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Learning Analytics
Ruth Cobos
Meta-Review of Recognition of Learning
in LMSs and MOOCs
Cristina Alonso-Fernandez & Ruth Cobos
Computer Science Department
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
cristina.alonsof@uam.es|ruth.cobos@uam.es
Study Type
Motivation
2
The recognition of learning techniques can be used to
motivate learners, identify their progress, and provide
credentials for their learning and achievements
Recognition of Learning
Both Learning Management Systems (LMSs), commonly
used in traditional formal education, and Massive Open
Online Courses (MOOCs), widely used in distance education
The purpose of this study is to bring together the research conducted
in the recognition of learning using different techniques and in
various contexts. The goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of
the field, including a review of previous works, challenges, and
experiences.
Platform
Platform
Why?
Where?
What?
Outline
➢ Motivation
➢ Proposal: Meta-review
➢ Research Questions
➢ Search process
➢ Flow diagram of the meta-review
➢ Summary of studies included in the meta-review
➢ Results
➢ Conclusions & Future Work
3
Research Questions
➢ RQ1: What literature review or overview works exist regarding
recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs?
➢ RQ2: Which platform (LMS or MOOC) do the reviewed works
focus on?
➢ RQ3: Which techniques do the reviewed works use for
recognition of learning?
➢ RQ4: What are the conclusions drawn from the reviewed works?
➢ RQ5: What are the limitations and future areas of work pointed
out by the reviewed works?
4
Study Type
Search
5
(“badges” OR “microcredentials” OR “micro credentials” OR
“rewards for learning” OR “recognition of learning”)
Recognition of Learning
(“MOOC*” OR “Massive Open Online Course*”
OR “LMS*” OR “Learning Management
System*” OR “Moodle” OR “edX”)
(“systematic mapping" OR "state of the art" OR “systematic
review” OR “literature review” OR “research review” OR
“research synthesis” OR “challenges” OR “experiences”)
Platform
Platform
AND
AND
Process
6
Two-step selection process:
1. The title, abstract and keywords of each study were scanned
to determine if they met the inclusion / exclusion criteria.
Studies whose abstract clearly showed that they were not
relevant for this meta-review were excluded.
2. For all remaining studies, their full text was retrieved.
For the remaining studies, a quality assessment was performed.
The assessment tool was based on the JBI checklist for systematic
reviews and research syntheses. https://jbi.global/sites/default/files/2021-10/Checklist_for_Systematic_Reviews_and_Research_Syntheses.docx
Process: inclusion and exclusion criteria
7
Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
1. Journal and conference articles 1. Articles that present a single case study
analyzing some recognition of learning in a single
MOOC course or LMS
2. Articles that perform a literature review about
recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs
2. Articles that have not been peer-reviewed
3. Articles that aggregate multiple experiences,
challenges or provide a general overview of
recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs
3. Articles whose full text is not available
4. Articles not written in English
Flow diagram of the meta-review
8
Databases:
Quality assessment: 11 items
Selection Process
&
Inclusion / Exclusion criteria
title
abstract
keywords
Summary of studies included in the meta-review
9
Study Publication
year
Publication
type
Country of authors Platform Recognition of
Learning
Study Type
[1] 2017 Conference Portugal MOOC/LMS Badges Review/Experiences
[2] 2018 Conference Jamaica,
Netherlands
LMS Badges Challenges/Experiences
[3] 2017 Conference USA LMS Badges Challenges/Experiences
[4] 2021 Journal Turkey MOOC/LMS Badges Review
[5] 2018 Journal USA MOOC Badges Challenges
[6] 2017 Journal Austria MOOC Badges Challenges/Experiences
[7] 2018 Conference Austria, Polonia MOOC Micro credentials Review
[8] 2018 Conference Austria,
Netherlands
MOOC Badges Review
[9] 2019 Journal Mexico MOOC Badges Experiences
[10] 2020 Conference Germany, Italy MOOC/LMS Badges/Micro credentials Experiences
Results
10
RQ1: What literature
review or overview works
exist regarding recognition
of learning in LMSs
and/or MOOCs?
RQ2: Which platform
(LMS or MOOC) do
the reviewed works
focus on?
RQ3: Which techniques do the
reviewed works use for
recognition of learning?
Results
11
RQ4: What are the conclusions drawn from the reviewed works?
➢ 2 studies address recognition of learning in LMSs
➢ Uses of digital badges in education, mainly for motivation
➢ Issues when using badges in Moodle
➢ 3 studies address recognition of learning in LMSs + mention MOOCs
➢ Gamification mainly in Moodle
➢ flipped learning
➢ 5 studies focus on MOOCs
➢ Gamification in MOOCs
➢ Assessment, certification and micro credentials
Results
12
RQ5: What are the limitations and future areas of work pointed out by the
reviewed works?
➢ More research needed
➢ Current studies provide insufficient evidence to generalize results
➢ Studies needed over longer periods of time
➢ Studies needed with larger sample size
➢ Recognition of learning needs to be considered from the early design of
MOOCs and LMSs
➢ The learning activities associated with such badges or other recognition of
learning tools should be carefully planned, and feedback should be given to
students on their performance
Results
13
Study Topic Conclusions Recommendations
[1] Badges in education Badges mainly used for motivating students Clearly define purpose and use of badges
[2] Badges in Moodle Importance of technology in the use of badges Plan and map learning activities with badges
[3] Gamification in Moodle Gamification used to increase motivation Include immediate feedback and possibility to
repeat tasks
[4] Gamification in flipped learning Positive effects of including gamification Include game element in flipped learning
[5] Assessment in MOOCs Importance of including assessment Peer assessment is the most adequate approach
[6] Certification in MOOCs Collecting badges impacts motivation Include participation badges for motivation
[7] Microcredentials for entrepreurship
education
Microcredentials offer is rapidly increasing Evaluate MOOCs for EU consistency
[8] Gamification in MOOCs Badges and leaderboards most used Studies needed on gamificationin MOOCs
[9] Gamification in MOOCs on energy
sustainability
Positive effect on engagement and completion MOOCs should include storytelling elements
[10] Gamification in mini-MOOCs Positive effect of some design elements on
engagement
Include flexible learning pathways, self-
assessment, and learning supports
➢ The meta-review conducted has revised 10 overview or literature review
studies of recognition of learning techniques in LMSs and MOOCs
➢ These studies provide an overview of this broad field that could be used for
future research on the area
➢ The studies reviewed include different types of gamification and recognition
of learning techniques, with more studies focusing on MOOCs than in LMSs
(mainly Moodle)
➢ Badges are the preferred way for recognition of learning in the studies
➢ Results show that the addition of these techniques positively impacts learners’
motivation and engagement
Conclusions
14
➢ More databases and terms may be included to expand the search scope
➢ We consider the recommendations made by authors, studying applications
in longer periods of time and sample sizes, and combining different
data types (e.g., learning analytics)
➢ These applications may also consider different stakeholders and learning
environments, all of which can benefit from the use of recognition of
learning techniques
Future Work
15
[1] I. Araújo, C. Santos, L. Pedro, and J. Batista, “Digital badges on education: Past, present and future,” in Proceedings of the 4th European
Conference on Social Media, ECSM 2017, 2017, pp. 27–35. Accessed: Dec. 04, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-013-
9291-7
[2] L. Facey-Shaw, M. Specht, J. Bartley-Bryan, and P. van Rosmalen, “Technological and implementation issues in moodle-based digital badge
system,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning, 2018, vol. 2018-October, pp. 82 – 90. [Online]. Available:
https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85058967859&partnerID=40&md5=046d02cbc74cb9cd28e6d2005ec25f37
[3] Z. Mahmud, P. J. Weber, and J. P. Moening, “Gamification of engineering courses,” in ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference
Proceedings, 2017, vol. 2017-June.
[4] M. Ekici, “A systematic review of the use of gamification in flipped learning,” Educ Inf Technol (Dordr), vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 3327–3346, May
2021, doi: 10.1007/s10639-020-10394-y.
[5] Y. Xiong and H. K. Suen, “Assessment approaches in massive open online courses: Possibilities, challenges and future directions,” International
Review of Education, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 241–263, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11159-018-9710-5.
[6] M. Kopp and M. Ebner, “Certification of MOOCs. Advantages, Challenges and Practical Experiences,” Revista Española de Pedagogía, vol. 75,
no. 266, pp. 83–100, May 2017, doi: 10.22550/REP75-1-2017-12.
[7] C. Resei, C. Friedl B, and A. Żur, “MOOCs and entrepreneurship education-contributions, opportunities and gaps,” in International
Entrepreneurship as the Bridge between International Economics and International Business: Conference Proceedings of the 9th ENTRE
Conference, 2018, pp. 12–14.
[8] M. Khalil, J. Wong, B. de Koning, M. Ebner, and F. Paas, “Gamification in MOOCs: A review of the state of the art,” in IEEE Global
Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON, May 2018, vol. 2018-April, pp. 1629–1638. doi: 10.1109/EDUCON.2018.8363430.
[9] L. M. Romero-Rodriguez, M. S. Ramirez-Montoya, and J. R. V. Gonzalez, “Gamification in MOOCs: Engagement Application Test in Energy
Sustainability Courses,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 32093–32101, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2903230.
[10] I. Buchem, C. Carlino, F. Amenduni, and A. Poce, “Meaningful Gamification in MOOCs. Designing and Examining Learner Engagement in
the Open Virtual Mobility Learning Hub,” in 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED2020 Proceedings),
Mar. 2020, vol. 1, pp. 9529–9534. doi: 10.21125/inted.2020.1661.
References
16
17
18
Social Network of Learning Analytics
Red Temática Española de Analítica de Aprendizaje
https://snola.es/
Red de Investigación y Desarrollo de Tecnologías Educativas en la
Comunidad de Madrid.
http://www.emadridnet.org
https://vghia.ii.uam.es/member?filepath=cobos_ruth.txt
https://vghia.ii.uam.es
Ruth Cobos
18
https://www.contic.udl.cat/es/miembro/ruth-cobos-perez

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Meta-review of recognition of learning in LMS and MOOCs - Ruth Cobos

  • 1. Learning Analytics Ruth Cobos Meta-Review of Recognition of Learning in LMSs and MOOCs Cristina Alonso-Fernandez & Ruth Cobos Computer Science Department Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain cristina.alonsof@uam.es|ruth.cobos@uam.es
  • 2. Study Type Motivation 2 The recognition of learning techniques can be used to motivate learners, identify their progress, and provide credentials for their learning and achievements Recognition of Learning Both Learning Management Systems (LMSs), commonly used in traditional formal education, and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), widely used in distance education The purpose of this study is to bring together the research conducted in the recognition of learning using different techniques and in various contexts. The goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the field, including a review of previous works, challenges, and experiences. Platform Platform Why? Where? What?
  • 3. Outline ➢ Motivation ➢ Proposal: Meta-review ➢ Research Questions ➢ Search process ➢ Flow diagram of the meta-review ➢ Summary of studies included in the meta-review ➢ Results ➢ Conclusions & Future Work 3
  • 4. Research Questions ➢ RQ1: What literature review or overview works exist regarding recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs? ➢ RQ2: Which platform (LMS or MOOC) do the reviewed works focus on? ➢ RQ3: Which techniques do the reviewed works use for recognition of learning? ➢ RQ4: What are the conclusions drawn from the reviewed works? ➢ RQ5: What are the limitations and future areas of work pointed out by the reviewed works? 4
  • 5. Study Type Search 5 (“badges” OR “microcredentials” OR “micro credentials” OR “rewards for learning” OR “recognition of learning”) Recognition of Learning (“MOOC*” OR “Massive Open Online Course*” OR “LMS*” OR “Learning Management System*” OR “Moodle” OR “edX”) (“systematic mapping" OR "state of the art" OR “systematic review” OR “literature review” OR “research review” OR “research synthesis” OR “challenges” OR “experiences”) Platform Platform AND AND
  • 6. Process 6 Two-step selection process: 1. The title, abstract and keywords of each study were scanned to determine if they met the inclusion / exclusion criteria. Studies whose abstract clearly showed that they were not relevant for this meta-review were excluded. 2. For all remaining studies, their full text was retrieved. For the remaining studies, a quality assessment was performed. The assessment tool was based on the JBI checklist for systematic reviews and research syntheses. https://jbi.global/sites/default/files/2021-10/Checklist_for_Systematic_Reviews_and_Research_Syntheses.docx
  • 7. Process: inclusion and exclusion criteria 7 Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria 1. Journal and conference articles 1. Articles that present a single case study analyzing some recognition of learning in a single MOOC course or LMS 2. Articles that perform a literature review about recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs 2. Articles that have not been peer-reviewed 3. Articles that aggregate multiple experiences, challenges or provide a general overview of recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs 3. Articles whose full text is not available 4. Articles not written in English
  • 8. Flow diagram of the meta-review 8 Databases: Quality assessment: 11 items Selection Process & Inclusion / Exclusion criteria title abstract keywords
  • 9. Summary of studies included in the meta-review 9 Study Publication year Publication type Country of authors Platform Recognition of Learning Study Type [1] 2017 Conference Portugal MOOC/LMS Badges Review/Experiences [2] 2018 Conference Jamaica, Netherlands LMS Badges Challenges/Experiences [3] 2017 Conference USA LMS Badges Challenges/Experiences [4] 2021 Journal Turkey MOOC/LMS Badges Review [5] 2018 Journal USA MOOC Badges Challenges [6] 2017 Journal Austria MOOC Badges Challenges/Experiences [7] 2018 Conference Austria, Polonia MOOC Micro credentials Review [8] 2018 Conference Austria, Netherlands MOOC Badges Review [9] 2019 Journal Mexico MOOC Badges Experiences [10] 2020 Conference Germany, Italy MOOC/LMS Badges/Micro credentials Experiences
  • 10. Results 10 RQ1: What literature review or overview works exist regarding recognition of learning in LMSs and/or MOOCs? RQ2: Which platform (LMS or MOOC) do the reviewed works focus on? RQ3: Which techniques do the reviewed works use for recognition of learning?
  • 11. Results 11 RQ4: What are the conclusions drawn from the reviewed works? ➢ 2 studies address recognition of learning in LMSs ➢ Uses of digital badges in education, mainly for motivation ➢ Issues when using badges in Moodle ➢ 3 studies address recognition of learning in LMSs + mention MOOCs ➢ Gamification mainly in Moodle ➢ flipped learning ➢ 5 studies focus on MOOCs ➢ Gamification in MOOCs ➢ Assessment, certification and micro credentials
  • 12. Results 12 RQ5: What are the limitations and future areas of work pointed out by the reviewed works? ➢ More research needed ➢ Current studies provide insufficient evidence to generalize results ➢ Studies needed over longer periods of time ➢ Studies needed with larger sample size ➢ Recognition of learning needs to be considered from the early design of MOOCs and LMSs ➢ The learning activities associated with such badges or other recognition of learning tools should be carefully planned, and feedback should be given to students on their performance
  • 13. Results 13 Study Topic Conclusions Recommendations [1] Badges in education Badges mainly used for motivating students Clearly define purpose and use of badges [2] Badges in Moodle Importance of technology in the use of badges Plan and map learning activities with badges [3] Gamification in Moodle Gamification used to increase motivation Include immediate feedback and possibility to repeat tasks [4] Gamification in flipped learning Positive effects of including gamification Include game element in flipped learning [5] Assessment in MOOCs Importance of including assessment Peer assessment is the most adequate approach [6] Certification in MOOCs Collecting badges impacts motivation Include participation badges for motivation [7] Microcredentials for entrepreurship education Microcredentials offer is rapidly increasing Evaluate MOOCs for EU consistency [8] Gamification in MOOCs Badges and leaderboards most used Studies needed on gamificationin MOOCs [9] Gamification in MOOCs on energy sustainability Positive effect on engagement and completion MOOCs should include storytelling elements [10] Gamification in mini-MOOCs Positive effect of some design elements on engagement Include flexible learning pathways, self- assessment, and learning supports
  • 14. ➢ The meta-review conducted has revised 10 overview or literature review studies of recognition of learning techniques in LMSs and MOOCs ➢ These studies provide an overview of this broad field that could be used for future research on the area ➢ The studies reviewed include different types of gamification and recognition of learning techniques, with more studies focusing on MOOCs than in LMSs (mainly Moodle) ➢ Badges are the preferred way for recognition of learning in the studies ➢ Results show that the addition of these techniques positively impacts learners’ motivation and engagement Conclusions 14
  • 15. ➢ More databases and terms may be included to expand the search scope ➢ We consider the recommendations made by authors, studying applications in longer periods of time and sample sizes, and combining different data types (e.g., learning analytics) ➢ These applications may also consider different stakeholders and learning environments, all of which can benefit from the use of recognition of learning techniques Future Work 15
  • 16. [1] I. Araújo, C. Santos, L. Pedro, and J. Batista, “Digital badges on education: Past, present and future,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Social Media, ECSM 2017, 2017, pp. 27–35. Accessed: Dec. 04, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-013- 9291-7 [2] L. Facey-Shaw, M. Specht, J. Bartley-Bryan, and P. van Rosmalen, “Technological and implementation issues in moodle-based digital badge system,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning, 2018, vol. 2018-October, pp. 82 – 90. [Online]. Available: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85058967859&partnerID=40&md5=046d02cbc74cb9cd28e6d2005ec25f37 [3] Z. Mahmud, P. J. Weber, and J. P. Moening, “Gamification of engineering courses,” in ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2017, vol. 2017-June. [4] M. Ekici, “A systematic review of the use of gamification in flipped learning,” Educ Inf Technol (Dordr), vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 3327–3346, May 2021, doi: 10.1007/s10639-020-10394-y. [5] Y. Xiong and H. K. Suen, “Assessment approaches in massive open online courses: Possibilities, challenges and future directions,” International Review of Education, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 241–263, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11159-018-9710-5. [6] M. Kopp and M. Ebner, “Certification of MOOCs. Advantages, Challenges and Practical Experiences,” Revista Española de Pedagogía, vol. 75, no. 266, pp. 83–100, May 2017, doi: 10.22550/REP75-1-2017-12. [7] C. Resei, C. Friedl B, and A. Żur, “MOOCs and entrepreneurship education-contributions, opportunities and gaps,” in International Entrepreneurship as the Bridge between International Economics and International Business: Conference Proceedings of the 9th ENTRE Conference, 2018, pp. 12–14. [8] M. Khalil, J. Wong, B. de Koning, M. Ebner, and F. Paas, “Gamification in MOOCs: A review of the state of the art,” in IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON, May 2018, vol. 2018-April, pp. 1629–1638. doi: 10.1109/EDUCON.2018.8363430. [9] L. M. Romero-Rodriguez, M. S. Ramirez-Montoya, and J. R. V. Gonzalez, “Gamification in MOOCs: Engagement Application Test in Energy Sustainability Courses,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 32093–32101, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2903230. [10] I. Buchem, C. Carlino, F. Amenduni, and A. Poce, “Meaningful Gamification in MOOCs. Designing and Examining Learner Engagement in the Open Virtual Mobility Learning Hub,” in 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED2020 Proceedings), Mar. 2020, vol. 1, pp. 9529–9534. doi: 10.21125/inted.2020.1661. References 16
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  • 18. 18 Social Network of Learning Analytics Red Temática Española de Analítica de Aprendizaje https://snola.es/ Red de Investigación y Desarrollo de Tecnologías Educativas en la Comunidad de Madrid. http://www.emadridnet.org https://vghia.ii.uam.es/member?filepath=cobos_ruth.txt https://vghia.ii.uam.es Ruth Cobos 18 https://www.contic.udl.cat/es/miembro/ruth-cobos-perez