SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Introduction to 5G
 5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for
cellular networks, which cellular phone companies
began deploying worldwide in 2019,
 The successor to 4G technology that provides
connectivity to most current mobile phones.
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 2
Why 5G?
5G Wireless: 5th generation wireless
technology
Complete wireless communication with
almost no limitations
Can be called REAL wireless world
Has incredible transmission speed
Concept is only theory not real
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 3
What does it offer?
Worldwide cellular phones
Extraordinary data capabilities
High connectivity
More power & features in hand held
phones
Large phone memory, more dialing speed,
more clarity in audio & video
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 4
Evolution
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 5
1G to 5G Evaluation
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 6
Evaluation
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 7
Features of 5G
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 8
Advantages of 5G
Data BW of 1 Gbps or higher
Globally accessible
 Dynamic information access
Available at low cost
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 9
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 10
Applications of 5G
Wearable devices with AI (Artificial
Intelligence) capabilities
Pervasive (Global) networks
Media independent handover
Radio resource management
VoIP (Voice over IP) enabled devices
With 6th sense technology
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 11
12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 12
Ad Hoc Networks
 No existing fixed infrastructure
 Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Bluetooth, Vehicular Ad hoc
Networks, V2X
 Mobile nodes can move freely – topology changes
dynamically
 Nodes can join and leave the network dynamically
 Each node can work as a router as well as a host
 Limited resources such as battery power, processing
capacity and memory power
 Security challenges
 QoS in terms of latency, reliability and throughput – varies
based on the applications
UAVs
 Unmanned aerial vehicles
(UAVs) or drones can fly
autonomously or can be
operated remotely
without human personnel
 Limited capability for
single UAV systems
 Ad hoc networks between
multiple UAVs - FANETs
 Multi-UAV systems can
communicate, collaborate
UAV Links
 UAV-UAV link
 UAV-satellite link
 UAV-cellular link
 UAV-BS link
Applications
 Surveillance, Detection
and Monitoring
 Good delivery,
construction
 Target detection
 Tracking and
monitoring in disaster
situations
 Emergency situations
Types of UAVs
 UAV size, weight, range,
endurance, altitude,
application, flying
mechanism, ownership,
airspace class, level of
control (autonomy),
and type of engine
Characteristics of FANETs
 Node density – Average
number of UAVs per unit
volume – less than in MANETs
and VANETs
 Node mobility – varies from
30 to 460 km/h
 Changing network topology –
star topology (Ground control
station), mesh topology
(dynamic routing)
UAV Communication Topologies
Radio Link
Antennas: important elements of any radio link
Antenna
Transmitter
Antenna
Receiver
Radio wave
Data in
Modulator IF filter Mixer Band pass filter Power amplifier
Antenna
Local oscillator
Antenna
Data out
Mixe
r
Local
oscillator
IF filter IF
amplifier
Demodulato
r
Band pass
filter
Low noise
amplifier
Transmitter
Receiver
Important requirements of an
antenna
i. It should 'accept' maximum input power
(In transmission mode )
Return Loss / VSWR
ii. It should radiate power in space with ‘proper
shape’
Radiation pattern
iii. It should radiate power efficiently
Gain
i. It should accept maximum input power
(In transmission mode )
(Pin - Preflctd)
Pin
Preflctd
A
B
Pradiatd
(Pin - Preflctd)
Pin
Preflctd
A
B
Pradiatd
Measurement of Return loss or
VSWR
Return loss (dB) = 10*Log(10) = 10 dB
If Preflctd = Pin/10
Return loss (dB) = 10*Log(Pin/Preflctd)
Return loss (dB) = -20*Log(Vreflctd/ Vin)
Return loss (dB) = -20*Log(VSWR-1/
VSWR+1)
For 10 dB Return loss; VSWR = 1.93
RADIATION PATTERN
 An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern
is defined as “a mathematical function or a
graphical representation of the radiation
properties of the antenna as a function of space
coordinates.
 In most cases, the radiation pattern is determined in
the far-field region and is represented as a function of
the directional coordinates.
 Radiation properties include power flux density,
radiation intensity, field strength, directivity phase or
polarization.”
ii. It should radiate power in space with proper ‘shape’
FIELD REGIONS
Figure 1.11: Field regions of an antenna.
FIELD REGIONS
Typical changes of antenna amplitude pattern shape from
reactive near field toward the far field.
RADIATION PATTERN
Typical directional radiation pattern
Types of Radiation patterns
1. Omnidirectional Dipole, Monopole etc.
2. Bi-directional Slot, Spiral etc.
3. Directional Horn, Reflector Antenna etc.
Converting omni & bi-directional to directional Radiation
iii. It should radiate power efficiently
Antenna Gain is usually defined w.r.to isotropic radiator
Antenna Gain and signal coverage relation
FR1 : Sub 6GHz
Bandwidth : 100MHz around 3.5GHz
Antenna element : Dual slant 45 polarised
Beam forming : MIMO and Massive MIMO
FR2 : mmWave
Bandwidth : 400MHz around 26/28 GHz
Beam forming : Fully integrated tiled Phased
array Analog/Digital/Hybrid
Antenna element : Linear/Dual polarised
Types of Antennas commonly used for 5G Fr1
1. Wideband patch antennas / suspended plate antennas
2. Magneto Electric Dipole Antennas
2. Wideband printed/suspended plate Dipole Antennas
‘Filtenna’ concept for out of band rejection
5G Fr1 Antennas – Design Challenges
1. Selection of Antenna Type
2. Material selection for printed antennas
3. Element coupling reduction
4. Port-to-port isolation improvement
5. Feed line routing for Array antenna (RRH)
6. Thermal Management
Types of Antennas for mm Wave Communications
(5G Fr2)
1. Printed array antennas / Phased Array antennas
2. Lens antennas
3. Rotman Lens antenna configuration
The 28 GHz antenna array configuration
for 5G cellular mobile terminals
Cellular Standard 4G 5G
Antenna Type Sub wavelength
antennas
Phased array
Radiation pattern Near Omni-
directional
Directional fan
beam
Polarisation Single and
Constant
Muliple and
reconfigurable
5G cellular mobile terminals
comparison with the 4G standard.
5G System
Antenna radiation Pattern measurement – Far Field Techniques
CATR – Near Field to Far Field conversion through Hardware
Antenna Measurement – Near Field
Techniques
CATR – Near Field to Far Field conversion through Hardware
NF Measurement – Near Field to Far Field conversion through software

More Related Content

Similar to 5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representing significant advancements over its predecessor 6G Wireless Communiation.pptx

A triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID application
A triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID applicationA triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID application
A triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID application
journalBEEI
 
IRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits
IRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting CircuitsIRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits
IRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits
IRJET Journal
 
Bsnl electronics training report
Bsnl electronics training reportBsnl electronics training report
Bsnl electronics training report
Deepak Bhati
 
smart antennas
smart antennassmart antennas
smart antennas
Motti Markovitz
 
4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul
4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul
4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul
Virak Sou
 
Mimo and smart antennas july 2013 final
Mimo and smart antennas july 2013 finalMimo and smart antennas july 2013 final
Mimo and smart antennas july 2013 final
Praveen Kumar
 
A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...
A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...
A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...
IRJET Journal
 
Point to point microwave
Point to point microwavePoint to point microwave
Point to point microwave
nandkishorsuman
 
Importance of Antennas for Wireless Communication Devices
Importance of Antennas for Wireless Communication DevicesImportance of Antennas for Wireless Communication Devices
Importance of Antennas for Wireless Communication Devices
paperpublications3
 
phD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptx
phD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptxphD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptx
phD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptx
Dr. Gazala pravin
 
Design and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array Antenna
Design and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array AntennaDesign and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array Antenna
Design and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array Antenna
IRJET Journal
 
Identify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdf
Identify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdfIdentify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdf
Identify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdf
amitkhanna2070
 
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Antennas
Advantages And Disadvantages Of AntennasAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Antennas
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Antennas
Rachel Phillips
 
ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEW
ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEWANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEW
ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEW
IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...
IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...
IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...
IRJET Journal
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDM
FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDMFUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDM
FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDM
Carlos Antonio Leal Saballos
 
batch 8 b.pptx
batch 8 b.pptxbatch 8 b.pptx
batch 8 b.pptx
BALASAINAMBARU
 
IRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its Applications
IRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its ApplicationsIRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its Applications
IRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its Applications
IRJET Journal
 
Lecture3
Lecture3Lecture3
Lecture3
Vedpal Yadav
 
Wireless communication and its standards
Wireless communication and its standardsWireless communication and its standards
Wireless communication and its standards
M.k. Praveen
 

Similar to 5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representing significant advancements over its predecessor 6G Wireless Communiation.pptx (20)

A triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID application
A triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID applicationA triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID application
A triple band modified F-shaped monopole antenna for RFID application
 
IRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits
IRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting CircuitsIRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits
IRJET- Design of Multiband Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits
 
Bsnl electronics training report
Bsnl electronics training reportBsnl electronics training report
Bsnl electronics training report
 
smart antennas
smart antennassmart antennas
smart antennas
 
4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul
4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul
4G amercias_mimo_smart_antennas_wp_2013jul
 
Mimo and smart antennas july 2013 final
Mimo and smart antennas july 2013 finalMimo and smart antennas july 2013 final
Mimo and smart antennas july 2013 final
 
A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...
A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...
A Comparison on Different Techniques for PAPR and BER Reduction in OFDM Commu...
 
Point to point microwave
Point to point microwavePoint to point microwave
Point to point microwave
 
Importance of Antennas for Wireless Communication Devices
Importance of Antennas for Wireless Communication DevicesImportance of Antennas for Wireless Communication Devices
Importance of Antennas for Wireless Communication Devices
 
phD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptx
phD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptxphD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptx
phD presentation on design a RAC_ppt.pptx
 
Design and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array Antenna
Design and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array AntennaDesign and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array Antenna
Design and Analysis of Cylindrical Arc Array Antenna
 
Identify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdf
Identify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdfIdentify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdf
Identify and explain key technologies for evolutionary change in spa.pdf
 
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Antennas
Advantages And Disadvantages Of AntennasAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Antennas
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Antennas
 
ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEW
ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEWANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEW
ANTENNA ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION: A REVIEW
 
IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...
IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...
IRJET- Synthesis and Simulation for MIMO Antennas with Two Port for Wide Band...
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDM
FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDMFUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDM
FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR IP AND TDM
 
batch 8 b.pptx
batch 8 b.pptxbatch 8 b.pptx
batch 8 b.pptx
 
IRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its Applications
IRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its ApplicationsIRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its Applications
IRJET- Types of Microwave Antenna and its Applications
 
Lecture3
Lecture3Lecture3
Lecture3
 
Wireless communication and its standards
Wireless communication and its standardsWireless communication and its standards
Wireless communication and its standards
 

Recently uploaded

原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
ydzowc
 
Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...
Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...
Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...
shadow0702a
 
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoringEmbedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
IJECEIAES
 
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptxManufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Madan Karki
 
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
171ticu
 
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of contentGenerative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Hitesh Mohapatra
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
VANDANAMOHANGOUDA
 
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdfBRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
LAXMAREDDY22
 
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
kandramariana6
 
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdfMechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf
21UME003TUSHARDEB
 
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdfEngineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
abbyasa1014
 
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason WebinarData Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
UReason
 
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
171ticu
 
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
IJECEIAES
 
Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM
Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAMNull Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM
Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM
Divyanshu
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
MDSABBIROJJAMANPAYEL
 
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
PKavitha10
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
bijceesjournal
 
Data Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptx
Data Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptxData Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptx
Data Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptx
ramrag33
 
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Sinan KOZAK
 

Recently uploaded (20)

原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Humboldt毕业证书)柏林大学毕业证学位证一模一样
 
Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...
Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...
Use PyCharm for remote debugging of WSL on a Windo cf5c162d672e4e58b4dde5d797...
 
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoringEmbedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring
 
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptxManufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
 
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
 
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of contentGenerative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
 
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptxITSM  Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx
 
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdfBRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
 
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
 
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdfMechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf
 
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdfEngineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
 
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason WebinarData Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
Data Driven Maintenance | UReason Webinar
 
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
 
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
 
Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM
Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAMNull Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM
Null Bangalore | Pentesters Approach to AWS IAM
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
 
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
 
Data Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptx
Data Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptxData Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptx
Data Control Language.pptx Data Control Language.pptx
 
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
 

5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representing significant advancements over its predecessor 6G Wireless Communiation.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Introduction to 5G  5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019,  The successor to 4G technology that provides connectivity to most current mobile phones. 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 2
  • 3. Why 5G? 5G Wireless: 5th generation wireless technology Complete wireless communication with almost no limitations Can be called REAL wireless world Has incredible transmission speed Concept is only theory not real 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 3
  • 4. What does it offer? Worldwide cellular phones Extraordinary data capabilities High connectivity More power & features in hand held phones Large phone memory, more dialing speed, more clarity in audio & video 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 4
  • 6. 1G to 5G Evaluation 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 6
  • 8. Features of 5G 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 8
  • 9. Advantages of 5G Data BW of 1 Gbps or higher Globally accessible  Dynamic information access Available at low cost 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 9
  • 11. Applications of 5G Wearable devices with AI (Artificial Intelligence) capabilities Pervasive (Global) networks Media independent handover Radio resource management VoIP (Voice over IP) enabled devices With 6th sense technology 12/7/2023 ATAL -FDP-5G/6G-Research-KIT 11
  • 13. Ad Hoc Networks  No existing fixed infrastructure  Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Bluetooth, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks, V2X  Mobile nodes can move freely – topology changes dynamically  Nodes can join and leave the network dynamically  Each node can work as a router as well as a host  Limited resources such as battery power, processing capacity and memory power  Security challenges  QoS in terms of latency, reliability and throughput – varies based on the applications
  • 14. UAVs  Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones can fly autonomously or can be operated remotely without human personnel  Limited capability for single UAV systems  Ad hoc networks between multiple UAVs - FANETs  Multi-UAV systems can communicate, collaborate
  • 15. UAV Links  UAV-UAV link  UAV-satellite link  UAV-cellular link  UAV-BS link
  • 16. Applications  Surveillance, Detection and Monitoring  Good delivery, construction  Target detection  Tracking and monitoring in disaster situations  Emergency situations
  • 17. Types of UAVs  UAV size, weight, range, endurance, altitude, application, flying mechanism, ownership, airspace class, level of control (autonomy), and type of engine
  • 18. Characteristics of FANETs  Node density – Average number of UAVs per unit volume – less than in MANETs and VANETs  Node mobility – varies from 30 to 460 km/h  Changing network topology – star topology (Ground control station), mesh topology (dynamic routing)
  • 20. Radio Link Antennas: important elements of any radio link Antenna Transmitter Antenna Receiver Radio wave
  • 21. Data in Modulator IF filter Mixer Band pass filter Power amplifier Antenna Local oscillator Antenna Data out Mixe r Local oscillator IF filter IF amplifier Demodulato r Band pass filter Low noise amplifier Transmitter Receiver
  • 22. Important requirements of an antenna i. It should 'accept' maximum input power (In transmission mode ) Return Loss / VSWR ii. It should radiate power in space with ‘proper shape’ Radiation pattern iii. It should radiate power efficiently Gain
  • 23. i. It should accept maximum input power (In transmission mode ) (Pin - Preflctd) Pin Preflctd A B Pradiatd
  • 24. (Pin - Preflctd) Pin Preflctd A B Pradiatd Measurement of Return loss or VSWR Return loss (dB) = 10*Log(10) = 10 dB If Preflctd = Pin/10 Return loss (dB) = 10*Log(Pin/Preflctd) Return loss (dB) = -20*Log(Vreflctd/ Vin) Return loss (dB) = -20*Log(VSWR-1/ VSWR+1) For 10 dB Return loss; VSWR = 1.93
  • 25. RADIATION PATTERN  An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern is defined as “a mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates.  In most cases, the radiation pattern is determined in the far-field region and is represented as a function of the directional coordinates.  Radiation properties include power flux density, radiation intensity, field strength, directivity phase or polarization.” ii. It should radiate power in space with proper ‘shape’
  • 26. FIELD REGIONS Figure 1.11: Field regions of an antenna.
  • 27. FIELD REGIONS Typical changes of antenna amplitude pattern shape from reactive near field toward the far field.
  • 29. Types of Radiation patterns 1. Omnidirectional Dipole, Monopole etc. 2. Bi-directional Slot, Spiral etc. 3. Directional Horn, Reflector Antenna etc. Converting omni & bi-directional to directional Radiation
  • 30. iii. It should radiate power efficiently Antenna Gain is usually defined w.r.to isotropic radiator
  • 31. Antenna Gain and signal coverage relation
  • 32. FR1 : Sub 6GHz Bandwidth : 100MHz around 3.5GHz Antenna element : Dual slant 45 polarised Beam forming : MIMO and Massive MIMO FR2 : mmWave Bandwidth : 400MHz around 26/28 GHz Beam forming : Fully integrated tiled Phased array Analog/Digital/Hybrid Antenna element : Linear/Dual polarised
  • 33. Types of Antennas commonly used for 5G Fr1 1. Wideband patch antennas / suspended plate antennas 2. Magneto Electric Dipole Antennas 2. Wideband printed/suspended plate Dipole Antennas ‘Filtenna’ concept for out of band rejection
  • 34. 5G Fr1 Antennas – Design Challenges 1. Selection of Antenna Type 2. Material selection for printed antennas 3. Element coupling reduction 4. Port-to-port isolation improvement 5. Feed line routing for Array antenna (RRH) 6. Thermal Management
  • 35. Types of Antennas for mm Wave Communications (5G Fr2) 1. Printed array antennas / Phased Array antennas 2. Lens antennas 3. Rotman Lens antenna configuration
  • 36. The 28 GHz antenna array configuration for 5G cellular mobile terminals Cellular Standard 4G 5G Antenna Type Sub wavelength antennas Phased array Radiation pattern Near Omni- directional Directional fan beam Polarisation Single and Constant Muliple and reconfigurable 5G cellular mobile terminals comparison with the 4G standard.
  • 38. Antenna radiation Pattern measurement – Far Field Techniques CATR – Near Field to Far Field conversion through Hardware
  • 39. Antenna Measurement – Near Field Techniques CATR – Near Field to Far Field conversion through Hardware NF Measurement – Near Field to Far Field conversion through software