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International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
ADAPTIVE TEMPORAL AVERAGING AND FRAME PREDICTION BASED SURVEIL-
LANCE VIDEO CODING
S.pushpa1
, S. Rehana Banu2
,
1 Research Scholar,Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology
Anantapur, A. P, India.
2 Assistant Professor,Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology
Anantapur, A. P, India.
*Corresponding Author:
S.pushpa
Research Scholar,
Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engi-
neering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and
Technology,Anantapur, A. P, India.
Email: pushpa.sarode7@gmail.com.
Published: May 23, 2016
Review Type: peer reviewed
Volume: I, Issue : I
Citation:S.pushpa, Research Scholar"Adaptive Tempo-
ral Averaging And Frame Prediction Based Surveillance
Video Coding" International Journal of Research and In-
novation (IJRI) (2016) 10-14
INTRODUCTION
The research presented in this thesis focused on diverse
coding techniques specific to surveillance videos. The
foremost aim of this work is to propose techniques to im-
prove the storage capacity and bandwidth utilization with
less computational complexity. The proposed coding tech-
niques to improve compression and processing efficiency
have been described to achieve better performance com-
pared to the conventional techniques.
One of the major building blocks of the modern digital
video surveillance architecture is digital video coding. Its
main role is to decrease the quantity of information es-
sential to represent the original image sequence. Video
coding techniques offer a compressed bit-stream repre-
senting the identical perceptual information with much
less data for any given input video with a particular image
frame rate and resolution. Superior compression perfor-
mance can be accomplished with sophisticated video cod-
ing methods and/or bringing in visual artifact’s.
Once compression is executed, the consequent bit-stream
can be resourcefully propelled through a digital network
or stored on a device. When a client needs to exhibit it
or explore its contents, a decoding procedure requires to
be applied on the compressed bit-stream. The decoding
course of action recreates the original input video at its
original resolution and frame rate.
Scalable video coding
Scalable Video Coding (SVC) offers the equivalent com-
pression functionality expressed above and is shown in
Figure 1. Further more, the bit-stream is arranged with
a hierarchical structure that facilitates a user to effort-
lessly pull out only a subpart of the data enclosed in the
bit-stream while still being able to decode the original in-
put video but at a lower frame rate and/or spatial resolu-
tion. The recursive application of this approach on a new
bit-stream removed out of the original bitstream can be
utilised to carry out the process of successive extractions
consequent to always lower resolutions.
Surveillance application of SVC
Abstract
Global interconnect planning becomes a challenge as semiconductor technology continuously scales. Because of the
increasing wire resistance and higher capacitive coupling in smaller features, the delay of global interconnects becomes
large compared with the delay of a logic gate, introducing a huge performance gap that needs to be resolved A novel
equalized global link architecture and driver– receiver co design flow are proposed for high-speed and low-energy on-chip
communication by utilizing a continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE). The proposed global link is analyzed using a lin-
ear system method, and the formula of CTLE eye opening is derived to provide high-level design guidelines and insights.
Compared with the separate driver–receiver design flow, over 50% energy reduction is observed.
International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
11
International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
There are numerous kinds of scalability and each of them
can be available with different granularity. The most fre-
quent type of scalability is the temporal scalability.
For example, if the original image sequence consisted of
30 frames per second, temporal scalability would facili-
tate a user to decode a subpart of the bit-stream recon-
structing a sequence with 15 frames per second or a lower
number of frames per second. Spatial scalability is related
to the opportunity to generate a bit-stream corresponding
to the smaller spatial resolutions, for example, by decod-
ing images with a resolution of CIF (common intermedi-
ate format: 352×288) out of an image sequence initially
encoded at 4CIF (704×576). Quality scalability represents
the possibility to decode the bit-stream at a lower quality.
LITERATURE
In this chapter, an overview of basics related to Rate Dis-
tortion (RD) optimization and its application in video cod-
ing is presented. The fundamental measures related to
RD optimisation are discussed. Some of the basic distor-
tion measuring parameters are explained in the context of
their use in video coding. The Lagrangion method for RD
optimisation is presented because of its established use-
ful application in video coding.
Finally, some state-of-the-art techniques related to sur-
veillance centric coding are discussed briefly.
Rate-Distortion Theory
Shannon with his rate-distortion theory addressed the
elementary problem of RD optimization, maximizing re-
constructed quality at the minimum cost (bit consump-
tion). RD theory basically provides a way of minimising
the number of bits representing the source element to a
given reconstruction quality or distortion, which helps to
develop a trade-off between rate and distortion.
As a branch of information theory, RD theory consists
of fundamental concepts of information and entropy in
information theory. A methodical explanation of all sub-
sequent terminologies in information theory is beyond
the scope of the work presented in this thesis; however a
straightforward review of important concepts is presented
in this preliminary section for the study of RD theory.
BLOCK-BASED VIDEO CODING
Advance Video Coding (AVC) also known as H.264/
MPEG-4 Part 10 is currently the most powerful and state-
of-the-art video coding standard. It has been developed by
a Joint Video Team (JVT) consisting of experts from the
ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and the
ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group
AVC Encoder (High Level View)
AVC Decoder (High Level View)
Object-Based Video Coding
Replacing the conventional rectangular block based video
coding with the object-based coding is the main concept
defined by the MPEG-4 standard. Object-based video cod-
ing gives direct access to the scene contents; thus helps
manipulation of each object independently. According to
MPEG-4 requirements, object-based video coding shall
provide the following features:
Object-based representation
Object quality and fidelity
Object-based bit-stream manipulation and editing
Object-based coding flexibility
Object-based random access
Each object described in the video is characterized by
spatial and temporal information in the form of shape,
motion and texture [57]. Following are the basic defini-
tions for the hierarchical structure of MPEG-4 object
based coding:
i Visual Object Sequence (VS): The complete MPEG-4
scene which maycontain any natural or synthetic objects
and their enhancement layers [57].
i Video Object (VO): An area of video sequence (VS) that
may have arbitraryshape in the 2D domain and may exist
for an arbitrary length of time.
i Video Object Plane (VOP): A video object (VO) in a par-
ticular instant oftime is termed as video object plane.
i Group of Video Object Planes (GOV): GOV provides ran-
dom access pointsinto the compressed bit-stream. At
these access points, VOPs are encoded
independent of each other.
Surveillance Centric Coding
In this chapter, we introduce the coding paradigm of Sur-
veillance Centric Coding (SCC), in which coding for spe-
cific surveillance applications is targeted. The SCC aims
at exploiting specific properties of surveillance video in
a comprehensive application framework including coding
adaptation to surveillance, rate distortion optimisation
according to the VCA (video content analysis), and other
related concepts.
The basic approach towards Surveillance Centric Cod-
ing (SCC) has been introduced. The Scalable video cod-
ing (SVC) has attraction for surveillance applications be-
cause of its spatial, temporal and quality adaptability. In
this chapter a scalable video codec, aceSVC (discussed
12
International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
in chapter 3), has been modified to support event-based
video coding of the surveillance videos. The architectural
modifications for GOP level switching of the scalability
features have been presented and implemented. This ap-
proach enables the saving of bit-rate and storage space.
The following sections give a description of the modified
system.
Architectural Modifications
The required information in the surveillance video is the
presence of some motion activity or any other event of
interest. Therefore, the portion of the video which has an
event of interest should have a good RD performance. On
the other hand, the portion of the video which does not
have any special information may be set to a lower RD
performance. This adaptive RD performance saves a large
number of bits. On the other hand, the bit-stream gener-
ated by the scalable video codec does not support GOP
level switching of the scalability features. Thus to support
event based scalability features at GOP level for the cod-
ing of surveillance videos, the architecture of aceSVC has
been modified. The adaptive RD performance is achieved
at the GOP level through the modified architecture. Some
new blocks have been introduced to implement this ap-
proach. These blocks are:
1. GOP Selector
2. GOP Collector
3. GOP Analysis
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The following images show the output of the proposed al-
gorithm in MATLAB subplots. The first subplot represents
the original input image. The second subplot is the inten-
sity component of the image. The third is the chroma blue
component and fourth is the chroma red component.
In the second row, the foreground results for the frames
are shown. In subplot 1, the intensity foreground is
shown, in the second subplot blue difference and in the
third red difference foreground is shown. The final output
of foreground is shown in the final subplot.
Output of frame 1
Output of frame 5
Output of frame 10
Output of frame 20
Output of frame 30
Output of frame 40
Output of frame 50
13
International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
Output of frame 60
Output of frame 70
Output of frame 80
Output of frame 90
In each frame the background is updated according to the
time adaptively and the precise foreground is produced at
the output, which is then sent to coding module.
CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE
A technique to improve on the compression efficiency for
surveillance videos has been presented. The architecture
of the scalable video coding has been modified to become
surveillance centric coding. The modified architecture
offers a better byte saving performance. This approach
shows that the application of scalable video coding with
an event driven approach improves the transmission and
storage efficiency. The foreground pixels are selected by
using the bounding boxes of the VCA modules. This ap-
proach has the benefit of being free from shape coding and
background coding as compared to MPEG-4 object based
coding. Different experimental results showed that the
motion compensated temporal filter (MCTF) with higher
levels of filtering helps to remove the temporal redundan-
cies present in the surveillance videos. This approach has
better RDperformance than the block-based coding ap-
proaches. A search technique with higher processing ef-
ficiency with a visual quality equivalent to the full search
approach and selective search strategy specific to surveil-
lance videos is presented. Two approaches to perform se-
lective motion estimation, GOP based and Frame based,
are described where Frame based approach performed
better. The visual quality for both the approaches is the
same as that of the full search.
To improve the selective motion estimation further, a se-
lective block search technique has been proposed. The
selection of the block is based on the novel approach
where a motion detection module is used to provide the
location of candidate blocks. Although, this approach
performs a fewer number of block matching steps yet
the overall processing efficiency of the system is close to
a Frame based selective search. This is because of the
overhead complexity added by the bounding box match-
ing algorithm to locate the candidate block in the SCC.
After introducing selective motion estimation approaches,
another novel approach, tracker-based motion estimation
has been proposed where surveillance video object motion
tracker information is used to calculate the motion vec-
tors. A unique motion track is calculated for each object
of the surveillance video. The distance representing the
displacement of the object between the current and the
reference frame is taken as a value to calculate motion
vectors after identifying and matching the track in the
two frames. This approach performs a faster calculation
of the motion vectors but it degrades the visual quality
of the video depending on the nature of the movement
represented by the foreground object. Finally, under the
same motivation of achieving processing efficiency with-
out loss in visual quality, fast full search approaches are
explored. A fast search approach for multiple reference
frames specific to surveillance videos has been proposed.
This approach is based on considering different points
between the two consecutive reference frames and then
using these different points to avoid unnecessary block
matching steps. This search approach is specific to sur-
veillance videos with motion estimation based on multiple
reference frames.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Gantz and D. Reinsel. (2012, Dec.). The IDC Digi-
tal Universe in 2020: Big Data, Bigger Digital Shadows,
and Biggest Growth in the Far East [Online]. Available:
http://www.emc.com/leadership/digitaluniverse/ index.
htm
[2] I. E. G. Richardson, H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Com-
pression: Video Coding for Next Generation Multimedia.
Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 2003, pp. 136–138.
[3] K. Ugur, K. Andersson, A. Fuldseth, G. Bjontegaard,
L. P. Endresen, J. Lainema, et al., “High performance, low
complexity video coding and the emerging HEVC stand-
ard,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 20,
no. 12, pp. 1688–1697, Dec. 2010.
14
International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
[4] X. G. Zhang, L. H. Liang, Q. Huang, and W. Gao, “An
efficient coding scheme for surveillance videos captured
by stationary cameras,” Proc. SPIE Visual Commun. Im-
age Process., vol. 7744, pp. 77442A-1–77442A-10, Jul.
2010.
[5] M. Piccardi, “Background subtraction techniques: A
review,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Syst., Man Cybern., vol.
4. Oct. 2004, pp. 3099–3104.
[6] R. Forchheimer and O. Fahlander, “Low bit-rate coding
through animation,” in Proc.
Int. Picture Coding Symp., 1983, pp. 113–114.
[7] R. Forchheimer, O. Fahlander, and T. Kronander, “A
semantic approach to the transmission of face images,” in
Proc. Int. Picture Coding Symp., no. 10.5, Cesson-Sevi-
gne, France, 1984.
AUTHOR
S.pushpa,
Research Scholar,
Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering,
Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Anantapur, A. P, India.
S. Rehana Banu,
Assistant Professor,
Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering,
Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Anantapur, A. P, India.

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Jiri ece-01-03 adaptive temporal averaging and frame prediction based surveillance video coding

  • 1. 10 International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI) ADAPTIVE TEMPORAL AVERAGING AND FRAME PREDICTION BASED SURVEIL- LANCE VIDEO CODING S.pushpa1 , S. Rehana Banu2 , 1 Research Scholar,Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology Anantapur, A. P, India. 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology Anantapur, A. P, India. *Corresponding Author: S.pushpa Research Scholar, Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engi- neering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology,Anantapur, A. P, India. Email: pushpa.sarode7@gmail.com. Published: May 23, 2016 Review Type: peer reviewed Volume: I, Issue : I Citation:S.pushpa, Research Scholar"Adaptive Tempo- ral Averaging And Frame Prediction Based Surveillance Video Coding" International Journal of Research and In- novation (IJRI) (2016) 10-14 INTRODUCTION The research presented in this thesis focused on diverse coding techniques specific to surveillance videos. The foremost aim of this work is to propose techniques to im- prove the storage capacity and bandwidth utilization with less computational complexity. The proposed coding tech- niques to improve compression and processing efficiency have been described to achieve better performance com- pared to the conventional techniques. One of the major building blocks of the modern digital video surveillance architecture is digital video coding. Its main role is to decrease the quantity of information es- sential to represent the original image sequence. Video coding techniques offer a compressed bit-stream repre- senting the identical perceptual information with much less data for any given input video with a particular image frame rate and resolution. Superior compression perfor- mance can be accomplished with sophisticated video cod- ing methods and/or bringing in visual artifact’s. Once compression is executed, the consequent bit-stream can be resourcefully propelled through a digital network or stored on a device. When a client needs to exhibit it or explore its contents, a decoding procedure requires to be applied on the compressed bit-stream. The decoding course of action recreates the original input video at its original resolution and frame rate. Scalable video coding Scalable Video Coding (SVC) offers the equivalent com- pression functionality expressed above and is shown in Figure 1. Further more, the bit-stream is arranged with a hierarchical structure that facilitates a user to effort- lessly pull out only a subpart of the data enclosed in the bit-stream while still being able to decode the original in- put video but at a lower frame rate and/or spatial resolu- tion. The recursive application of this approach on a new bit-stream removed out of the original bitstream can be utilised to carry out the process of successive extractions consequent to always lower resolutions. Surveillance application of SVC Abstract Global interconnect planning becomes a challenge as semiconductor technology continuously scales. Because of the increasing wire resistance and higher capacitive coupling in smaller features, the delay of global interconnects becomes large compared with the delay of a logic gate, introducing a huge performance gap that needs to be resolved A novel equalized global link architecture and driver– receiver co design flow are proposed for high-speed and low-energy on-chip communication by utilizing a continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE). The proposed global link is analyzed using a lin- ear system method, and the formula of CTLE eye opening is derived to provide high-level design guidelines and insights. Compared with the separate driver–receiver design flow, over 50% energy reduction is observed. International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)
  • 2. 11 International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI) There are numerous kinds of scalability and each of them can be available with different granularity. The most fre- quent type of scalability is the temporal scalability. For example, if the original image sequence consisted of 30 frames per second, temporal scalability would facili- tate a user to decode a subpart of the bit-stream recon- structing a sequence with 15 frames per second or a lower number of frames per second. Spatial scalability is related to the opportunity to generate a bit-stream corresponding to the smaller spatial resolutions, for example, by decod- ing images with a resolution of CIF (common intermedi- ate format: 352×288) out of an image sequence initially encoded at 4CIF (704×576). Quality scalability represents the possibility to decode the bit-stream at a lower quality. LITERATURE In this chapter, an overview of basics related to Rate Dis- tortion (RD) optimization and its application in video cod- ing is presented. The fundamental measures related to RD optimisation are discussed. Some of the basic distor- tion measuring parameters are explained in the context of their use in video coding. The Lagrangion method for RD optimisation is presented because of its established use- ful application in video coding. Finally, some state-of-the-art techniques related to sur- veillance centric coding are discussed briefly. Rate-Distortion Theory Shannon with his rate-distortion theory addressed the elementary problem of RD optimization, maximizing re- constructed quality at the minimum cost (bit consump- tion). RD theory basically provides a way of minimising the number of bits representing the source element to a given reconstruction quality or distortion, which helps to develop a trade-off between rate and distortion. As a branch of information theory, RD theory consists of fundamental concepts of information and entropy in information theory. A methodical explanation of all sub- sequent terminologies in information theory is beyond the scope of the work presented in this thesis; however a straightforward review of important concepts is presented in this preliminary section for the study of RD theory. BLOCK-BASED VIDEO CODING Advance Video Coding (AVC) also known as H.264/ MPEG-4 Part 10 is currently the most powerful and state- of-the-art video coding standard. It has been developed by a Joint Video Team (JVT) consisting of experts from the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group AVC Encoder (High Level View) AVC Decoder (High Level View) Object-Based Video Coding Replacing the conventional rectangular block based video coding with the object-based coding is the main concept defined by the MPEG-4 standard. Object-based video cod- ing gives direct access to the scene contents; thus helps manipulation of each object independently. According to MPEG-4 requirements, object-based video coding shall provide the following features: Object-based representation Object quality and fidelity Object-based bit-stream manipulation and editing Object-based coding flexibility Object-based random access Each object described in the video is characterized by spatial and temporal information in the form of shape, motion and texture [57]. Following are the basic defini- tions for the hierarchical structure of MPEG-4 object based coding: i Visual Object Sequence (VS): The complete MPEG-4 scene which maycontain any natural or synthetic objects and their enhancement layers [57]. i Video Object (VO): An area of video sequence (VS) that may have arbitraryshape in the 2D domain and may exist for an arbitrary length of time. i Video Object Plane (VOP): A video object (VO) in a par- ticular instant oftime is termed as video object plane. i Group of Video Object Planes (GOV): GOV provides ran- dom access pointsinto the compressed bit-stream. At these access points, VOPs are encoded independent of each other. Surveillance Centric Coding In this chapter, we introduce the coding paradigm of Sur- veillance Centric Coding (SCC), in which coding for spe- cific surveillance applications is targeted. The SCC aims at exploiting specific properties of surveillance video in a comprehensive application framework including coding adaptation to surveillance, rate distortion optimisation according to the VCA (video content analysis), and other related concepts. The basic approach towards Surveillance Centric Cod- ing (SCC) has been introduced. The Scalable video cod- ing (SVC) has attraction for surveillance applications be- cause of its spatial, temporal and quality adaptability. In this chapter a scalable video codec, aceSVC (discussed
  • 3. 12 International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI) in chapter 3), has been modified to support event-based video coding of the surveillance videos. The architectural modifications for GOP level switching of the scalability features have been presented and implemented. This ap- proach enables the saving of bit-rate and storage space. The following sections give a description of the modified system. Architectural Modifications The required information in the surveillance video is the presence of some motion activity or any other event of interest. Therefore, the portion of the video which has an event of interest should have a good RD performance. On the other hand, the portion of the video which does not have any special information may be set to a lower RD performance. This adaptive RD performance saves a large number of bits. On the other hand, the bit-stream gener- ated by the scalable video codec does not support GOP level switching of the scalability features. Thus to support event based scalability features at GOP level for the cod- ing of surveillance videos, the architecture of aceSVC has been modified. The adaptive RD performance is achieved at the GOP level through the modified architecture. Some new blocks have been introduced to implement this ap- proach. These blocks are: 1. GOP Selector 2. GOP Collector 3. GOP Analysis EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The following images show the output of the proposed al- gorithm in MATLAB subplots. The first subplot represents the original input image. The second subplot is the inten- sity component of the image. The third is the chroma blue component and fourth is the chroma red component. In the second row, the foreground results for the frames are shown. In subplot 1, the intensity foreground is shown, in the second subplot blue difference and in the third red difference foreground is shown. The final output of foreground is shown in the final subplot. Output of frame 1 Output of frame 5 Output of frame 10 Output of frame 20 Output of frame 30 Output of frame 40 Output of frame 50
  • 4. 13 International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI) Output of frame 60 Output of frame 70 Output of frame 80 Output of frame 90 In each frame the background is updated according to the time adaptively and the precise foreground is produced at the output, which is then sent to coding module. CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE A technique to improve on the compression efficiency for surveillance videos has been presented. The architecture of the scalable video coding has been modified to become surveillance centric coding. The modified architecture offers a better byte saving performance. This approach shows that the application of scalable video coding with an event driven approach improves the transmission and storage efficiency. The foreground pixels are selected by using the bounding boxes of the VCA modules. This ap- proach has the benefit of being free from shape coding and background coding as compared to MPEG-4 object based coding. Different experimental results showed that the motion compensated temporal filter (MCTF) with higher levels of filtering helps to remove the temporal redundan- cies present in the surveillance videos. This approach has better RDperformance than the block-based coding ap- proaches. A search technique with higher processing ef- ficiency with a visual quality equivalent to the full search approach and selective search strategy specific to surveil- lance videos is presented. Two approaches to perform se- lective motion estimation, GOP based and Frame based, are described where Frame based approach performed better. The visual quality for both the approaches is the same as that of the full search. To improve the selective motion estimation further, a se- lective block search technique has been proposed. The selection of the block is based on the novel approach where a motion detection module is used to provide the location of candidate blocks. Although, this approach performs a fewer number of block matching steps yet the overall processing efficiency of the system is close to a Frame based selective search. This is because of the overhead complexity added by the bounding box match- ing algorithm to locate the candidate block in the SCC. After introducing selective motion estimation approaches, another novel approach, tracker-based motion estimation has been proposed where surveillance video object motion tracker information is used to calculate the motion vec- tors. A unique motion track is calculated for each object of the surveillance video. The distance representing the displacement of the object between the current and the reference frame is taken as a value to calculate motion vectors after identifying and matching the track in the two frames. This approach performs a faster calculation of the motion vectors but it degrades the visual quality of the video depending on the nature of the movement represented by the foreground object. Finally, under the same motivation of achieving processing efficiency with- out loss in visual quality, fast full search approaches are explored. A fast search approach for multiple reference frames specific to surveillance videos has been proposed. This approach is based on considering different points between the two consecutive reference frames and then using these different points to avoid unnecessary block matching steps. This search approach is specific to sur- veillance videos with motion estimation based on multiple reference frames. REFERENCES [1] J. Gantz and D. Reinsel. (2012, Dec.). The IDC Digi- tal Universe in 2020: Big Data, Bigger Digital Shadows, and Biggest Growth in the Far East [Online]. Available: http://www.emc.com/leadership/digitaluniverse/ index. htm [2] I. E. G. Richardson, H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Com- pression: Video Coding for Next Generation Multimedia. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 2003, pp. 136–138. [3] K. Ugur, K. Andersson, A. Fuldseth, G. Bjontegaard, L. P. Endresen, J. Lainema, et al., “High performance, low complexity video coding and the emerging HEVC stand- ard,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1688–1697, Dec. 2010.
  • 5. 14 International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI) [4] X. G. Zhang, L. H. Liang, Q. Huang, and W. Gao, “An efficient coding scheme for surveillance videos captured by stationary cameras,” Proc. SPIE Visual Commun. Im- age Process., vol. 7744, pp. 77442A-1–77442A-10, Jul. 2010. [5] M. Piccardi, “Background subtraction techniques: A review,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Syst., Man Cybern., vol. 4. Oct. 2004, pp. 3099–3104. [6] R. Forchheimer and O. Fahlander, “Low bit-rate coding through animation,” in Proc. Int. Picture Coding Symp., 1983, pp. 113–114. [7] R. Forchheimer, O. Fahlander, and T. Kronander, “A semantic approach to the transmission of face images,” in Proc. Int. Picture Coding Symp., no. 10.5, Cesson-Sevi- gne, France, 1984. AUTHOR S.pushpa, Research Scholar, Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology, Anantapur, A. P, India. S. Rehana Banu, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics AndCommunication Engineering, Chiranjeevi Reddy Institute of Engineering and Technology, Anantapur, A. P, India.