5.8 10 190-365 days
Bhilwara (Rajasthan) 8 0.2 - 2.3 7 30-90 days
Table 20: Impact of MGNREGA works on irrigation
Source: MGNREGA Sameeksha 2 Published by Ministry of Rural Development of India (2014)
Note: * as reported by beneficiaries.
50
Attributes of Impact Yes No
No. % No. %
Soil ecology attributes
Increases soil moisture retention 64 53.33 56 46.67
reduces the frequency of irrigation
Improves soil texture
64 53.33 56 46.67
Improves water holding capacity 65 54.17 55 45.83
Increases water percolation 65 54.17 55 45.83
Increases area under cultivable land 65 54.17 55 45.83
Water attributes
Increases ground water table 64 53.33 56 46.67
Increases area under irrigation 67 55.83 53 44.17
Enables to shift to irrigated crops 68 56.67 52 43.33
Crop attributes
Cultivation of no. of crops changed in a year 82 68.33 38 31.67
Enables to change in cropping pattern 61 50.83 59 49.17
Enables to change in cropping sequence 64 53.33 56 46.67
Helps to adopt the recommended crop management
technologies
64 53.33 56 46.67
Enables to cultivate hybrid crops 46 38.33 74 61.67
Table 21: Distribution of respondents according to the agricultural attributes of impact
Thangamalar et al. (2015) Coimbatore51
n=120
Constraints Number %
Increase in agricultural wage rate 120 100.00
Non availability of labours in peak season 120 100.00
Unable to do hand weeding and increase in the use of weedicides 75 62.50
Unable to practice mechanical pest control methods and increase in the
use of pesticides
75 62.50
Increase in cost of cultivation 85 70.83
Table 22: Distribution of respondents according to their constraints faced in agriculture due
to MGNREGA activities
Thangamalar et al. (2015) Coimbatore
52
n=120
Suggestions Number %
Implementation of MGNREGA programme in lean season 120 100.00
Allotment of MGNREGA workers for agricultural work in peak season 96 80.00
Willingness of farmers to share wage rate on 50:50 ratio between the
government and farmers
85 70.83
Creation of new ponds and water harvesting structures 68 56.67
Table 23: Distribution of respondents according to the suggestions offered to overcome
the constraints in agriculture due to MGNREGA activities
Thangamalar et al. (2015) Coimbatore
53
n=120
54
Constraints
Respondents identifying the
constraints(No.)
Delay in wage payment 52(63)
Non availability of regular work 28(34)
Political disturbances 21(26)
No special provisions for elderly persons 17(21)
Hectic process of bank/post offices payments 12(15)
Corruption 7(9)
Nepotism 4(5)
Non-availability of work site facility 5(6)
Some works not of good quality and necessity 4(5)
Jobcards not working regularly 7(9)
No provision for skilled or semi-skilled works 5(6)
Agriculture labour became costlier 3(5)
Table 24: Constraints faced by MGNREGA beneficiaries in Burdwan district
Sarkar et al. (2011) West Bengal
Note: Figures within parentheses indicate percentage to sample of beneficiaries.
55
Constraints Respondents Identifying
the constraint (No.)
Per cent Rank
Delay in wage payment 40 66.66 I.
Hectic process of Bank/Post
Office payments
35 58.33 II.
Corruption 16 26.33 III.
Non-availability of work site
facility
12 20.00 IV.
Non- availability of regular work 10 16.66 V.
Nepotism 8 13.33 VI.
No provision for semi-skilled
works
1 1.66 VII.
Table 25: Problems faced by the MGNREGA beneficiaries
Macwan (2014) Anand
56
n=60
57
 MNREGA is a welfare programme which reduces the poverty by
creating employment opportunities for the rural poor people and
providing the livelihood security to them.
 The extent of migration of rural people has also been reduced due
to MGNREGA. It also helps in empowering the rural women.
 It is instrumental in bringing rural development as different types
of works such as rural sanitation, drought proofing, water
conservation, land development, tree plantation, rural connectivity
etc. are taken up in MNREGA.
 In regards with agriculture, the area under irrigation and water
availability have been increased on account of MNREGA.
However, it has created the scarcity of labour for agricultural
operations as on account of MNREGA, agricultural and non-
agricultural wage rates have increased.
58
59

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Mgnrega an overview

  • 1. 1
  • 2. MGNREGA : An Overview MAJOR GUIDE: DR. S. R. PATEL Officer on Special Duty, College of Agriculture, AAU, Jabugam- 391 155 MINOR GUIDE: DR. K.M. GEDIYA Associate Professor, BTRS, AAU, Anand- 388 110 Speaker Name: Alkesh Patel Reg. No.: 04-2630-2015 2
  • 3. Contents • What is MGNREGA? • Mandate & Objectives • Salient features • A Paradigm Shift • Key Stakeholders of MGNREGA & Their Responsibilities • Registration & Employment Eligibility • Works and their execution • Implementing Agencies, Monitoring & Sanctioning of Work • Project Completion Report • Performance & Impact of MGNREGA • Effect on Agriculture • Constraints • Conclusion 3
  • 4. The act was enacted on 25th August 2005 as a National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). Previous Employment Guarantee Schemes (EGS) like Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna(SGRY) or Universal Rural Employment Programme and National Food For Work Programme (NFFWP)- both SGRY and NFFWP were merged with NREGA. NREGA was first launched at Anantpur district of Andhra Pradesh in February 2006 . INTRODUCTION 4
  • 5. The act has been extended in phases, in the 1st phase, it covered 200 backward districts of the country.  The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult member of any rural household willing to do public work related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of Rs.100/day. 5
  • 6. All the manual wages are provided by the central government . The unemployment allowance is to be borne by state government. Some percentage of administration cost is shared by central government Currently 625 districts are covered under this scheme. (Source: www.nrega.nic.in) 6
  • 7. Aug 2005 Feb 2006 Apr 2007 Apr 2008 Oct 2008 16 Feb 2009 Oct 2009 NREGA legalized Came into force in 200 districts 130 more districts included Universali zation of the scheme Wage transaction through banks/post offices MOU with the postal dept. Name changed to MGNREGA Time line for MGNREGA 7
  • 8. Mandate The mandate of the Act is to provide 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year (FY) to every rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work 8
  • 9. Objectives 1) Social Protection 2) Livelihood Security 3) Strengthening rural development works India 4) Empowerment 5) Anti-poverty and Livelihoods Initiatives 6) Strengthening Panchayati Raj Institution 9
  • 10. Salient Features 1) Registration 2) Job card 3) Application for works 4) Unemployment allowance 5) Provision of work 6) Wages 7) Timely payment 8) Planning 9) Cost sharing 10) Worksite Management 11) Transparency and Accountability 10
  • 11. A Paradigm Shift • MGNREGA marks a paradigm (ideal) shift from previous wage employment programmes through its rights-based framework that provides a legal guarantee of wage employment, and its measures for empowerment of stakeholders. • It is also marked by its scale; and with an approximate annual expenditure of Rs 40,000 crore ($6.7 billion), is the biggest public works programme in the world. • It has an integrated natural resource management and livelihoods generation perspective. • The transparency and accountability mechanisms under MGNREGA create a scope for unprecedented accountability of performance, especially towards immediate stakeholders. 11
  • 12. Other unique aspects are: • A bottom-up, people-centred planning exercise • A demand-driven programme • A legal provisions for allowances and compensation • It overcomes problems of targeting through its self- targeting mechanism of beneficiary selection • With GPs implementing 50 per cent of the works in terms of cost, it empowers grassroots democratic institutions • A completely transparent MIS system • Social audit - a new feature 12
  • 13. Ministry of Rural Development Gram Sabha PRI, specially the Gram panchayat District programme coordinator Programme officers at block level State government Wage seekers 13
  • 14. Development Plan  Every Gram panchayat shall prepare a development plan and maintain a shelf of works and forward it to the Programed Officer for scrutiny and preliminary approval prior to the commencement of the year in which it is proposed. The Development Plan will include the following components: 1. Assessment of labour demand 2. Identification of works to meet the estimated labour demand 3. Estimated Cost of works and wages 4. Benefits expected in terms of employment generated and physical improvements (Water conservation, land productivity). 14
  • 15. Registration And Employment Eligibility NREGA Household: The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) will be open to all rural households in the areas notified by the Central Government. The entitlement of 100 days of guaranteed employment in a financial year is in terms of a household. This entitlement of 100 days per year can be shared within the household; more than one person in a household can be employed.  All adult members of the household who register may apply for work. To register, they have to: Be local residents Be willing to do unskilled manual work Apply as a household at the local Gram Panchayat 15
  • 16. Works And Their Execution Types of work under the scheme:  Flood control and protection works including drainage in water logged areas  Rural connectivity to provide all weather access. Other works notified by the Central/State Government  Water conservation and Water harvesting .  Drought proofing(A forestation and tree plantation)  Irrigation canals.  Provision of irrigation facility to land owned by SC/ST/beneficiaries under Indira Aawas-Yozna .  Renovation of traditional water bodies, De-silting of tanks  Land development 16
  • 17. 17 List of works allowed under MGNREGA Sr.no Types of work Fisheries-related works Watershed-related works 18 Fisheries in seasonal water bodes on public land 1 Countour trenches Works in costal area 2 Contour bunds 19 Fish drying yards 3 Boulder checks 20 Belt vegetation 4 Farm building 21 Construction of storm water drains for coastal protection 5 Gabion structures Rural drinking water related works 6 Underground dykes 22 Soak pits 7 Earthen dams 23 Recharge pits 8 Dugout farm ponds 24 Rural sanitation related works 9 Stop dams 25 Individual household Watershed-related work in mountain regions 26 School toilets 10 Springshed development 27 Solid and liquid waste management Agriculture related works Flood management – related works 11 NADEP composting 28 Deepening and repair of flood channels 12 Vermi-composting 29 Chaur renovation 13 Liquid bio-manures Irrigation command-related works Livestock-related works 30 Rehabilitation of minors, sub minors and field channels 14 Poultry 15 Goat shelter 16 Azolla as cattle – feed suplement 17 Construction of pucca floor tank and fodder trough for cattle 17
  • 18. Work Execution  Before starting a work, the Gram Panchayat shall inform the Programme Officer, so that the Programme Officer may issue the required muster rolls.  Workers attendance and the wages paid will be shown against each name with the signature/thumb impression of the worker.  Numbered Muster rolls will be maintained on the work site. No kachcha muster roll is to be used.  All work must be executed by the workers who have job cards and who have demanded work.  No person below the age of 18 should be permitted to work under NREGA projects. 18
  • 19. Implementing Agencies  The Gram Panchayat is the single most important agency for executing works as the Act mandates earmarking a minimum of 50 per cent of the works in terms of costs to be executed by the Gram Panchayat. This statutory minimum, up to hundred percent of the work may be allotted to the Gram Panchayat in the annual Self of Projects.  The other Implementing Agencies are • Intermediate and District Panchayats, • Line Departments of the Government, • Public Sector Undertakings of the Central and State Governments, • Cooperative Societies, • NGOs and Self-Help Groups. 19
  • 20. Monitoring The Gram Sabha will monitor all the works at the village level as well as the employment provided to each person who has applied for work. It will also monitor the registration and issue of job cards and the timely payment of wages. 20
  • 21. Sanctioning of Work  All works will be required to obtain Administrative Sanction and Technical Sanction in advance, by December of the year preceding the proposed implementation.  The Gram Panchayats are generally the appropriate authorities empowered to ‘start’ works (by issuing work orders) and to allocate employment among persons who have applied for work.  The Programme Officer shall also act as the authority empowered to ‘start’ works, If the demand for employment is either received by the Programme Officer or referred to it by the Gram Panchayat. 21
  • 22. Records to be maintained Sr. No. Name of Register Level at which Register is to be maintained 1 Muster Roll Issue Register Programme Officer at the Block level 2 Muster Roll Receipt Register Gram Panchayat 3 Muster Roll Receipt Register Implementing Agency other than Gram Panchayat 4 Job Card Application Register Gram Panchayat/ Programme Officer 5 Job Card Register Gram Panchayat/ Programme Officer 6 Employment Register Gram Panchayat/ Programme Officer 7 Works Register Programme Officer/Gram Panchayat/other Implementing Agencies 8 Assets Register Programme Officer/Gram Panchayat/other Implementing Agencies 9 Complaint Register Programme Officer/DPC/ Gram Panchayats/ other Implementing Agencies 10 Monthly Allotment and Utilization Certificate Watch Register DPC/ Programme Officer/ Gram Panchayat/Other Implementing Agencies 22
  • 23. Project Completion Report  Project Completion Report (PCR) should be prepared as per the prescribed format in the Works Register and the details entered there in should be verified by a senior officer.  A photograph of the completed work should be taken as a record of the work and attached to PCR.  PCR should be placed in the file pertaining to the work in the office of the Implementing Agency. This would serve as a record of verification of completion of work. 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 6.15% 36.93% 2.13% 12.20% 4.10% 8.79% 14.08% Land Development Category IV Work Micro Irrigation Work Drought Proofing Renovation of treditional water bodies Water Conservation Rural Sanitation Rural Connectivity Source :www.nrega.nic.in Figure 1: Works Taken up in FY 2016-2017 in India 26
  • 27. FY 14-15 FY 13-14 FY 12-13 FY 11-12 Total job cards issued Total job cards (SC) Total job cards (ST) Total households demanded work Total households provided work FY 14-15 1272.096 273.778 173.095 464.858 413.379 FY 13-14 1315.986 280.691 179.127 518.0145 479.29228 FY 12-13 1303.266 277.359 177.72 514.58984 498.87678 FY 11-12 1247.623 258.045 170.625 511.28994 506.45132 Figure 2: An overview of the performance of MGNREGA on demand (data as on 5 may 2015) FY 14-15 FY 13-14 FY 12-13 FY 11-12 Source :www.nrega.nic.in 27
  • 28. Particulars 2006-2007 2015-2016 Total no. of job cards(cr.) 3.78 13.14 Total no. of workers(cr.) 8.35 27.6 SC workers as %of total workers 22.95 19.59 ST workers as % of total workers 32.98 15.22 Approved labour budget(cr.) 110 220.67 Person days generated (cr.) 90.15 160.38 Total wage rate / day per person(Rs.) 69 156 % of men worked 34.56 48.38 % of women worked 36.40 51.62 Wages(cr.) 58,42.37 25032.01 Table 1: Implementation overview of MGNREGA 2006-2007 and 2015-2016 Source :www.nrega.nic.in 28
  • 29. Sr.no Year Buget outlay(cr.) Central release(cr.) 1 2006-2007 11300 8640.85 2 2007-2008 12000 12610.39 3 2008-2009 30,000 29939.60 4 2009-2010 39100 33506.61 5 2010-2011 37000 35768.95 6 2011-2012 35500 29189.77 7 2013-2014 33000 23579.18 8 2014-2015 38552 22078.98 9 2015-2016 34699 23900.11 Table 2: Budget under MGNREGA Source :www.nrega.nic.in 29
  • 30. Year Funds Availability (Rs. crore) Total Expenditure (Rs. crore) Employment Number of works No. of HHs. (crore) Person days (crore) Taken (lakh) Completed (lakh) 2006-07 11300.00 8823.25 2.10 90.50 8.35 3.97 2007-08 19278.78 15858.44 3.39 143.68 17.81 8.20 2008-09 37361.40 27250.68 4.51 216.32 27.25 12.14 2009-10 49653.06 37971.19 5.26 283.32 46.03 20.97 Table 3:Employment generated under MGNREGA in India from 2006-07 to 2009-10 Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat 30
  • 31. District Central release Total funds available with O.B. Expenditure against total available fund (%) Expenditure on wages (%) Expenditure on material (%) Administrativ e expenditure (%) Anand 429.12 640.27 55.80 73.36 15.40 10.92 Kheda 1082.80 1934.24 87.13 66.05 31.54 2.39 Vadodara 2907.62 3308.54 90.44 69.41 28.02 2.13 Ahmedabad 1126.71 1329.46 52.75 80.25 9.90 9.27 Panchmahal 3770.80 4552.37 104.98 66.75 30.57 2.46 Dahod 6303.18 7240.77 95.37 76.36 22.52 1.06 All Gujarat 50027.46 63598.07 77.20 76.30 20.46 2.73 Table 4: Fund availability and utilization for MGNREGA in Gujarat state 2009-10 Rs.in lakh Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat 31
  • 32. Type of Works B.K. Dahod Navsari Jamnagar Surendra nagar All over Gujarat State Rural Connectivity comp. 4 (17.4) 1 (0.6) 60 (47.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 396 (13.1) On go. 1181(13.9) 677 (2.7) 650 (18.3) 609 (10.8) 187 (5.7) 19197 (12.1) Total 1185 (14.0) 678 (2.7) 710 (19.3) 609 (10.8) 187 (5.7) 19593 (12.2) Flood Control Comp. 0 (0.0) 11(6.7) 5 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 126 (4.2) On go. 55 (0.6) 2912 (11.8) 250 (7.0) 35 (0.6) 440 (13.5) 12258 (7.8) Total 55 (0.6) 2923 (11.8) 255 (6.9) 35 (0.6) 440 (13.5) 12384 (7.7) Water Conservation And Water Harvesting Comp. 13 (56.5) 32 (19.6) 0 (0.0) 1(100.0) 0 (0.0) 1897 (62.8) On go. 5526 (65.3) 4462 (18.1) 1268 (35.6) 4071 (72.2) 2283 (69.8) 70021 (44.3) Total 5539 (65.2) 4494 (18.1) 1268 (34.4) 4072 (72.2) 2283 (69.8) 71918 (44.6) Micro Irrigation comp. 0 (0.0) 1(0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 18 (0.6) On go. 63 (0.7) 92 (0.4) 157 (4.4) 12 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 1918 (1.2) Total 63 (0.7) 93 (0.4) 157 (4.3) 12 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 1936 (1.2) Table 5:Total number of works completed/progress under MGNREGA 2010-2011 in Gujarat 32
  • 33. Land development Comp. 0 (0.0) 97 (59.5) 61 (48.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 204 (6.8) On go. 211 (2.5) 13603 (55.2) 557 (15.7) 283 (5.0) 5 (0.2) 25620 (16.2) Total 211 (2.5) 13700 (55.2) 618 (16.8) 283 (5.0) 5 (0.2) 25824 (16.0) Renovation of Traditional Water Bodies Comp. 3 (13.0) 13 (8.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 94 (3.1) On go. 697 (8.2) 1585 (6.4) 170 (4.8) 127 (2.3) 85 (2.6) 8626 (5.5) Total 700 (8.2) 1598 (6.4) 170 (4.6) 127 (2.3) 85 (2.6) 8720 (5.4) Total Works Comp. 23 (100) 163 (100) 126 (100) 1 (100) 0 (100) 3021 (100) On go. 8468 (100) 24664 (100) 3557(100) 5642(100) 3271 (100) 158103 (100) Total 8491 (100) 24827 (100) 3683 (100) 5643 (100) 3271 (100) 161124 (100) Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. Particulars No. of person days worked in a year On own-farm Outside own- farm Under MGNREGA programme Total Before MGNREGA 61.68 112.04 - 173.72 After MGNREGA 61.68 108.87 32.41 201.82 (30.39) (53.64) (15.97) (100) Net change - -3.17 32.41 29.24 Per cent change - 2.8 - 16.83 t-value (paired-t) 1.4068 Ns 1.1570 Ns - 6.1191*** Table: 7 Impact of MGNREGA on employment of the beneficiaries Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka Note: *** indicate significance at 10 per cent levels n=120 35 NS= Non-Significance
  • 36. Particulars Annual income (in Rs) Agriculture Non-agriculture From MGNREGA Programme Total Before MGNREGA 21,422 10,185 31,607 After MGNREGA 21,400 10,084 2,775 34,467 (62.95) (29.25) (8.05) (100) Net change -22 -101 2775 2,860 Per cent change 0.10 0.99 - 9.04 t-value (paired- t) 1.4109 Ns 0.9684 Ns - 11.8506*** Table 8: Impact of MGNREGA on income of beneficiaries Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka NS= Non-Significance Note: *** indicate significance at 10 per cent levels n=120 36
  • 37. Crop Labour required (labour days/acre) Labour availability before MNREGA implementati on(labour days/acre) Labour availability after MNREGA implementati on(labour days/acre) Labour scarcity before MNREGA implementati on(%) Labour scarcity after MNREGA implement ation(%) Labour scarcity due to MNREGA implement ation(%) Sunflower 7.9 5.4 3.5 31.64 55.69 24.05 Ragi 10.3 6 3.5 41.74 66.01 24.27 Cotton 6.8 4.1 4.1 39.76 39.76 0.00 Chick pea 7.1 4.3 2.3 39.43 67.60 27.83 Chilli 12 8.3 5.4 30.83 53.33 22.50 Tomato 12.8 7.8 4.2 39.06 67.15 28.90 Table 9: Crop wise scarcity due to implementation of MGNREGA in Karnataka in 2011 Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka n=120 37
  • 38. Agricultural Operations Wage rate (Rs/person/day) Labour scarcity due to MNREGA (%) Weeding 60 52.6 Sowing 80 30.5 Harvesting 96 12.0 Propping 100 9.1 Inter cultivation 120 0.0 Spraying 150 0.0 Cotton picking 200 0.0 Table 10: Labour scarcity in agriculture due to implementation of MGNREGA in Karnataka Harish et al. (2011) Karnataka n=120 38
  • 39. Caste 2006 2008 OBC 50.69 (%) 24.54 (%) SC 25.37 (%) 19.15(%) ST 30.00 (%) n.a LAND CATEGORY LANDLESS 32.74 (%) 19.23 (%) MARGINAL 40.82 (%) 33.33 (%) SMALL 33.33 (%) 33.33 (%) TOTAL 34.73 (%) 22.55 (%) Table 11: Reduction in Migration of rural labour after MGNREGA implementation in Bihar Mahendra Dev (2011) Mumbai 39
  • 40. Activity Wage rates ( Rs./day) Before MNREGA (2005) 2009 Male Female Male Female Prevailing Agricultural Wages 81(100.00) 64 (100.00) 127 (157.76) 112 (175.59) Prevailing Non Agricultural Wages 80 (100.00) 65 (100.00) 150 (188.05) 110 (170.54) Construction 120 (100.00) 80 (100.00) 185 (154.81) 125 (156.50) Mining 185 (100.00) 120 (100.00) 230 (124.32) 150 (125.00) Other skilled work Electrician 40 (100.00) 60 (150.00) Plumber 150 (100.00) 246 (164.00) Pump-set boring 225 (100.00) 350 (155.56) Table 12: Effects of MGNREGA on wage rates in study villages in Gujarat Shah and Makwana (2011) Gujarat 40
  • 41. Level of women Empowerment Participants(N=60) Non-Participants(N=40) Total Number of Respondents Percentage Number of Respondents Percentage High 19 31.6 2 5 21 Medium 31 51.67 29 72.50 60 Low 10 16.67 9 22.50 19 Table 13: Classification of women among the categories on the empowerment index in Mysore district Vanitha and Murthy (2011) Karnataka 41
  • 42. Sr. No . Particulars Number Per cent A . Food habits 1. Expenditure on food items increased 55 45.83 2. Frequency of non-vegetarian foods taken/month 25 20.83 3. Number of times tea or coffee taken/moth/head 20 16.67 4. No. of eggs taken/month/head 10 8.33 B . Dressing pattern 1. Types of dress used 17 14.17 2. No. of sets of dresses possessed increased 21 17.50 3. Amount spent on dressing is increased 32 26.67 C . Income and savings 1. Income/month increased 87 72.50 2. Debts cleared 45 37.50 3. Savings increased 29 24.17 D . Education to children 1. Children sent to local school 17 14.17 2. Children sent to school outside the village 20 16.67 E . Housing 1. Own house/rented house/dwelling in landlords farm shed 9 7.50 2. Renovated the house 5 4.17 3. Family with household latrine/without latrine 12 10.00 Table 14: Socio-economic impact encountered by the beneficiaries as a result of MGNREGS (n= 120) Cont…42
  • 43. F. Personal changes 1. Outside contact increased 26 21.67 2. Gained respect from village 18 15.00 3. Gained respect from family members 40 33.33 4. Expenditure on ceremonies increased 23 19.17 5. Expenditure on festivals incresd 21 17.50 6 Expenditure on children’s education increased 35 29.17 7 Opened account in bank/post office 54 45.00 8. Household appliances purchased 30 25.00 G. Contact with development personnel 1. Block development officer 85 70.83 2. Bank officer 15 12.50 3. Village president 45 37.50 4. A.O. 25 23.33 5. Official form insurance 35 29.17 H. Social Participation 1. Membership in one organization 25 20.83 I. Media participation 1. Cable TV subscription 45 37.50 J. Migration 1. Establishment of MGNREGS help in preventing you or your family members to migrate to other villages/ town for work 44 36.67 Mohanraj and Karthikeyan (2012) Tamil Nadu 43
  • 44. Particulars MGNREGA beneficiaries (n=60) MGNREGA non- beneficiaries (n=60) Migration in total number of households 46 (76.66) 52 (86.70) Total members of households migrated Male members of the households 55 (56.12) 62 (59.61) Female members of the household 43 (43.88) 42 (40.39) Total members of the households 98 (100.00) 104 (100.00) Duration of migration 1 to 3 months 04 (08.70) 00 (00.00) 4 to 7 months 38 (82.60) 06 (11.54) 7 to 9 months 04 (08.70) 38 (73.08) 10 to 12 months 00 (00.00) 08 (15.98) Total 46 (100) 52 (100.00) Reasons for migration Building construction 18 (39.13) 13 (25.00) Road construction 14 (30.13) 18 (34.62) Agriculture work 04 (08.70) 06 (11.54) Industrial work 10 (21.73) 15 (28.85) Total 46 (100.00) 52 (100.00) Table 15: Impact of MGNREGA on Migration (Note: Figures within the parentheses indicate percentage to total) Macwan (2014) Anand44
  • 45. Sources of income MGNREGA beneficiaries (n=60) MGNREGA non- beneficiaries (n=60) Difference t-value Agriculture 22612.16 (30.24) 25399.58 (37.94) -2787.50 1.02 Agriculture labour 3302.71 (4.41) 3720.00 (5.55) -417.28 0.25 Non- agriculture labour 22607.50 (30.23) 27341.66 (40.84) -4734.16 3.66* Livestock 20699.53 (27.68) 10473.50 (15.64) 10226.03 3.56* MGNREGA wages 5558.78 (7.43) 0 (0) - - Total 74780.61 (100) 66934.75 (100) 7845.86 2.12* Table 16: Source-wise income of the sample households (Rs/year) *Indicate significance at 5 per cent level (Note: Figures within the parentheses indicate percentage to total) Macwan (2014) Anand 45
  • 46. Sr. No. Crops Labour required (labour- days/acre/year) Labour availability after MGNREGA (labour- days/acre/year) Labour scarcity after MGNREGA implementation (labour- days/acre/ye ar) (%) 1. Kharif crops Maize 24.07 15.70 8.37 34.77 Pigeon pea 20.84 13.38 7.46 35.79 2. Rabi crops Gram 20.73 14.13 6.60 31.83 Wheat 19.50 12.17 7.32 37.54 Average 35.10 Table 17: Crop-wise labour scarcity after implementation of MGNREGA in Dahod district Macwan (2014) Anand 46
  • 47. Socio-economic strata Beneficiaries 2007-08 2013-14 Percentage Change Poor 29(36.25) 10(12.50) 23.75* Medium 27(33.75) 26(32.50) 1.25* Good 24(30.00) 44(55.00) 15.00* Kharkwal and Kumar (2015) Uttarakhand Table 18: Distribution of households into different socio-economic strata based on value of socio-economic index n=80 Note: * Significant at 5% level of significance 47
  • 48. Sr. No. Particulars Before MGNREGA After MGNREGA Absolute change % change 1 Annual mean income (Rs.) 6904.0 7855.0 951.0 13.8 2 No. of workers per family 2.0 3.0 1.0 50.0 3 No. of working days per person per year 190.0 211.0 21.0 11.1 4 Job satisfaction (per cent) 30.7 76.2 45.5 148.2 5 Bank account opened (per cent) 14.6 96.3 81.7 559.6 6 Migration of workers (per cent of beneficiaries) 43.4 22.0 -21.4 - 49.3 Table 19: Impact of MGNREGA in Sample Districts MURTHY (2015) KARNATAKA 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. District (state) No. of villages reporting increase in irrigated area Increase in irrigated area (ha)* No. of villages reporting increase in the number of days of water availability Increase in the average number of days of water availability* Medak (Andhra pradesh) 4 12.4 - 57.0 10 13-88 days Chitradurga (Karnataka) 8 1.7 - 44.1 5 5-45 days Dhar (Madhya pradesh) 10 0.9 - 5.8 10 190-365 days Bhilwara (Rajasthan) 8 0.2 - 2.3 7 30-90 days Table 20: Impact of MGNREGA works on irrigation Source: MGNREGA Sameeksha 2 Published by Ministry of Rural Development of India (2014) Note: * as reported by beneficiaries. 50
  • 51. Attributes of Impact Yes No No. % No. % Soil ecology attributes Increases soil moisture retention 64 53.33 56 46.67 reduces the frequency of irrigation Improves soil texture 64 53.33 56 46.67 Improves water holding capacity 65 54.17 55 45.83 Increases water percolation 65 54.17 55 45.83 Increases area under cultivable land 65 54.17 55 45.83 Water attributes Increases ground water table 64 53.33 56 46.67 Increases area under irrigation 67 55.83 53 44.17 Enables to shift to irrigated crops 68 56.67 52 43.33 Crop attributes Cultivation of no. of crops changed in a year 82 68.33 38 31.67 Enables to change in cropping pattern 61 50.83 59 49.17 Enables to change in cropping sequence 64 53.33 56 46.67 Helps to adopt the recommended crop management technologies 64 53.33 56 46.67 Enables to cultivate hybrid crops 46 38.33 74 61.67 Table 21: Distribution of respondents according to the agricultural attributes of impact Thangamalar et al. (2015) Coimbatore51 n=120
  • 52. Constraints Number % Increase in agricultural wage rate 120 100.00 Non availability of labours in peak season 120 100.00 Unable to do hand weeding and increase in the use of weedicides 75 62.50 Unable to practice mechanical pest control methods and increase in the use of pesticides 75 62.50 Increase in cost of cultivation 85 70.83 Table 22: Distribution of respondents according to their constraints faced in agriculture due to MGNREGA activities Thangamalar et al. (2015) Coimbatore 52 n=120
  • 53. Suggestions Number % Implementation of MGNREGA programme in lean season 120 100.00 Allotment of MGNREGA workers for agricultural work in peak season 96 80.00 Willingness of farmers to share wage rate on 50:50 ratio between the government and farmers 85 70.83 Creation of new ponds and water harvesting structures 68 56.67 Table 23: Distribution of respondents according to the suggestions offered to overcome the constraints in agriculture due to MGNREGA activities Thangamalar et al. (2015) Coimbatore 53 n=120
  • 54. 54
  • 55. Constraints Respondents identifying the constraints(No.) Delay in wage payment 52(63) Non availability of regular work 28(34) Political disturbances 21(26) No special provisions for elderly persons 17(21) Hectic process of bank/post offices payments 12(15) Corruption 7(9) Nepotism 4(5) Non-availability of work site facility 5(6) Some works not of good quality and necessity 4(5) Jobcards not working regularly 7(9) No provision for skilled or semi-skilled works 5(6) Agriculture labour became costlier 3(5) Table 24: Constraints faced by MGNREGA beneficiaries in Burdwan district Sarkar et al. (2011) West Bengal Note: Figures within parentheses indicate percentage to sample of beneficiaries. 55
  • 56. Constraints Respondents Identifying the constraint (No.) Per cent Rank Delay in wage payment 40 66.66 I. Hectic process of Bank/Post Office payments 35 58.33 II. Corruption 16 26.33 III. Non-availability of work site facility 12 20.00 IV. Non- availability of regular work 10 16.66 V. Nepotism 8 13.33 VI. No provision for semi-skilled works 1 1.66 VII. Table 25: Problems faced by the MGNREGA beneficiaries Macwan (2014) Anand 56 n=60
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  • 58.  MNREGA is a welfare programme which reduces the poverty by creating employment opportunities for the rural poor people and providing the livelihood security to them.  The extent of migration of rural people has also been reduced due to MGNREGA. It also helps in empowering the rural women.  It is instrumental in bringing rural development as different types of works such as rural sanitation, drought proofing, water conservation, land development, tree plantation, rural connectivity etc. are taken up in MNREGA.  In regards with agriculture, the area under irrigation and water availability have been increased on account of MNREGA. However, it has created the scarcity of labour for agricultural operations as on account of MNREGA, agricultural and non- agricultural wage rates have increased. 58
  • 59. 59