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The University of Sydney
Design: Thinking & Practice
Ricardo Sosa, PhD SFHEA
The University of Sydney
We acknowledge the tradition of
custodianship and law of the
Country on which the University of
Sydney campuses stand. We pay our
respects to those who have cared
and continue to care for Country.
“Always Was, Always Will Be”
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
Methods and Tools
http://designthinkmakebreakrepeat.com 101designmethods.com bispublishers.com
The University of Sydney
Method: Worst Possible Idea
Unlock imagination
Permission to be playful
Then pause and think…
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
Method: Worst Possible Idea
Step 1: Choose the problem space you’re addressing.
Step 2: Think of worst possible ideas to solve the problem and record them on a
sticky note. Try to think of ideas that are extremely bad, terrible, silly,
impossible, and possibly illegal!
Step 3: Share your ideas with your team.
Step 4: Review the ideas and use them to prompt a new way of thinking about the
problem. Consider:
• What are their attributes, and why do they make it a bad idea?
• What is the opposite of the bad ideas?
• How can the ideas be merged or modified?
The University of Sydney
• What is design?
• “Design thinking”
• Design practices
The University of Sydney
What is design?
Image:
Repro.
of
painting
by
Louis
Emile
Adan
(1839-1937),
copyrighted
by
Braun
&
Co.,
N.Y.,
Public
domain,
via
Wikimedia
Commons
Image:
Photo
by
Kumpan
Electric
on
Unsplash
Established + Emerging
Old + New
Crafts, Technology,
Inventions, Art
The University of Sydney
Design
https://www.carparts.com/blog/parts-of-a-car-door/
The University of Sydney
Urban Planning
Industrial Design
Architecture
Graphic Design
Mechatronic Design
Experience
Design
Interaction
Design
Systems
Design
Social
Design
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
Transformations
Organisations,
strategies,
Systems
Information,
interface,
experience
Interaction
Objects,
products
Industrial
What is design?
Mortati, M. (2022). New Design Knowledge and the Fifth Order of Design. Design Issues, 38(4), 21-34.
Images,
symbols
Graphic
The University of Sydney
What is design?
Craftsmanship Better form, function, construction
Detail Design Better aesthetic, quality, human factors
Concept Design Better ideas, integration, experiences
Problem Solving Responses to wicked problems, complex systems
Strategic Design Improved human & planet health, sustainability
The University of Sydney
Interaction Design
https://image.chewy.com/is/image/catalog/146735_PT3._AC_SL1500_V1525449469_.jpg
https://www.hope-education.co.uk/product/stationery/pens/
https://www.mdsupplies.com/medical-supplies-Exel-Insulin-Syringe-05cc-30g-x-516-FKK6HV74LT.html
The University of Sydney
Interaction Design
https://www.weitzlux.com/defective-drugs-and-devices/epipen-litigation/
https://www.auvi-q.com/hcp/about-auvi-q
The University of Sydney
Design decisions
https://www.statnews.com/2016/09/09/epipen-lack-of-innovation/
https://www.technologyreview.com/2016/09/20/157437/it-costs-30-to-make-a-diy-epipen-and-heres-the-proof/
“From 2007 to 2017 Mylan
jacked up the price of a two-pack
of EpiPens from $94 to $609”
“If you’re the monopolist… I don’t see why
there would be any pressure to innovate…
EpiPen’s flaws seem like features, not a bug” -
Nicholson Price, University of Michigan Law
School
https://www.vox.com/policy/23658275/epipen-cost-price-how-much
The University of Sydney
Transformations
Organisations,
strategies,
Systems
Information,
interface,
experience
Interaction
Objects,
products
Industrial
What is design?
Mortati, M. (2022). New Design Knowledge and the Fifth Order of Design. Design Issues, 38(4), 21-34.
Images,
symbols
Graphic
The University of Sydney
“Rocket Science” is tame
The University of Sydney
Wicked Problems
Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a
general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155-169.
Goel, V., & Pirolli, P. (1992). The structure of design
problem spaces. Cognitive Science, 16(3), 395-429.
Coyne, R. (2005). Wicked problems revisited. Design
Studies, 26(1), 5-17.
Image: Wahl (2017)
Wicked
(not Tame)
Problem
Framings
The University of Sydney
Tame Parking Problem =
More Spaces
https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/vintage-photographs-of-early-vertical-parking-garages/
https://www.melrosepaving.ca/4-important-steps-to-ensure-quality-commercial-parking-lot-paving-for-your-business/
The University of Sydney
Why do we need parking?
Who needs it? When?
How often? For how long?
Access needs?
How else may people commute?
When may they commute?
Schedules
Incentives & expectations
Real-time information
Shared modes of transport
Car sizes
Wicked Parking Problem
= ???
https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/vintage-photographs-of-early-vertical-parking-garages/
https://www.melrosepaving.ca/4-important-steps-to-ensure-quality-commercial-parking-lot-paving-for-your-business/
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
A university problem?
An education problem?
A parental problem?
A legal problem?
A police problem?
A cultural problem?
A mental health problem?
A technology problem?
The University of Sydney
Transformations
Organisations,
strategies,
Systems
Information,
interface,
experience
Interaction
Objects,
products
Industrial
What is design?
Mortati, M. (2022). New Design Knowledge and the Fifth Order of Design. Design Issues, 38(4), 21-34.
Images,
symbols
Graphic
The University of Sydney
Design as a mindset
The University of Sydney https://quotefancy.com/
The University of Sydney
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-nasa-readies-first-flight/
The University of Sydney
Design Dispositions
No “definite list”, but often identified:
1. No right/wrong answers, but more/less appropriate
2. No final solution, but some considered great in specific contexts
3. A curiosity and inquisitive mindset: What? Why? How? Who?
4. An imaginative attitude open to paradoxes: What if? So what?
5. Quantity of ideas leads to quality
6. Don’t rush to solve, understand the problem and develop your ideas
7. Seek originality but build on past and present
8. Integrate evidence with intuition
9. Suspend disbelief to imagine futures, but be ethical and responsible
10. Collaborate and learn with others
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
Design as a process
H Plattner, C Meinel & LJ Leifer (Eds.), Design Thinking: Understand–Improve–Apply. Springer.
The University of Sydney
The Double Diamond
UK Design Council
A map, not a “design
model”!
The University of Sydney
https://www.halfords.com/advice/cycling/buyers-guides/bike-helmets-buyers-guide-video
The University of Sydney
https://hovding.com/
The University of Sydney
Fuzzy Front End
https://china.xavor.com/how-we-do-it/
Research Concept Development Design Outcomes
Embrace
ambiguity
Question
assumptions
The University of Sydney
• What is design?
• Design thinking
• Design practices
The University of Sydney
Design thinking?
“A change in
worldview
facilitated
by dialogue”
(Wahl, 2017)
“It’s how it works,
not how it looks”
(S. Jobs?)
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
User Experience
The perceptions and
responses that a person
experiences as a result of
using or anticipating
use of a product, system
or service
The University of Sydney
UX and Engineering
https://www.roboticsbusinessreview.com/on-demand-webinars/overcoming-challenges-haptic-feedback-
robotic-surgery-platforms/
https://kronikare.ai/kronikare-how-does-it-work/
Surgical tools with haptic
feedback capability for training
doctors in remote areas
Patients get their wounds
scanned and assessed; it
captures wounds in UV, visible
light and thermal images.
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
UX and Engineering
The University of Sydney
Dr. Ian Malcolm:
“Yeah, but your scientists were so
preoccupied with whether or not they could,
they didn't stop to think if they should.”
https://geektyrant.com/news/jeff-goldblum-says-dr-ian-malcolm-was-nearly-cut-from-jurassic-park
http://pluspng.com/jurassic-park-png-3840.html
The University of Sydney
• What is design?
• Design thinking
• Design practices
The University of Sydney
Thinking:
Inventive
Applied
Problem solving
Practices:
Observation
Research
Testing
Collaborative
Evidence based
Iteration
Build
Design and Engineering
Engineering Design
Shared
Deductive+Inductive Reasoning
Predictable conditions
(e.g. steel beam)
Hypothesis testing
Emphasis on tech requirements
Functional
Low-risk tolerance
D+I+Abductive Reasoning
Unpredictable agents
(e.g. people)
Assumption testing
Emphasis on user requirements
Emotional & Functional
High-risk tolerance
The University of Sydney
WRONG
(We use the whole brain to be creative)
We are all creative!
The University of Sydney
Design Specialists
Educated and
trained in design,
for example, as
product designers
or architects.
Design Integrators
Designers who
have skills that go
beyond the
technical design
domains
Design Multipliers
Advocates of design
who are specialists in a
non-design domain.
They can apply design in
their domain of work.
Designpreneurs
Owners or business
developers of design
products or brands who
balance design
sensibilities with strong
business acumen.
https://www.designsingapore.org/resources/design-education-review-committee-report.html
Page 49
The University of Sydney
Sydney Design Lab
Our research explores the role of
design for speculating on the future,
and to envision, define and inform the
interactions and experiences between
people and digital and emerging
technologies.
https://design.sydney.edu.au
The University of Sydney
• What is design?
• Design thinking
• Design practices
• Questions
The University of Sydney
The University of Sydney
Design:
Thinking & Practice
Ricardo Sosa, PhD SFHEA
Sydney School of Architecture, Design &
Planning

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Intro to Design (for Engineers) at Sydney Uni

  • 1. The University of Sydney Design: Thinking & Practice Ricardo Sosa, PhD SFHEA
  • 2. The University of Sydney We acknowledge the tradition of custodianship and law of the Country on which the University of Sydney campuses stand. We pay our respects to those who have cared and continue to care for Country. “Always Was, Always Will Be”
  • 4. The University of Sydney Methods and Tools http://designthinkmakebreakrepeat.com 101designmethods.com bispublishers.com
  • 5. The University of Sydney Method: Worst Possible Idea Unlock imagination Permission to be playful Then pause and think…
  • 7. The University of Sydney Method: Worst Possible Idea Step 1: Choose the problem space you’re addressing. Step 2: Think of worst possible ideas to solve the problem and record them on a sticky note. Try to think of ideas that are extremely bad, terrible, silly, impossible, and possibly illegal! Step 3: Share your ideas with your team. Step 4: Review the ideas and use them to prompt a new way of thinking about the problem. Consider: • What are their attributes, and why do they make it a bad idea? • What is the opposite of the bad ideas? • How can the ideas be merged or modified?
  • 8. The University of Sydney • What is design? • “Design thinking” • Design practices
  • 9. The University of Sydney What is design? Image: Repro. of painting by Louis Emile Adan (1839-1937), copyrighted by Braun & Co., N.Y., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons Image: Photo by Kumpan Electric on Unsplash Established + Emerging Old + New Crafts, Technology, Inventions, Art
  • 10. The University of Sydney Design https://www.carparts.com/blog/parts-of-a-car-door/
  • 11. The University of Sydney Urban Planning Industrial Design Architecture Graphic Design Mechatronic Design Experience Design Interaction Design Systems Design Social Design
  • 13. The University of Sydney Transformations Organisations, strategies, Systems Information, interface, experience Interaction Objects, products Industrial What is design? Mortati, M. (2022). New Design Knowledge and the Fifth Order of Design. Design Issues, 38(4), 21-34. Images, symbols Graphic
  • 14. The University of Sydney What is design? Craftsmanship Better form, function, construction Detail Design Better aesthetic, quality, human factors Concept Design Better ideas, integration, experiences Problem Solving Responses to wicked problems, complex systems Strategic Design Improved human & planet health, sustainability
  • 15. The University of Sydney Interaction Design https://image.chewy.com/is/image/catalog/146735_PT3._AC_SL1500_V1525449469_.jpg https://www.hope-education.co.uk/product/stationery/pens/ https://www.mdsupplies.com/medical-supplies-Exel-Insulin-Syringe-05cc-30g-x-516-FKK6HV74LT.html
  • 16. The University of Sydney Interaction Design https://www.weitzlux.com/defective-drugs-and-devices/epipen-litigation/ https://www.auvi-q.com/hcp/about-auvi-q
  • 17. The University of Sydney Design decisions https://www.statnews.com/2016/09/09/epipen-lack-of-innovation/ https://www.technologyreview.com/2016/09/20/157437/it-costs-30-to-make-a-diy-epipen-and-heres-the-proof/ “From 2007 to 2017 Mylan jacked up the price of a two-pack of EpiPens from $94 to $609” “If you’re the monopolist… I don’t see why there would be any pressure to innovate… EpiPen’s flaws seem like features, not a bug” - Nicholson Price, University of Michigan Law School https://www.vox.com/policy/23658275/epipen-cost-price-how-much
  • 18. The University of Sydney Transformations Organisations, strategies, Systems Information, interface, experience Interaction Objects, products Industrial What is design? Mortati, M. (2022). New Design Knowledge and the Fifth Order of Design. Design Issues, 38(4), 21-34. Images, symbols Graphic
  • 19. The University of Sydney “Rocket Science” is tame
  • 20. The University of Sydney Wicked Problems Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155-169. Goel, V., & Pirolli, P. (1992). The structure of design problem spaces. Cognitive Science, 16(3), 395-429. Coyne, R. (2005). Wicked problems revisited. Design Studies, 26(1), 5-17. Image: Wahl (2017) Wicked (not Tame) Problem Framings
  • 21. The University of Sydney Tame Parking Problem = More Spaces https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/vintage-photographs-of-early-vertical-parking-garages/ https://www.melrosepaving.ca/4-important-steps-to-ensure-quality-commercial-parking-lot-paving-for-your-business/
  • 22. The University of Sydney Why do we need parking? Who needs it? When? How often? For how long? Access needs? How else may people commute? When may they commute? Schedules Incentives & expectations Real-time information Shared modes of transport Car sizes Wicked Parking Problem = ??? https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/vintage-photographs-of-early-vertical-parking-garages/ https://www.melrosepaving.ca/4-important-steps-to-ensure-quality-commercial-parking-lot-paving-for-your-business/
  • 24. The University of Sydney A university problem? An education problem? A parental problem? A legal problem? A police problem? A cultural problem? A mental health problem? A technology problem?
  • 25. The University of Sydney Transformations Organisations, strategies, Systems Information, interface, experience Interaction Objects, products Industrial What is design? Mortati, M. (2022). New Design Knowledge and the Fifth Order of Design. Design Issues, 38(4), 21-34. Images, symbols Graphic
  • 26. The University of Sydney Design as a mindset
  • 27. The University of Sydney https://quotefancy.com/
  • 28. The University of Sydney https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-nasa-readies-first-flight/
  • 29. The University of Sydney Design Dispositions No “definite list”, but often identified: 1. No right/wrong answers, but more/less appropriate 2. No final solution, but some considered great in specific contexts 3. A curiosity and inquisitive mindset: What? Why? How? Who? 4. An imaginative attitude open to paradoxes: What if? So what? 5. Quantity of ideas leads to quality 6. Don’t rush to solve, understand the problem and develop your ideas 7. Seek originality but build on past and present 8. Integrate evidence with intuition 9. Suspend disbelief to imagine futures, but be ethical and responsible 10. Collaborate and learn with others
  • 31. The University of Sydney Design as a process H Plattner, C Meinel & LJ Leifer (Eds.), Design Thinking: Understand–Improve–Apply. Springer.
  • 32. The University of Sydney The Double Diamond UK Design Council A map, not a “design model”!
  • 33. The University of Sydney https://www.halfords.com/advice/cycling/buyers-guides/bike-helmets-buyers-guide-video
  • 34. The University of Sydney https://hovding.com/
  • 35. The University of Sydney Fuzzy Front End https://china.xavor.com/how-we-do-it/ Research Concept Development Design Outcomes Embrace ambiguity Question assumptions
  • 36. The University of Sydney • What is design? • Design thinking • Design practices
  • 37. The University of Sydney Design thinking? “A change in worldview facilitated by dialogue” (Wahl, 2017) “It’s how it works, not how it looks” (S. Jobs?)
  • 39. The University of Sydney User Experience The perceptions and responses that a person experiences as a result of using or anticipating use of a product, system or service
  • 40. The University of Sydney UX and Engineering https://www.roboticsbusinessreview.com/on-demand-webinars/overcoming-challenges-haptic-feedback- robotic-surgery-platforms/ https://kronikare.ai/kronikare-how-does-it-work/ Surgical tools with haptic feedback capability for training doctors in remote areas Patients get their wounds scanned and assessed; it captures wounds in UV, visible light and thermal images.
  • 42. The University of Sydney UX and Engineering
  • 43. The University of Sydney Dr. Ian Malcolm: “Yeah, but your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should.” https://geektyrant.com/news/jeff-goldblum-says-dr-ian-malcolm-was-nearly-cut-from-jurassic-park http://pluspng.com/jurassic-park-png-3840.html
  • 44. The University of Sydney • What is design? • Design thinking • Design practices
  • 45. The University of Sydney Thinking: Inventive Applied Problem solving Practices: Observation Research Testing Collaborative Evidence based Iteration Build Design and Engineering Engineering Design Shared Deductive+Inductive Reasoning Predictable conditions (e.g. steel beam) Hypothesis testing Emphasis on tech requirements Functional Low-risk tolerance D+I+Abductive Reasoning Unpredictable agents (e.g. people) Assumption testing Emphasis on user requirements Emotional & Functional High-risk tolerance
  • 46. The University of Sydney WRONG (We use the whole brain to be creative) We are all creative!
  • 47. The University of Sydney Design Specialists Educated and trained in design, for example, as product designers or architects. Design Integrators Designers who have skills that go beyond the technical design domains Design Multipliers Advocates of design who are specialists in a non-design domain. They can apply design in their domain of work. Designpreneurs Owners or business developers of design products or brands who balance design sensibilities with strong business acumen. https://www.designsingapore.org/resources/design-education-review-committee-report.html
  • 48. Page 49 The University of Sydney Sydney Design Lab Our research explores the role of design for speculating on the future, and to envision, define and inform the interactions and experiences between people and digital and emerging technologies. https://design.sydney.edu.au
  • 49. The University of Sydney • What is design? • Design thinking • Design practices • Questions
  • 51. The University of Sydney Design: Thinking & Practice Ricardo Sosa, PhD SFHEA Sydney School of Architecture, Design & Planning

Editor's Notes

  1. The time when my father (a Mech Eng) designed and built an interactive toy for a one-year old (me) and how I ended up in the hospital…
  2. There are good books out there that people can use “to design”, but…
  3. The worst possible idea method is a way to unlock creative thinking by encouraging terrible ideas. It sounds quite fun doesn’t it – and that’s important. Because when you’re having fun, your ideas will flow easier, you’ll be less stressed about coming up with the best idea. In a group setting, it can often be difficult for people to generate ideas, this may be because people are too stuck in a particular way of thinking, or perhaps they don’t want to be judged in front of their peers. Giving people the permission to come up with their worst possible ideas creates a playful and safe environment, it can also energise the room and enables lateral thinking. Some practitioners have also reported that this method far outperforms any other brainstorming method – so it’s definitely worth a try.
  4. As you run through this activity, you’ll generate lots of bad ideas. Importantly, it will most likely help you to generate some good ideas too! Don’t throw anything away – you never know when a bad idea will help you.
  5. These are the three areas I'll cover today - with some time for questions at the end. Some of my designs (since 1990)
  6. As a discipline, design can understood as both established and emerging. That sounds contradictory, how can you be old and new? But whilst the discipline of design builds on a strong traditional foundation – there are many parts of it that are new, that are exploratory, and are pushing boundaries of what it means to design today. Taking a step back in time, design has a long history of practice, and in particular studio practice. Designers were traditionally trained in a master and apprentice model, with a heavy focus on a craft-based practice of making. When I did my undergraduate in design in the late 1990’s, early 2000’s, there were three offerings available: industrial design, textile design and product design – each underpinned by design as a craft based practice. Our days were spent in workshops, studios and manufacturing labs, we were fabricating, building and iterating our design ideas. What scholar Tim Ingold describes as Thinking through making. However, over the last 20 years, how we understand design has shifted significantly. And at the same time, the landscape of design education has exploded.
  7. Design: everyday, interfaces, mental models…
  8. Established and emerging design fields…
  9. Cross-disciplinary design efforts. Not easy but worth it…
  10. From focus on things to focus on tools to focus on processes to focus on values From tangible to physically intangible to mentally intangible
  11. Another way of thinking about design is with this model, adapted from Owen shows 5 levels of design – each with a desire to create and improve.
  12. These are just two of the frames or models we can use for considering design – but we can also look at how the word design is understood. For me, the most exciting and emergent space for design at the moment is in this last description here, the space of activity and agency. This is where design is applied for creative problem-solving, using visual methods.
  13. This is an effective use of metaphor - we don’t need instructions on how to use the syringe as it’s in our existing mental models – it’s the same as the pen.
  14. Mylan's EpiPen is an example of a broken metaphor The cap is located at one end and the needle is located at the opposite end. People using the epipen make the assumption that the needle is under the cap, inadvertently pushing their fingers directly into the needle, resulting in accidental auto-injection. Now you might be looking at the device and thinking, the end is tapered, I would not make that mistake. However, looking at the device critically in a presentation and using the device in a frantic, live or death scenario are two very different situations.
  15. Expanding our view, not all design decisions are made by designers, and we’d need to understand the system to evaluate and to design better products
  16. From focus on things to focus on tools to focus on processes to focus on values From tangible to physically intangible to mentally intangible
  17. Why rocket science is “tame”… We don’t mean “easy”! It just means that it is possible to gather all relevant information to anticipate things well in advance. It’s extremely hard to get it right, but “in principle” they are “solvable”
  18. “Wicked problems” are different, they are undefinable, unpredictable, they change as you attempt to solve them. Unlike “rocket science” where most important aspects are fully describable or determinate.
  19. But the problem is seldom tame or wicked. It’s the problem framing…
  20. As soon as you start questioning and expanding, you start dealing with the “wickedness” of problems in the socio-technical sphere
  21. Designing cars, designing roads, designing pedestrian crossings, etc… require wicked problem framing… and it’s not easy because changing one small thing in one product or service tends to have effects in other parts of the system, often over time, often indirect, often unexpected, and often undesired
  22. Often wicked problems are social or cultural in nature. The survey was conducted on behalf of all universities in Australia to help them understand the scale and nature of student experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault and to ask how universities can better support all students.  University problem We need better resources, better support services. Then you start to think, actually, maybe it’s more than resourcing Education problem – should we be discussing consent and appropriate sexual behaviour earlier – maybe in high school or primary school. Are our teachers equipped to teach young people the knowledge and skills required? And then what is the role of parents? Is it a Parental Problem? their responsibility to ensure their children learn to act appropriately and responsibly? Is it popular culture, is it social media? Is it a technology problem? And what is the Government doing? Where are the policies and strategies to help improve these statistics? Is it a Policy Problem? For a challenge like this – there is no easy solution. There are many perspectives, some competing and opposing and some louder than others. That doesn’t mean that it shouldn’t be tackled – we just need to start somewhere.
  23. From focus on things to focus on tools to focus on processes to focus on values From tangible to physically intangible to mentally intangible
  24. The mindsets that were developed in design over the XX century turns out can be very useful to approach wicked/complex problems in the XXI century
  25. Like Oscar Wilde said, “disobedience” leads to “progress”, but there’s an art and science to this, what “design” deals with…
  26. The Mars helicopter in Ingenuity was “disobedient”…
  27. A few, but these aren’t all
  28. A key disposition: multiple professional identities
  29. A design process is a way in which design is used or applied – many of the models we see emerge are contextual, they’re created for specific contexts or settings in education, in research, and in industry. Let’s have a look at three of the most common approaches now – some of these might be familiar to you.
  30. Perhaps the most well known is the double diamond –UK Design Council in 2005. One of the most common mistakes people make in this process, and indeed in most design processes is to jump into problem-solving straightaway. One of the most important design activities is to understand what that problem is in the first place. This requires us to really dig deep to consider problem spaces from as many perspectives as possible. In design we might also call this problem framing. So go back to the wicked problem I mentioned earlier – we can easily see that how that problem is understood differently by the different stakeholders involved. So young people who have experienced inappropriate behaviour would have one perspective, or one frame. Support services or emergency services will have an other frame. Policy makers who are deciding where Government spending will be allocated will have another alternative frame. In design, it’s not until we make explicit all these frames and take them into account that we can fully define the problem. Most of the time, this happens at the centre of the two diamonds — when we have a rigorous and deep enough understanding of a problem that feels ready to be solved.
  31. The first diamond can lead to identifying opportunities to transform bicycle helmets, perhaps for specific people, specific use scenarios, etc.
  32. Hovding is a response (from students now entrepreneurs) to rethink what a bike helmet can be
  33. This model describes the early creative phases of a design process These early stages are typically ill-defined. It’s a period of extreme exploration that aims to articulate the central challenges and opportunities, and to outline what can be designed. We have to disregard our assumptions and the mental models that we use to understand the world around us. We have to open our minds to new ideas, to push beyond our first ideas to think in new and alternative ways. 
  34. New ways of thinking…. so is this what we understand as design thinking?
  35. Design thinking is often referred to as an iterative process in which people seek to understand and redesign problems in a creative way – to think outside the box. This I can identify with – and I see why this makes design thinking an attractive offer for other disciplines. However, personally I have a problem with the term design thinking. I feel that it’s been appropriated and as a result devalued over the last 10 years, maybe longer. To me, design thinking is much more than a toolkit of methods – it should be a consideration of the underpinning value system, the rigour, and the theoretical and philosophical position of the discipline. More relevant I think, and particularly for you in engineering is a specific form of design thinking.
  36. The SHB pylons: how it looks or how it works? Can we separate these?
  37. I believe that UX design should be one of the core skills of anyone engaging in design practice. UX includes all the users' emotions, beliefs, preferences, perceptions, physical and psychological responses, behaviours and accomplishments that occur before, during and after use. This image is a great example – how we intend our designs to work is often not how they are used in reality. Understanding the perspectives of users, including potential users can offer us rich insights and can help to inform our design process. I really believe this is a critical part of design today – the designer is no longer understood as the lone wolf, the sole expert with all the answers. Instead, it’s a designer role to assemble, or bring together the expertise of those who know the problem space best, and draw on those insights to design.
  38. I attended an engineering conference in Xian, in China a few years ago and saw some really engaging presentations – people working at the forefront of their fields. But each time, I was asking the same question tell me about your user studies did you engage people in the design process? Did the doctors tell you about the haptic capability they desired Did you speak to your elderly community to ask if they wanted their care to be provided by robots? Did you speak to the carers whose jobs might be displaced? Or to family members who would have to entrust their relatives to machines? The answer was always no – the researchers had some great ideas and they developed them. With little or no engagement with users, or potential users. Now, the technology was great – so for the engineers, it was a success. But imagine how much richer it could have been if they had incorporated some user research. If they had really understood the problem space, and reframed it from all these perspectives. Generated a new body of knowledge and then designed from that new position. This is where design thinking moves into design practice.
  39. After the Smartphone…
  40. Several alternatives, have they considered the true needs and wants of people? Should they? How?
  41. Engineering is often about what else can be done, often at the expense of pausing to consider what should be done, and how, for whom?
  42. And there is a reason that it’s called practice. Design is iterative, it’s about experiments, testing, and iteration. The repetition that comes with practicing is what builds the idea of practice. And I think there are elements here that resonate with engineering.
  43. You may agree or disagree with those listed – I know that for design, the list shifts significantly depending on what kind of design we’re in. I imagine that it’s the same for engineering. However, what is important here are the shared thinking and practices – you have the power to choose to be creative in what you do.
  44. To conclude, as we’ve discussed, design is no longer limited to the traditional industrial making of artefacts, but instead is considered in a much broader way. We’re thinking more around the generation of knowledge, or new futures, or considering complex global challenges, and how design might support people and disciplines to respond to such challenges. That takes us to the end of the lecture – do you have any questions?
  45. Some of the content might be familiar to you, some of it might be new. Take away some ideas or design approaches that could be applied in your own engineering practice.