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Introduction to
Oil and Gas Industry
Upstream Midstream Downstream
Introduction to
Oil and Gas Industry
Upstream Midstream Downstream
By Puput Aryanto Risanto
rev.1 17 January 2017
Oil & Gas in Our Life
• Transportation Fuel (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet/aviation fuel, marine fuel
oil/MFO, natural gas vehicle/NGV, high speed diesel/HSD)
• Power Plant Fuel (natural gas, compressed natural gas/CNG, diesel
fuel)
• Household Fuel (heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas/LPG, kerosene)
• Petrochemical Products (plastic, fertilizer, synthetic fiber, synthetic
rubber, insecticides, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paints, creams,
solvent, industrial chemical, industrial gas, etc)
• Asphalt / bitumen
FERTILIZER
GASOLINE
LUBRICANTS
SYNTHETIC
RUBBER
PLASTICS PESTICIDES
HEATING
Oil & Gas Formation
• It is formed from the
accumulation of decomposition
of plants and marine animals
which died million years ago and
trapped beneath the ground
under high pressure and
temperatures.
• Oil & gas compound consist of
Carbon & Hydrogen Atom, that’s
why it is called HYDROCARBON.
• Crude Oil is liquid while Natural
Gas is gaseous hydrocarbon at
room temperature.
Dead organism
get trapped
underground
High Temperature & Pressure
transform buried dead
organism into oil & gas
Oil & gas is also called PETROLEUM
which means “Rock Oil” in Latin word
Oil & Gas Early History
• Oil & gas had been used for centuries like
ancient peoples worshipped sacred fires
(eternal flame) fuelled by natural gas
seeping to the surface through pores and
cracks.
• About 6000 BC, thick gummy asphalt was
used to waterproof boats and heat homes.
• About 3000 BC, the Egyptians used asphalt
in the construction of the pyramids, to
grease axles of the Pharaoh’s chariots, and
as an embalming agent for mummies &
medicines.
• When whale oil (extracted from whale fat),
the main source of lamp fuel in early 1980,
became scarce, a new source is introduced
by distilling natural petroleum seeps and
coal into lamp oil / kerosene.
Eternal flame at
Ategash Fire Temple,
Baku Azerbaijan
Birth of Modern Oil & Gas Industry
• First refinery begun in 1846 when Abraham Gessner
of Nova Scotia, Canada, invented a process to
produce kerosene for lamp from coal.
• In 1858, James Miller Williams , a 39 year old
carriage maker from Ontario, Canada, made the first
major commercial oil discovery in North America at
Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada.
• He struck oil at a depth of only 18 m by drilling in
"gum beds" in Lambton County, 25 km southeast of
Sarnia. Williams refined the oil he produced and
sold the product as lamp oil.
• In 1859, Colonel Edwin L. Drake discovered oil in
Titusville, Pennsylvania by drilling to 21 m. This
discovery marked the birth of the modern
petroleum industry in the United States.
• The invention of the gasoline engine (1885) and
diesel engine (1892) boosted the refineries industry
to produce gasoline and diesel fuel.
Drake Well
Oil & Gas Industry Characteristics
• Large investment, can reach billion of
US$.
• High risk in all aspects (people safety,
environment, investment, reputation).
• High reward/return.
• Long term business from initial
investment until revenue generated,
even longer until break even point (can
be more than 20 years).
• Complex operation, involves multi
discipline experts from both technical
and non-technical.
• Strategic value (economic & politic).
• Global impact.
Upstream
Finding, lifting, and
processing oil & gas from
subsurface into surface and
ready for transportation.
Also known as Exploration
and Production (E&P).
Midstream
Transportation and
storage of crude oil and
natural gas from E&P
plant for further
processing by pipeline,
railway, road, or tanker.
Downstream
Further processing of crude
oil and natural gas into
useful final product or raw
material for other industry.
Also known as Refining &
Marketing (R&M)
Oil & Gas Industry Sector
UPSTREAMUPSTREAM
Upstream Oil & Gas Life Cycle
Licensing
• Activities to offer the right to manage an area (block)
which is expected to contain oil & gas
Exploration
• Activities to search for oil & gas deposits on the reservoir
beneath the earth surface within block’s boundary
Appraisal
• Activities to define the oil & gas volume and characteristic
more precisely after discovery
Development
• Activities to build the subsurface & surface facilities to
produce oil & gas safely & efficiently
Production
• Activities to extract, process, and export oil & gas as per
contract agreement
Abandonment
• Activities to plug wells permanently, remove surface
facilities, and restore the block as per initial state
Licensing Round
• Government has the area (including oil & gas beneath the
surface) but no resource (money, man power, technology),
while Oil Company have the resource, but not the area.
• Government, via host authority (government regulatory body
or national oil company) will offer certain area known as
“block” to oil companies in an activity called “Licensing Round.”
• Government will offer raw data & petroleum agreement to
attract oil companies to invest for exploration & production
(E&P) activities.
• Oil companies will compete each other in a bidding / tender
stage to obtain the right for E&P in a certain block. The winner
will be granted the right (contract) to manage E&P activities in
a certain period and get compensation based on the
agreement.
• In this stage, government need to attract investment by
offering “interesting package” while keep protecting the
national interest.
Exploration & Appraisal
Exploration
• Activities to find oil & gas prospect
beneath the earth surface by
means of gravity survey, magnetic
survey, and seismic reflection
survey.
• Once prospect is likely to be found,
exploration (wildcat) drilling will be
conducted to determine the
presence of oil & gas reserve.
• Most wildcat drilling fail to find oil
& gas (dry hole), only few (less
than 25%) hits oil & gas layer
(discovery).
• After discovery, more drilling is
required to “appraise” the
reservoir.
Appraisal
• It is required to determine the
reservoir size which define the
volume & to get better
characteristic of oil & gas.
• Volume will be measured in
million barrels (MMbbls) oil and
billion cubic feet (Bcf) gas, both
original in place volume (Oil
Initial In Place / OIIP and Gas
Initial In Place / GIIP) &
recoverable volume.
• Important characteristic includes
pressure, temperature, oil
viscosity, hydrocarbon
composition,
compartmentalization, and
contaminants.
Seismic & Drilling
1. Seismic
2. Seismic
2D imaging
3. Further
modelling
4. Drilling
Reserve Type
• Once appraisal conducted, it will determine the quantity of petroleum which can be
recovered / produced. Typically, only 30% of oil and 70% of gas can be recovered,
can be more if advance technique applied like water injection & submersible pump.
• Proved (1P) : Quantities of oil and gas, which, by analysis of geoscience and
engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically
producible–from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing
economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations. At least 90%
probability (P90) that the quantities actually recovered will be equal or exceed the
estimate.
• Unproved : Reserves are based on technical data similar to that used in estimates of
proved reserves; but technical, contractual, economic, or regulatory uncertainties
preclude such reserves being classified as proved. Unproved reserves may be further
classified as probable reserves and possible reserves.
– Possible (2P) : Unproved reserves which analysis of technical data suggests are
more likely than not to be recoverable. At least a 50% probability (P50) that the
quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the sum of estimated proved
plus probable reserves.
– Probable (3P) : Unproved reserve which analysis of technical data suggests are
less likely to be recoverable than probable reserves. At least a 10% probability
(P10) that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the sum of
estimated proved plus probable plus possible reserves.
Field Development Plan (FDP)
• Once the estimated recoverable value is determined, the Company will prepare a plan
to monetize the reserve, called Field Development Plan / Plan of Development (PoD).
• FDP shall contain at least :
Subsurface characteristic (OIIP, GIIP, contaminants, etc)
Recoverable reserve in P90-P50-P10
Production Rate & Field Life
Production Facilities (number & type of wells, surface facilities type)
Project Plan (including Cost, Schedule, Quality)
Project Economics
Other aspects like Risk, Health Safety Environment (HSE)
• FDP shall be approved by the host authority. Once approved, the Company will
conduct a tender for facilities development.
• In the same time, Company will secure the hydrocarbon sales, especially gas, known
as Gas Sales Agreement (GSA). While for oil, it will be absorbed by the market as per
oil price trend.
• Once the GSA secured and cost of development known from proposed tender price,
the Company will further calculate the project economic. If it meet the criteria, the
Company will sanction (commit to invest money) the project, known as Final
Investment Decision (FID)
Production Facilities
• A set of equipment to
extract (lift) oil & gas
from subsurface to
surface, process, &
export it to customer
as per requirement
specified in the
contract.
• Based on the location,
it consists of
subsurface (wells) &
surface facilities.
• Optimum facilities size
will depend on
reservoir size &
contract duration
which will define the
optimum production
rate
FPSOOil tanker
Offshore
Surface
Facilities
Wells
Reservoir
Drilling & Completion (Wells)
• A well is created by drilling a hole into the earth by
using a drilling rig that rotates a drill bit.
• Once drilled, a steel pipe called casing is placed in the
hole & secured with cement. This process is
continued by using smaller drill bit & casing until
reach the reservoir target.
• After reaching the target, well must be “completed”.
The process to prepare the well to produce oil & gas
is called “completion”.
• Completion is designed to allow oil & gas to flow but
to block unwanted material like sand.
Surface Production Facilities
• Surface Facilities consist of wellhead,
processing, and exporting facilities.
• Wellhead is the top part of the wells which is
used to control the flow, protect from excessive
pressure, and interface between surface and
reservoir.
• Main processing function is to separate the
mixture of oil, gas, water, and other
contaminants (i.e. CO2, H2S) and to condition
the crude oil and natural gas as per required
sales specification.
• Once crude oil processed, it will be exported
through pipeline, oil tanker, truck, or railway.
• For natural gas, it can only be exported by
pipeline. If the volume is too big or the distance
is too far, gas has to be liquefied and exported
in liquid phase by LNG tanker.
• Based on the location, it can be placed on land
(onshore) or sea (offshore).
Offshore Facilities
• Based on the
substructure (the
structure which
supports the
equipment above
called topside),
offshore facilities is
divided into :
Bottom Supported
& Vertically
Moored
Floating & Subsea
Oil & Gas Processing Facilities
• Oil-gas-water
mixture is
separated in
separator.
• Oil will be
stabilized by
removing more
gas, then pumped
to pipeline or
FPSO.
• Gas will be treated
to remove more
liquid, then
compressed to
pipeline.
• Water will be
treated before
disposed
overboard / re-
injected into
reservoir.
Production Period
• Typical production phase start with ramp up period (increase production rate up
to peak, normally less than a year), then plateau (maintain peak for several years,
for oil production normally less than 5 years while for gas production between 5
to 10 years), then declining until reach economic limit (timing when operating
cost is higher than production revenue) or end of contractual period.
• Plateau & decline phase can be extended by applying secondary recovery (i.e. gas
injection & water injection) and tertiary recovery (i.e. chemical injection & steam
injection), however cost to benefit ratio must be carefully calculated since
secondary/tertiary recovery is more expensive than primary recovery.
Time
Plateau phase
Primary
recovery
Secondary
recovery
Tertiary recovery
Plateau
Abandonment
• The last phase in upstream
life cycle is abandonment.
• The activities comprises well
plug & abandonment (P&A)
and surface facilities
removal.
• Well must be permanently
closed and sealed, so no
more hydrocarbon can
escape to the surface.
• Surface facilities must be
removed until few meter
below seabed, or left on the
seabed as an artificial reef
after free hydrocarbon
condition reached.
• Site must be restore to as
close as its original
condition.
Special vessel to remove offshore platform
MIDSTREAMMIDSTREAM
Oil Transportation - Onshore
• Since most of the oil & gas field is located far
from the civilization, it is crucial to deliver the
crude oil & natural gas to increase its value.
• Initially, produced oil is stored inside wooden
barrel which then delivered by using horse
carriage. It is the beginning of using “barrel”
as oil volume measurement unit.
• 1 barrel = 42 US gallon = 159 liter.
• After invention of gasoline & diesel engine,
horse carriage is replaced by truck & train.
• Once the volume getting bigger and the
distance getting further, barrel method
become uneconomic and pipeline was
introduced.
• Pipeline is a long connected pipe to transfer
liquid/gas. Pipeline characteristic is mainly
defined by diameter, length, material, and
thickness.
Oil Transportation - Offshore
• Normally, offshore pipeline laid on the seabed used to convey oil from
offshore platform to onshore facility.
• However, if the distance is too far or the volume is too low, transporting
liquid via pipeline can be technically and economically challenging.
• In this case, oil will be stored offshore (by using FPSO, FSO, or subsea
storage) and then transported by using oil tanker.
Floating Production Storage Offloading
Oil Tanker
Subsea Storage
Gas Transportation
• Initially, gas is considered by-product which is only disposed
by burning or commonly known as flaring.
• Only after gas can be monetized / sold (petrochemical plant,
power plant), gas transportation is required.
• Since natural gas cannot be stored easily like liquid, produced
gas has to be delivered soon after processed by using pipeline,
either onshore or offshore.
• However, if the distance is too far and the volume is too big,
pipeline become un-economical.
• In this case, gas has to be transformed into liquid phase by
condensing it up to -162o C in atmospheric temperature to
reduce its volume by 600 times, which is known as Liquefied
Natural Gas (LNG).
• LNG can be transported in a specially designed cryogenic (very
cool) tank attached to vessel (known as LNG tanker) or truck.
LNG process
• First LNG plant was built in Ohio, US, on 1940.
• LNG plant is very large and complex, hence initially it has
to be built onshore.
• First, gas has to be purified to contain only methane
(CH4) & ethane (C2H6) since other material will freeze &
block liquefaction process.
• Then, gas is cooled down by using cooler liquid known
as refrigerant. To achieve very low temperature, cooling
is done in several stage until gas liquefied.
• LNG is stored in a tank and ready for transportation.
• After delivered to receiving facility, LNG is transformed
into gas again, known as regasification process.
Floating LNG (FLNG)
• If large gas field is located very far from shore, transporting large quantity of
gas via pipeline is technically & economically challenging.
• Small & medium size gas field located far from shore sometimes cannot
justify the large investment to built LNG plant onshore.
• Another problem with onshore LNG is land acquisition.
• Long research had been conducted to bring LNG process and export facility
into a floating platform.
• First Floating LNG project sanctioned is Shell Prelude on May 2015. It is
located on Browse Basin, 475 km from Broome, Western Australia.
3D image of Shell
Prelude FLNG with LNG
tanker along side. The
FLNG size is
approximately 4 times
football field, make it
the largest vessel ever
built so far.
DOWNSTREAMDOWNSTREAM
Downstream Industry
• A portion of the industry that is responsible for
the refining, distributing, and retail of
petroleum products, sometimes also called
Refining & Marketing (R&M).
• Refining means process the raw materials
(crude oil & natural gas) into higher value
product, either final product (ready to consume
like LPG for home cooking) or intermediate
product (raw material for further processing
like ammonia for fertilizer).
• Downstream plants include oil refineries and
petrochemical plants.
Oil Refinery
• Crude oils are not uniform, but rather are mixtures of thousands of
different compounds called hydrocarbons. Each component of each
compound has its own size, weight and boiling temperature.
• Crude oils have low value if not processed/refined.
• Petroleum refining is a physical and chemical process to transform
crude oils into useful products.
• First, crude oils are washed in a desalter and then heated.
• Next, they enter the crude fractioner (tall vertical column) which
separate the oil components based on each component’s boiling point
without chemical reaction.
• From crude fractioner, crude components are further processed,
sometimes involving chemical reaction, to create higher value products.
Simplified Oil Refinery Diagram
Refinery Products :
• Light distillates :
Liquid Petroleum Gas
(LPG)
Gasoline (Petrol)
Naphtha (flammable
liquid hydrocarbon
mixtures)
• Middle distillates :
Kerosene
Diesel Fuel
Heating Oil
Light Fuel Oil
• Heavy distillates :
Heavy Fuel Oil
Bunker Fuel Oil
Asphalt
More Complex Oil Refinery Diagram
Petrochemical
• It is a chemical product derived from petroleum.
• Primary petrochemical are divided into 3 groups based on their chemical structures :
Olefins includes ethylene (C2H4), propylene (C3H6), and butadiene (C4H6).
Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industry chemicals and
plastic products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Olefin is
produced by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fraction or steam cracking
of natural gas liquid.
Aromatics includes benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and xylenes (C8H10) or
BTX. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents. Benzene
and toluene is used in making polyurethanes. Xylenes is used to produce
plastics and synthetic fibers. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming
of naphtha.
Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) used
to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer
urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
•
ethylene propylene butadiene
benzene toluene xylene ammonia methanol
or
Petrochemical Simplified Diagram
Fluid Catalytic Cracking
is a chemical process
using liquid catalyst to
create new, smaller
molecules from larger
molecules (cracking) to
make gasoline and
distillate fuels.
Steam Cracking is a
chemical process using
steam to thermally
cracked the feedstock
into lighter
hydrocarbon.
Marketing
• Downstream consumers includes commercial and retail consumers.
• Commercial consumers includes petrochemical & industrial
manufacturers, utilities (especially power plant), transportation
fleets (airlines, trucks, vessels), and municipalities.
• Downstream industry may also only involve in distribution and sales
of petroleum product, either to commercial or retail consumer,
without having any plant.
• Downstream product pricing, especially mass product like gasoline,
highly depends on oil price. However, specialized product like racing
lubricant is less sensitive to oil price.
Oil & Gas Industry Sector Boundary
• Actually, the boundary between upstream, midstream,
and downstream is sometimes not clear / gray area.
• Pipeline from upstream industry to downstream industry
may be owned by upstream company or independent
midstream company.
• LNG industry is normally considered midstream or
downstream industry, however with FLNG revolution, it is
now part of upstream sector.
• Due to large investment & complex requirement,
normally a company only involve in one sector only,
however some very large companies involve in upstream-
midstream-downstream sector, known as integrated oil &
gas companies, i.e. Shell, ExxonMobil, and Petronas.
Thank YouThank You
About the Author
Puput Aryanto Risanto , PMP is a Project
Management Professional certified Sr.
Project Engineer with more than 12 years
experience in Oil & Gas industry. Currently
he is working for Premier Oil Natuna Sea
B.V. in Jakarta, Indonesia. Previously, he
worked for Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd. at KL,
Premier Oil Natuna Sea B.V. at Jakarta and
Total E&P Indonesie at Balikpapan,
Indonesia. His expertise included project
engineering & management, field
development, joint venture management,
EPCIC management, and electrical
engineering-construction-inspection. He
can be contacted at email
aryantorisanto@yahoo.com or linkedin
Puput Aryanto Risanto.

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Introduction to Oil and Gas Industry - Upstream Midstream Downstream

  • 1. Introduction to Oil and Gas Industry Upstream Midstream Downstream Introduction to Oil and Gas Industry Upstream Midstream Downstream By Puput Aryanto Risanto rev.1 17 January 2017
  • 2. Oil & Gas in Our Life • Transportation Fuel (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet/aviation fuel, marine fuel oil/MFO, natural gas vehicle/NGV, high speed diesel/HSD) • Power Plant Fuel (natural gas, compressed natural gas/CNG, diesel fuel) • Household Fuel (heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas/LPG, kerosene) • Petrochemical Products (plastic, fertilizer, synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber, insecticides, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paints, creams, solvent, industrial chemical, industrial gas, etc) • Asphalt / bitumen FERTILIZER GASOLINE LUBRICANTS SYNTHETIC RUBBER PLASTICS PESTICIDES HEATING
  • 3. Oil & Gas Formation • It is formed from the accumulation of decomposition of plants and marine animals which died million years ago and trapped beneath the ground under high pressure and temperatures. • Oil & gas compound consist of Carbon & Hydrogen Atom, that’s why it is called HYDROCARBON. • Crude Oil is liquid while Natural Gas is gaseous hydrocarbon at room temperature. Dead organism get trapped underground High Temperature & Pressure transform buried dead organism into oil & gas Oil & gas is also called PETROLEUM which means “Rock Oil” in Latin word
  • 4. Oil & Gas Early History • Oil & gas had been used for centuries like ancient peoples worshipped sacred fires (eternal flame) fuelled by natural gas seeping to the surface through pores and cracks. • About 6000 BC, thick gummy asphalt was used to waterproof boats and heat homes. • About 3000 BC, the Egyptians used asphalt in the construction of the pyramids, to grease axles of the Pharaoh’s chariots, and as an embalming agent for mummies & medicines. • When whale oil (extracted from whale fat), the main source of lamp fuel in early 1980, became scarce, a new source is introduced by distilling natural petroleum seeps and coal into lamp oil / kerosene. Eternal flame at Ategash Fire Temple, Baku Azerbaijan
  • 5. Birth of Modern Oil & Gas Industry • First refinery begun in 1846 when Abraham Gessner of Nova Scotia, Canada, invented a process to produce kerosene for lamp from coal. • In 1858, James Miller Williams , a 39 year old carriage maker from Ontario, Canada, made the first major commercial oil discovery in North America at Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. • He struck oil at a depth of only 18 m by drilling in "gum beds" in Lambton County, 25 km southeast of Sarnia. Williams refined the oil he produced and sold the product as lamp oil. • In 1859, Colonel Edwin L. Drake discovered oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania by drilling to 21 m. This discovery marked the birth of the modern petroleum industry in the United States. • The invention of the gasoline engine (1885) and diesel engine (1892) boosted the refineries industry to produce gasoline and diesel fuel. Drake Well
  • 6. Oil & Gas Industry Characteristics • Large investment, can reach billion of US$. • High risk in all aspects (people safety, environment, investment, reputation). • High reward/return. • Long term business from initial investment until revenue generated, even longer until break even point (can be more than 20 years). • Complex operation, involves multi discipline experts from both technical and non-technical. • Strategic value (economic & politic). • Global impact.
  • 7. Upstream Finding, lifting, and processing oil & gas from subsurface into surface and ready for transportation. Also known as Exploration and Production (E&P). Midstream Transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas from E&P plant for further processing by pipeline, railway, road, or tanker. Downstream Further processing of crude oil and natural gas into useful final product or raw material for other industry. Also known as Refining & Marketing (R&M) Oil & Gas Industry Sector
  • 9. Upstream Oil & Gas Life Cycle Licensing • Activities to offer the right to manage an area (block) which is expected to contain oil & gas Exploration • Activities to search for oil & gas deposits on the reservoir beneath the earth surface within block’s boundary Appraisal • Activities to define the oil & gas volume and characteristic more precisely after discovery Development • Activities to build the subsurface & surface facilities to produce oil & gas safely & efficiently Production • Activities to extract, process, and export oil & gas as per contract agreement Abandonment • Activities to plug wells permanently, remove surface facilities, and restore the block as per initial state
  • 10. Licensing Round • Government has the area (including oil & gas beneath the surface) but no resource (money, man power, technology), while Oil Company have the resource, but not the area. • Government, via host authority (government regulatory body or national oil company) will offer certain area known as “block” to oil companies in an activity called “Licensing Round.” • Government will offer raw data & petroleum agreement to attract oil companies to invest for exploration & production (E&P) activities. • Oil companies will compete each other in a bidding / tender stage to obtain the right for E&P in a certain block. The winner will be granted the right (contract) to manage E&P activities in a certain period and get compensation based on the agreement. • In this stage, government need to attract investment by offering “interesting package” while keep protecting the national interest.
  • 11. Exploration & Appraisal Exploration • Activities to find oil & gas prospect beneath the earth surface by means of gravity survey, magnetic survey, and seismic reflection survey. • Once prospect is likely to be found, exploration (wildcat) drilling will be conducted to determine the presence of oil & gas reserve. • Most wildcat drilling fail to find oil & gas (dry hole), only few (less than 25%) hits oil & gas layer (discovery). • After discovery, more drilling is required to “appraise” the reservoir. Appraisal • It is required to determine the reservoir size which define the volume & to get better characteristic of oil & gas. • Volume will be measured in million barrels (MMbbls) oil and billion cubic feet (Bcf) gas, both original in place volume (Oil Initial In Place / OIIP and Gas Initial In Place / GIIP) & recoverable volume. • Important characteristic includes pressure, temperature, oil viscosity, hydrocarbon composition, compartmentalization, and contaminants.
  • 12. Seismic & Drilling 1. Seismic 2. Seismic 2D imaging 3. Further modelling 4. Drilling
  • 13. Reserve Type • Once appraisal conducted, it will determine the quantity of petroleum which can be recovered / produced. Typically, only 30% of oil and 70% of gas can be recovered, can be more if advance technique applied like water injection & submersible pump. • Proved (1P) : Quantities of oil and gas, which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible–from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations. At least 90% probability (P90) that the quantities actually recovered will be equal or exceed the estimate. • Unproved : Reserves are based on technical data similar to that used in estimates of proved reserves; but technical, contractual, economic, or regulatory uncertainties preclude such reserves being classified as proved. Unproved reserves may be further classified as probable reserves and possible reserves. – Possible (2P) : Unproved reserves which analysis of technical data suggests are more likely than not to be recoverable. At least a 50% probability (P50) that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the sum of estimated proved plus probable reserves. – Probable (3P) : Unproved reserve which analysis of technical data suggests are less likely to be recoverable than probable reserves. At least a 10% probability (P10) that the quantities actually recovered will equal or exceed the sum of estimated proved plus probable plus possible reserves.
  • 14. Field Development Plan (FDP) • Once the estimated recoverable value is determined, the Company will prepare a plan to monetize the reserve, called Field Development Plan / Plan of Development (PoD). • FDP shall contain at least : Subsurface characteristic (OIIP, GIIP, contaminants, etc) Recoverable reserve in P90-P50-P10 Production Rate & Field Life Production Facilities (number & type of wells, surface facilities type) Project Plan (including Cost, Schedule, Quality) Project Economics Other aspects like Risk, Health Safety Environment (HSE) • FDP shall be approved by the host authority. Once approved, the Company will conduct a tender for facilities development. • In the same time, Company will secure the hydrocarbon sales, especially gas, known as Gas Sales Agreement (GSA). While for oil, it will be absorbed by the market as per oil price trend. • Once the GSA secured and cost of development known from proposed tender price, the Company will further calculate the project economic. If it meet the criteria, the Company will sanction (commit to invest money) the project, known as Final Investment Decision (FID)
  • 15. Production Facilities • A set of equipment to extract (lift) oil & gas from subsurface to surface, process, & export it to customer as per requirement specified in the contract. • Based on the location, it consists of subsurface (wells) & surface facilities. • Optimum facilities size will depend on reservoir size & contract duration which will define the optimum production rate FPSOOil tanker Offshore Surface Facilities Wells Reservoir
  • 16. Drilling & Completion (Wells) • A well is created by drilling a hole into the earth by using a drilling rig that rotates a drill bit. • Once drilled, a steel pipe called casing is placed in the hole & secured with cement. This process is continued by using smaller drill bit & casing until reach the reservoir target. • After reaching the target, well must be “completed”. The process to prepare the well to produce oil & gas is called “completion”. • Completion is designed to allow oil & gas to flow but to block unwanted material like sand.
  • 17. Surface Production Facilities • Surface Facilities consist of wellhead, processing, and exporting facilities. • Wellhead is the top part of the wells which is used to control the flow, protect from excessive pressure, and interface between surface and reservoir. • Main processing function is to separate the mixture of oil, gas, water, and other contaminants (i.e. CO2, H2S) and to condition the crude oil and natural gas as per required sales specification. • Once crude oil processed, it will be exported through pipeline, oil tanker, truck, or railway. • For natural gas, it can only be exported by pipeline. If the volume is too big or the distance is too far, gas has to be liquefied and exported in liquid phase by LNG tanker. • Based on the location, it can be placed on land (onshore) or sea (offshore).
  • 18. Offshore Facilities • Based on the substructure (the structure which supports the equipment above called topside), offshore facilities is divided into : Bottom Supported & Vertically Moored Floating & Subsea
  • 19. Oil & Gas Processing Facilities • Oil-gas-water mixture is separated in separator. • Oil will be stabilized by removing more gas, then pumped to pipeline or FPSO. • Gas will be treated to remove more liquid, then compressed to pipeline. • Water will be treated before disposed overboard / re- injected into reservoir.
  • 20. Production Period • Typical production phase start with ramp up period (increase production rate up to peak, normally less than a year), then plateau (maintain peak for several years, for oil production normally less than 5 years while for gas production between 5 to 10 years), then declining until reach economic limit (timing when operating cost is higher than production revenue) or end of contractual period. • Plateau & decline phase can be extended by applying secondary recovery (i.e. gas injection & water injection) and tertiary recovery (i.e. chemical injection & steam injection), however cost to benefit ratio must be carefully calculated since secondary/tertiary recovery is more expensive than primary recovery. Time Plateau phase Primary recovery Secondary recovery Tertiary recovery Plateau
  • 21. Abandonment • The last phase in upstream life cycle is abandonment. • The activities comprises well plug & abandonment (P&A) and surface facilities removal. • Well must be permanently closed and sealed, so no more hydrocarbon can escape to the surface. • Surface facilities must be removed until few meter below seabed, or left on the seabed as an artificial reef after free hydrocarbon condition reached. • Site must be restore to as close as its original condition. Special vessel to remove offshore platform
  • 23. Oil Transportation - Onshore • Since most of the oil & gas field is located far from the civilization, it is crucial to deliver the crude oil & natural gas to increase its value. • Initially, produced oil is stored inside wooden barrel which then delivered by using horse carriage. It is the beginning of using “barrel” as oil volume measurement unit. • 1 barrel = 42 US gallon = 159 liter. • After invention of gasoline & diesel engine, horse carriage is replaced by truck & train. • Once the volume getting bigger and the distance getting further, barrel method become uneconomic and pipeline was introduced. • Pipeline is a long connected pipe to transfer liquid/gas. Pipeline characteristic is mainly defined by diameter, length, material, and thickness.
  • 24. Oil Transportation - Offshore • Normally, offshore pipeline laid on the seabed used to convey oil from offshore platform to onshore facility. • However, if the distance is too far or the volume is too low, transporting liquid via pipeline can be technically and economically challenging. • In this case, oil will be stored offshore (by using FPSO, FSO, or subsea storage) and then transported by using oil tanker. Floating Production Storage Offloading Oil Tanker Subsea Storage
  • 25. Gas Transportation • Initially, gas is considered by-product which is only disposed by burning or commonly known as flaring. • Only after gas can be monetized / sold (petrochemical plant, power plant), gas transportation is required. • Since natural gas cannot be stored easily like liquid, produced gas has to be delivered soon after processed by using pipeline, either onshore or offshore. • However, if the distance is too far and the volume is too big, pipeline become un-economical. • In this case, gas has to be transformed into liquid phase by condensing it up to -162o C in atmospheric temperature to reduce its volume by 600 times, which is known as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). • LNG can be transported in a specially designed cryogenic (very cool) tank attached to vessel (known as LNG tanker) or truck.
  • 26. LNG process • First LNG plant was built in Ohio, US, on 1940. • LNG plant is very large and complex, hence initially it has to be built onshore. • First, gas has to be purified to contain only methane (CH4) & ethane (C2H6) since other material will freeze & block liquefaction process. • Then, gas is cooled down by using cooler liquid known as refrigerant. To achieve very low temperature, cooling is done in several stage until gas liquefied. • LNG is stored in a tank and ready for transportation. • After delivered to receiving facility, LNG is transformed into gas again, known as regasification process.
  • 27. Floating LNG (FLNG) • If large gas field is located very far from shore, transporting large quantity of gas via pipeline is technically & economically challenging. • Small & medium size gas field located far from shore sometimes cannot justify the large investment to built LNG plant onshore. • Another problem with onshore LNG is land acquisition. • Long research had been conducted to bring LNG process and export facility into a floating platform. • First Floating LNG project sanctioned is Shell Prelude on May 2015. It is located on Browse Basin, 475 km from Broome, Western Australia. 3D image of Shell Prelude FLNG with LNG tanker along side. The FLNG size is approximately 4 times football field, make it the largest vessel ever built so far.
  • 29. Downstream Industry • A portion of the industry that is responsible for the refining, distributing, and retail of petroleum products, sometimes also called Refining & Marketing (R&M). • Refining means process the raw materials (crude oil & natural gas) into higher value product, either final product (ready to consume like LPG for home cooking) or intermediate product (raw material for further processing like ammonia for fertilizer). • Downstream plants include oil refineries and petrochemical plants.
  • 30. Oil Refinery • Crude oils are not uniform, but rather are mixtures of thousands of different compounds called hydrocarbons. Each component of each compound has its own size, weight and boiling temperature. • Crude oils have low value if not processed/refined. • Petroleum refining is a physical and chemical process to transform crude oils into useful products. • First, crude oils are washed in a desalter and then heated. • Next, they enter the crude fractioner (tall vertical column) which separate the oil components based on each component’s boiling point without chemical reaction. • From crude fractioner, crude components are further processed, sometimes involving chemical reaction, to create higher value products.
  • 31. Simplified Oil Refinery Diagram Refinery Products : • Light distillates : Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Gasoline (Petrol) Naphtha (flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures) • Middle distillates : Kerosene Diesel Fuel Heating Oil Light Fuel Oil • Heavy distillates : Heavy Fuel Oil Bunker Fuel Oil Asphalt
  • 32. More Complex Oil Refinery Diagram
  • 33. Petrochemical • It is a chemical product derived from petroleum. • Primary petrochemical are divided into 3 groups based on their chemical structures : Olefins includes ethylene (C2H4), propylene (C3H6), and butadiene (C4H6). Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industry chemicals and plastic products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Olefin is produced by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fraction or steam cracking of natural gas liquid. Aromatics includes benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and xylenes (C8H10) or BTX. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents. Benzene and toluene is used in making polyurethanes. Xylenes is used to produce plastics and synthetic fibers. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. • ethylene propylene butadiene benzene toluene xylene ammonia methanol or
  • 34. Petrochemical Simplified Diagram Fluid Catalytic Cracking is a chemical process using liquid catalyst to create new, smaller molecules from larger molecules (cracking) to make gasoline and distillate fuels. Steam Cracking is a chemical process using steam to thermally cracked the feedstock into lighter hydrocarbon.
  • 35. Marketing • Downstream consumers includes commercial and retail consumers. • Commercial consumers includes petrochemical & industrial manufacturers, utilities (especially power plant), transportation fleets (airlines, trucks, vessels), and municipalities. • Downstream industry may also only involve in distribution and sales of petroleum product, either to commercial or retail consumer, without having any plant. • Downstream product pricing, especially mass product like gasoline, highly depends on oil price. However, specialized product like racing lubricant is less sensitive to oil price.
  • 36. Oil & Gas Industry Sector Boundary • Actually, the boundary between upstream, midstream, and downstream is sometimes not clear / gray area. • Pipeline from upstream industry to downstream industry may be owned by upstream company or independent midstream company. • LNG industry is normally considered midstream or downstream industry, however with FLNG revolution, it is now part of upstream sector. • Due to large investment & complex requirement, normally a company only involve in one sector only, however some very large companies involve in upstream- midstream-downstream sector, known as integrated oil & gas companies, i.e. Shell, ExxonMobil, and Petronas.
  • 38. About the Author Puput Aryanto Risanto , PMP is a Project Management Professional certified Sr. Project Engineer with more than 12 years experience in Oil & Gas industry. Currently he is working for Premier Oil Natuna Sea B.V. in Jakarta, Indonesia. Previously, he worked for Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd. at KL, Premier Oil Natuna Sea B.V. at Jakarta and Total E&P Indonesie at Balikpapan, Indonesia. His expertise included project engineering & management, field development, joint venture management, EPCIC management, and electrical engineering-construction-inspection. He can be contacted at email aryantorisanto@yahoo.com or linkedin Puput Aryanto Risanto.