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Is Linked Data something for me?

      Christophe Guéret, Clément Levallois
  eHumanities group meeting, November 22, 2012




                                                 1/
Get ready !
 Goal of today

  Learn about Linked Data



  See if that is something interesting for your activities




                                                             2/
Hands-on tutorial
 Make groups, one per table


 Pick a famous person of your choice per group


 Grab the material on http://bit.ly/ehg_tutorial or
catch a USB stick




                                                      3/
Big data, but how to get it?
  Can't always
gather all the
information
manually




                               4/
Big data, but how to get it?
 Data scattered in
different information
systems




                               5/
Big data, but how to get it?
 Data in different formats




                               6/
What if we could?
  If all data where “readable”, connections between
datasets could be made. We would simply know
more than we do today.


 “Linked data” is an attempt to do that




                                                      7/
Why is it so hard?
 Machines can not read the text and extract data




            What is the name of that person?       8/
Ouch!
  You just faced the same problem as machines:
   Can't read the document and extract the data


  Linked Data is a solution to this problem


Note: in the following we take the example of data “buried” in
webpages (html documents), but the same logic applies to other
kinds of docs (csv files, databases, your collection of pictures…)




                                                                     9/
Use case for the hands-on




                            10/
What we will do...
  Take a the webpage of a researcher (one page per
group!)


 Explain why the data in this page is “buried”


 Solve the issue by introducing some linked data
sweetness in the webpage


  Show what we gained: now, we can connect the
researchers!
                                                     11/
Template 1
 The name is in the title
 City is ambiguous




                            12/
Template 2
 The name is not visible on the page
 City is ambiguous




                                       13/
Template 3
 The name is in the description
 City is ambiguous




                                  14/
Hands-on: check out the templates
  Open the templates in a web browser and look at
their HTML source code




                                                    15/
Hands-on: check out the templates
  Change “William Smith” into a name of your own
(one name per group)
                          Change and pick another name!




                                                          16/
First part of the hands-on




                             17/
In what sense do we mean that the name of this
researcher is buried in this web page?
 There is no way for a software reading this page to guess:
   is there a name on this page?
  if so, what is this name?
  What does this name represent? What does it relate to?


 But wait, my Internet browser can read html pages,
why can’t it figure out the name of the researcher?
  Because the html code gives info about how to display
 the page, but no info about what the content means!


                                                              18/
Two roads from there…


 We could design a software that understands English
  This is the approach of natural language processing,
 statistics, etc...


 We can put extra code that tells directly to the software
what the data means
  This is the linked data approach! This extra code in html
 pages is called “RDFa”



                                                              19/
Annotate the data
 We use a VOCABULARY for these annotations
           foaf:name




                                             20/
Wait! What is that “foaf:name” ?
 It is a term from a vocabulary
  foaf:name comes from the vocabulary FOAF and is used
 to annotate the name of a person          Key concept!!!




  Vocabulary = set of unambiguous consensual
terms used to annotate pages with data


 Vocabulary are
  An agreement between data publisher and consumers
  Generally focused on particular topics                    21/
Annotate the page with the data




                                  22/
Hands-on: annotate with foaf:name
  Add the “foaf:name” annotation to the three
templates


 Step 1: declare the vocabulary FOAF
  <html xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">


 Step 2: annotate the data
  <span property="foaf:name">William Smith</span>
  Template 2 does not display the name we use a meta:
  <meta property="foaf:name" content="William Smith"/>   23/
Hands-on: extract annotations
  Use the RDFa extractor at http://bit.ly/RDFaParser
to get the annotations from the three templates


 Command line tool:
  java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template1.html
  java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template2.html
  java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template3.html


 All the three return the same result: nothing!
                                                       24/
Bingo!
  We get exactly the same result for the three
templates
  foaf:name = William Smith




                                                 25/
How this should look like now
 (here showing template 1)




                                26/
How to choose a vocabulary?
 Vocabulary => consensus


 Therefore, it is better to
  Avoid obscure vocabularies nobody knows
  Focus on well organised and maintained vocabularies


 Why did we use FOAF?
  Specialised for personal profiles and widely accepted
  W3C support & recommended for use by EU members
    http://joinup.ec.europa.eu/asset/core_person/description   27/
What vocabularies are available?
 Many are well established: FOAF, SIOC, Dublin
Core, BIBO, …


 Creating vocabularies is doable but beware that:
  New vocabularies won't necessarily gain adoption
  Need to maintain the vocabulary
  Need to host it on the Web


 A vocabulary can borrow terms from other vocabs.
                                                     28/
EU initiative
 “Core Vocabularies” from ISA program
 Combine existing terms and new ones




                                        29/
Google/Bing/Yahoo/Yandex initiative
 Vocabulary: Schema.org
 Used by search engines to extract pages' data




                                                 30/
Facebook initiative
 Vocabulary: Open graph protocol
 Used to put the “Like” buttons on pages




                                           31/
How to use a vocabulary?
 Look at the documentation, e.g.
  http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/


 Map your concepts to terms from the vocabulary
  Naam → foaf:name
  Voornaam → foaf:firstName
  Achternaam → foaf:lastName
  Werklocatie → foaf:based_near


                                                  32/
Triples and subjects
 Remember, we created this annotation
  . foaf:name "William Smith“


 But what entity has “William Smith” for a name?
  <template1.html> foaf:name "William Smith"
        Meaning: This document has for name “William Smith”




 This is a “triple” made of a subject, a predicate and an object
  Subject = <template1.html>
  Predicate = foaf:name
  Object = "William Smith"

                                                                   33/
We did not declare a subject
 This says that this is the foaf:name but does not
define a subject → Use the page name by default
              foaf:name




                                                     34/
Why does this matter?
 Subjects can be used as objects to create links
             foaf:knows                     foaf:name




 Need a common subject to group annotations

                           foaf:name
                                                   William smith


                          foaf:based_near
                                                        Durham

                                                                   35/
Picking a resource
 Need to be stable, web accessible, re-used


 Consensus again, example:
  Amsterdam: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam
  TBL: http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i


 The <C:/MyDirectory/templateX.html> are not valid
Web based, we need to change that

                                                     36/
Hands-on: set the subject
 Step 1: decide on a resource for the person
  http://example.org/william_smith
  http://myurl.com/john_doe


 Step 2: add the resource with an “about” tag in the
same span as the foaf:name
 Example:
 You had: <span property="foaf:name">
 It becomes:
 <span about="http://example.org/william_smith_page" property="foaf:name">

                                                                             37/
5-star Linked Data
 Rules (see http://5stardata.info/ ):
  Resource are valid URIs
  Machine readable data is associated to the resource
  The data contains links to other resources
 Example http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam




                                                        38/
Great! We're done now!
  We added this structured piece of data to all the
templates:
 <http://example.org/william_smith> foaf:name "William Smith"



 This data can be extracted by a software


 We can build our application that fetch persons'
name, but there are still no links between them :-/


                                                                39/
One of the new code
 All the annotated templates have their name
suffixed with “_with_name_and_subject”




                                               40/
Second part of the hands-on


    Create some links




                              41/
Creating links
 Links are used to connect two resources


 Example: William Smith knows Tim Berners-Lee
  <http://example.org/william_smith> foaf:knows
 <http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i>


 Two usages:
  Create (social) networks by connecting resources
  Disambiguate text by pointing to the exact resource
                                                        42/
Hands-on: getting social
Step 1: ask 3 other groups in this workshop for their subject
(remember, a subject is:
<span about="http://example.org/william_smith_page" property="foaf:name">

Step 2: use the 3 subjects you got to annotate the links
Example:

I know
<span rel="foaf:knows" resource="http://example.org/john_doe">John Doe</span>
, and
<span rel="foaf:knows" resource="http://myUrl.com/nchomsky">Noam Chomsky</span>
, and also
<span rel="foaf:knows" resource="http://ehumanities.knaw.nl/sally_wyatt">Sally
Wyatt</span>



                                                                                  43/
Let's make some links




                        44/
Remember, there are two Durham
 One of the US, one in the UK, similar importance
 Which one is the “Durham” on the profile?




  http://sws.geonames.org/4464368   http://sws.geonames.org/2650628

                                                                      45/
Finding a resource on Geonames
  Search by name, follow the RDF link, strip out the
“/about.rdf” part




                                                       46/
Hands-on: disambiguate Durham
  Annotate “Durham” with a link to the exact
resource


 Step 1: decide on which Durham to use


 Step 2: annotate Durham with the link
  <span rel="foaf:based_near"
 about="http://example.org/william_smith"
 resource="http://sws.geonames.org/4464368">Durham</
 span>
                                                       47/
Hands-on: extract annotations
  Use the RDFa extractor at http://bit.ly/RDFaParser
to get the annotations from the three templates


 Command line tool:
  java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template1.html
  java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template2.html
  java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template3.html


 All the three return the same result!
                                                       48/
Hands-on: extract a network!
 Now use a little software from the dropBox




                                              49/
That's all for now!

(but there is more to discover: ontologies, reasoning, SPARQL, ...)




                                                                      50/

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Is linked data something for me?

  • 1. Is Linked Data something for me? Christophe Guéret, Clément Levallois eHumanities group meeting, November 22, 2012 1/
  • 2. Get ready ! Goal of today Learn about Linked Data See if that is something interesting for your activities 2/
  • 3. Hands-on tutorial Make groups, one per table Pick a famous person of your choice per group Grab the material on http://bit.ly/ehg_tutorial or catch a USB stick 3/
  • 4. Big data, but how to get it? Can't always gather all the information manually 4/
  • 5. Big data, but how to get it? Data scattered in different information systems 5/
  • 6. Big data, but how to get it? Data in different formats 6/
  • 7. What if we could? If all data where “readable”, connections between datasets could be made. We would simply know more than we do today. “Linked data” is an attempt to do that 7/
  • 8. Why is it so hard? Machines can not read the text and extract data What is the name of that person? 8/
  • 9. Ouch! You just faced the same problem as machines: Can't read the document and extract the data Linked Data is a solution to this problem Note: in the following we take the example of data “buried” in webpages (html documents), but the same logic applies to other kinds of docs (csv files, databases, your collection of pictures…) 9/
  • 10. Use case for the hands-on 10/
  • 11. What we will do... Take a the webpage of a researcher (one page per group!) Explain why the data in this page is “buried” Solve the issue by introducing some linked data sweetness in the webpage Show what we gained: now, we can connect the researchers! 11/
  • 12. Template 1 The name is in the title City is ambiguous 12/
  • 13. Template 2 The name is not visible on the page City is ambiguous 13/
  • 14. Template 3 The name is in the description City is ambiguous 14/
  • 15. Hands-on: check out the templates Open the templates in a web browser and look at their HTML source code 15/
  • 16. Hands-on: check out the templates Change “William Smith” into a name of your own (one name per group) Change and pick another name! 16/
  • 17. First part of the hands-on 17/
  • 18. In what sense do we mean that the name of this researcher is buried in this web page? There is no way for a software reading this page to guess: is there a name on this page? if so, what is this name? What does this name represent? What does it relate to? But wait, my Internet browser can read html pages, why can’t it figure out the name of the researcher? Because the html code gives info about how to display the page, but no info about what the content means! 18/
  • 19. Two roads from there… We could design a software that understands English This is the approach of natural language processing, statistics, etc... We can put extra code that tells directly to the software what the data means This is the linked data approach! This extra code in html pages is called “RDFa” 19/
  • 20. Annotate the data We use a VOCABULARY for these annotations foaf:name 20/
  • 21. Wait! What is that “foaf:name” ? It is a term from a vocabulary foaf:name comes from the vocabulary FOAF and is used to annotate the name of a person Key concept!!! Vocabulary = set of unambiguous consensual terms used to annotate pages with data Vocabulary are An agreement between data publisher and consumers Generally focused on particular topics 21/
  • 22. Annotate the page with the data 22/
  • 23. Hands-on: annotate with foaf:name Add the “foaf:name” annotation to the three templates Step 1: declare the vocabulary FOAF <html xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"> Step 2: annotate the data <span property="foaf:name">William Smith</span> Template 2 does not display the name we use a meta: <meta property="foaf:name" content="William Smith"/> 23/
  • 24. Hands-on: extract annotations Use the RDFa extractor at http://bit.ly/RDFaParser to get the annotations from the three templates Command line tool: java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template1.html java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template2.html java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template3.html All the three return the same result: nothing! 24/
  • 25. Bingo! We get exactly the same result for the three templates foaf:name = William Smith 25/
  • 26. How this should look like now (here showing template 1) 26/
  • 27. How to choose a vocabulary? Vocabulary => consensus Therefore, it is better to Avoid obscure vocabularies nobody knows Focus on well organised and maintained vocabularies Why did we use FOAF? Specialised for personal profiles and widely accepted W3C support & recommended for use by EU members http://joinup.ec.europa.eu/asset/core_person/description 27/
  • 28. What vocabularies are available? Many are well established: FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, BIBO, … Creating vocabularies is doable but beware that: New vocabularies won't necessarily gain adoption Need to maintain the vocabulary Need to host it on the Web A vocabulary can borrow terms from other vocabs. 28/
  • 29. EU initiative “Core Vocabularies” from ISA program Combine existing terms and new ones 29/
  • 30. Google/Bing/Yahoo/Yandex initiative Vocabulary: Schema.org Used by search engines to extract pages' data 30/
  • 31. Facebook initiative Vocabulary: Open graph protocol Used to put the “Like” buttons on pages 31/
  • 32. How to use a vocabulary? Look at the documentation, e.g. http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/ Map your concepts to terms from the vocabulary Naam → foaf:name Voornaam → foaf:firstName Achternaam → foaf:lastName Werklocatie → foaf:based_near 32/
  • 33. Triples and subjects Remember, we created this annotation . foaf:name "William Smith“ But what entity has “William Smith” for a name? <template1.html> foaf:name "William Smith" Meaning: This document has for name “William Smith” This is a “triple” made of a subject, a predicate and an object Subject = <template1.html> Predicate = foaf:name Object = "William Smith" 33/
  • 34. We did not declare a subject This says that this is the foaf:name but does not define a subject → Use the page name by default foaf:name 34/
  • 35. Why does this matter? Subjects can be used as objects to create links foaf:knows foaf:name Need a common subject to group annotations foaf:name William smith foaf:based_near Durham 35/
  • 36. Picking a resource Need to be stable, web accessible, re-used Consensus again, example: Amsterdam: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam TBL: http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i The <C:/MyDirectory/templateX.html> are not valid Web based, we need to change that 36/
  • 37. Hands-on: set the subject Step 1: decide on a resource for the person http://example.org/william_smith http://myurl.com/john_doe Step 2: add the resource with an “about” tag in the same span as the foaf:name Example: You had: <span property="foaf:name"> It becomes: <span about="http://example.org/william_smith_page" property="foaf:name"> 37/
  • 38. 5-star Linked Data Rules (see http://5stardata.info/ ): Resource are valid URIs Machine readable data is associated to the resource The data contains links to other resources Example http://dbpedia.org/resource/Amsterdam 38/
  • 39. Great! We're done now! We added this structured piece of data to all the templates: <http://example.org/william_smith> foaf:name "William Smith" This data can be extracted by a software We can build our application that fetch persons' name, but there are still no links between them :-/ 39/
  • 40. One of the new code All the annotated templates have their name suffixed with “_with_name_and_subject” 40/
  • 41. Second part of the hands-on Create some links 41/
  • 42. Creating links Links are used to connect two resources Example: William Smith knows Tim Berners-Lee <http://example.org/william_smith> foaf:knows <http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i> Two usages: Create (social) networks by connecting resources Disambiguate text by pointing to the exact resource 42/
  • 43. Hands-on: getting social Step 1: ask 3 other groups in this workshop for their subject (remember, a subject is: <span about="http://example.org/william_smith_page" property="foaf:name"> Step 2: use the 3 subjects you got to annotate the links Example: I know <span rel="foaf:knows" resource="http://example.org/john_doe">John Doe</span> , and <span rel="foaf:knows" resource="http://myUrl.com/nchomsky">Noam Chomsky</span> , and also <span rel="foaf:knows" resource="http://ehumanities.knaw.nl/sally_wyatt">Sally Wyatt</span> 43/
  • 44. Let's make some links 44/
  • 45. Remember, there are two Durham One of the US, one in the UK, similar importance Which one is the “Durham” on the profile? http://sws.geonames.org/4464368 http://sws.geonames.org/2650628 45/
  • 46. Finding a resource on Geonames Search by name, follow the RDF link, strip out the “/about.rdf” part 46/
  • 47. Hands-on: disambiguate Durham Annotate “Durham” with a link to the exact resource Step 1: decide on which Durham to use Step 2: annotate Durham with the link <span rel="foaf:based_near" about="http://example.org/william_smith" resource="http://sws.geonames.org/4464368">Durham</ span> 47/
  • 48. Hands-on: extract annotations Use the RDFa extractor at http://bit.ly/RDFaParser to get the annotations from the three templates Command line tool: java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template1.html java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template2.html java -jar RDFaParser-0.0.6.jar template3.html All the three return the same result! 48/
  • 49. Hands-on: extract a network! Now use a little software from the dropBox 49/
  • 50. That's all for now! (but there is more to discover: ontologies, reasoning, SPARQL, ...) 50/